Jewish holidays known as Jewish festivals or Yamim Tovim, are holidays observed in Judaism and by Jews throughout the Hebrew calendar. They include religious and national elements, derived from three sources: Biblical mitzvot. Jewish holidays occur on the same dates every year in the Hebrew calendar, but the dates vary in the Gregorian; this is because the Hebrew calendar is a lunisolar calendar, whereas the Gregorian is a solar calendar. Certain terms are used commonly for groups of holidays; the Hebrew-language term Yom Tov, sometimes referred to as "festival day," refers to the six Biblically-mandated festival dates on which all activities prohibited on Shabbat are prohibited, except for some related to food preparation. These include the first and seventh days of Passover, both days of Rosh Hashanah, first day of Sukkot, Shemini Atzeret. By extension, outside the Land of Israel, the second-day holidays known under the rubric Yom tov sheni shel galuyot are included in this grouping. Colloquially, Yom Kippur, a Biblically-mandated date on which food preparation is prohibited, is included in this grouping.
The tradition of keeping two days of Yom Tov in the diaspora has existed since 300 BCE. The English-language term High Holy Days refers to Yom Kippur collectively, its Hebrew analogue, Yamim Nora'im, "Days of Awe”, is more flexible: it can refer just to those holidays, or to the Ten Days of Repentance, or to the entire penitential period, starting as early as the beginning of Elul, ending as late as Shemini Atzeret. The term Three Pilgrimage Festivals refers to Passover and Sukkot. Within this grouping Sukkot includes Shemini Atzeret and Simchat Torah. Certain terminology is used in referring to different categories of holidays, depending on their source and their nature: Shabbat, or Sabbath, is referred to by that name exclusively. Rosh Chodesh is referred to by that name exclusively. Yom tov: See "Groupings" above. Moed, plural moadim, refers to any of the Three Pilgrimage Festivals of Passover and Sukkot; when used in comparison to Yom Tov, it refers to Chol HaMoed, the intermediate days of Passover and Sukkot.
Ḥag or chag, plural chagim, can be used whenever yom moed is. It is used to describe Hanukkah and Purim, as well as Yom Ha'atzmaut and Yom Yerushalayim. Ta'anit, or, less tzom, refers to a fast; these terms are used to describe the rabbinic fasts, although tzom is used liturgically to refer to Yom Kippur as well. The most notable common feature of Shabbat and the Biblical festivals is the requirement to refrain from melacha on these days. Melacha is most translated as "work". Speaking, Melacha is defined in Jewish law by 39 categories of labor that were used in constructing the Tabernacle while the Jews wandered in the desert; as understood traditionally and in Orthodox Judaism: On Shabbat and Yom Kippur all melacha is prohibited. On a Yom Tov which falls on a weekday, not Shabbat, most melacha is prohibited; some melacha related to preparation of food is permitted. On weekdays during Chol HaMoed, melacha is not prohibited per se. However, melacha should be limited to that required either to enhance the enjoyment of the remainder of the festival or to avoid great financial loss.
On other days, there are no restrictions on melacha. In principle, Conservative Judaism understands the requirement to refrain from melacha in the same way as Orthodox Judaism. In practice, Conservative rabbis rule on prohibitions around melacha differently from Orthodox authorities. Still, there are a number of Conservative/Masorti communities around the world where Sabbath and Festival observance closely resembles Orthodox observance. However, many, if not most, lay members of Conservative congregations in North America do not consider themselves Sabbath-observant by Conservative standards. At the same time, adherents of Reform Judaism and Reconstructionist Judaism do not accept halacha, therefore restrictions on melacha, as binding at all. Jews fitting any of these descriptions refrain from melacha in practice only as they see fit. Shabbat and holiday work restrictions are always put aside in cases of pikuach nefesh, saving a human life. At the most fundamental level, if there is any possibility whatsoever that action must be taken to save a life, Shabbat restrictions are set aside and without reservation.
Where the danger to life is present but less immediate, there is some preference to minimize violation of Shabbat work restrictions where possible. The laws in this area are complex; the Torah specifies a single date on the Jewish calendar for observance of holidays. Festivals of Biblical origin other than Shabbat and Yom Kippur are observed for two days outside the land of Israel, Rosh Hashanah is observed for two days inside the land of Israel. Dates for holidays on the Jewish calendar are expressed in the Torah as "day x of month y." Accordingly, the beginning of month y needs to be determined before the proper date
Torah has a range of meanings. It can most mean the first five books of the 24 books of the Tanakh, it is printed with the rabbinic commentaries, it can mean the continued narrative from the Book of Genesis to the end of the Tanakh, it can mean the totality of Jewish teaching and practice, whether derived from biblical texts or rabbinic writings. Common to all these meanings, Torah consists of the origin of Jewish peoplehood: their call into being by God, their trials and tribulations, their covenant with their God, which involves following a way of life embodied in a set of moral and religious obligations and civil laws. In rabbinic literature the word Torah denotes both the Oral Torah; the Oral Torah consists of interpretations and amplifications which according to rabbinic tradition have been handed down from generation to generation and are now embodied in the Talmud and Midrash. According to rabbinic tradition, all of the teachings found in the Torah, both written and oral, were given by God through the prophet Moses, some at Mount Sinai and others at the Tabernacle, all the teachings were written down by Moses, which resulted in the Torah that exists today.
According to the Midrash, the Torah was created prior to the creation of the world, was used as the blueprint for Creation. The majority of Biblical scholars believe that the written books were a product of the Babylonian captivity, based on earlier written sources and oral traditions, that it was completed during the period of Achaemenid rule. Traditionally, the words of the Torah are written on a scroll by a scribe in Hebrew. A Torah portion is read publicly at least once every three days in the presence of a congregation. Reading the Torah publicly is one of the bases of Jewish communal life; the word "Torah" in Hebrew is derived from the root ירה, which in the hif'il conjugation means'to guide' or'to teach'. The meaning of the word is therefore "teaching", "doctrine", or "instruction"; the Alexandrian Jews who translated the Septuagint used the Greek word nomos, meaning norm, doctrine, "law". Greek and Latin Bibles began the custom of calling the Pentateuch The Law. Other translational contexts in the English language include custom, guidance, or system.
The term "Torah" is used in the general sense to include both Rabbinic Judaism's written law and Oral Law, serving to encompass the entire spectrum of authoritative Jewish religious teachings throughout history, including the Mishnah, the Talmud, the Midrash and more, the inaccurate rendering of "Torah" as "Law" may be an obstacle to understanding the ideal, summed up in the term talmud torah. The earliest name for the first part of the Bible seems to have been "The Torah of Moses"; this title, however, is found neither in the Torah itself, nor in the works of the pre-Exilic literary prophets. It appears in Joshua and Kings. In contrast, there is every likelihood that its use in the post-Exilic works was intended to be comprehensive. Other early titles were "The Book of Moses" and "The Book of the Torah", which seems to be a contraction of a fuller name, "The Book of the Torah of God". Christian scholars refer to the first five books of the Hebrew Bible as the'Pentateuch', a term first used in the Hellenistic Judaism of Alexandria.
The Torah starts from the beginning of God's creating the world, through the beginnings of the people of Israel, their descent into Egypt, the giving of the Torah at biblical Mount Sinai. It ends with the death of Moses, just before the people of Israel cross to the promised land of Canaan. Interspersed in the narrative are the specific teachings given explicitly or implicitly embedded in the narrative. In Hebrew, the five books of the Torah are identified by the incipits in each book, it is divisible into the Primeval history and the Ancestral history. The primeval history sets out the author's concepts of the nature of the deity and of humankind's relationship with its maker: God creates a world, good and fit for mankind, but when man corrupts it with sin God decides to destroy his creation, saving only the righteous Noah to reestablish the relationship between man and God; the Ancestral history tells of the prehistory of Israel, God's chosen people
Jewish views on marriage
In traditional Judaism, marriage is viewed as a contractual bond commanded by God in which a man and a woman come together to create a relationship in which God is directly involved. Though procreation is not the sole purpose, a Jewish marriage is traditionally expected to fulfil the commandment to have children. In this view, marriage is understood to mean that the husband and wife are merging into a single soul, why a man is considered "incomplete" if he is not married, as his soul is only one part of a larger whole that remains to be unified. Non-Orthodox Jewish denominations, such as Reconstructionist and Conservative Judaism, recognize same-sex marriage, de-emphasize procreation, focusing on marriage as a bond between a couple; this view is considered as a diversion from the Jewish Law by the Orthodox denominations, rather than as a legitimate, alternative interpretation. In Jewish law, an engagement is a contract between a man and a woman where they mutually promise to marry each other, the terms on which it shall take place.
The promise may be made by the intending parties or by their respective parents or other relatives on their behalf. The promise is formalized in a document known as the Shtar Tena'im, the "Document of Conditions", read prior to the badekin. After this reading, the mothers of the future bride and groom break a plate. Today, some sign the contract on the day of the wedding, some do it as an earlier ceremony, some do not do it at all. In Haredi communities, marriages may be arranged by the parents of the prospective bride and groom, who may arrange a shidduch by engaging a professional match-maker who finds and introduces the prospective bride and groom and receives a "brokerage-fee" for his or her services; the young couple is not forced to marry. In Jewish law, marriage consists of two separate acts, called erusin, the betrothal ceremony, nissu'in or chupah, the actual Jewish wedding ceremony. Erusin changes the couple's interpersonal status, while nissu'in brings about the legal consequences of the change of status.
In Talmudic times, these two ceremonies took place up to a year apart. Since the Middle Ages the two ceremonies have taken place as a combined ceremony performed in public. According to the Talmud, erusin involves the groom handing an object to the bride - either an object of value such as a ring, or a document stating that she is being betrothed to him. In order to be valid, this must be done in the presence of two unrelated male witnesses. After erusin, the laws of adultery apply, the marriage cannot be dissolved without a religious divorce. After nisuin, the couple may live together. Marital harmony, known as "shalom bayis," is valued in Jewish tradition; the Talmud states that a man should love his wife as much as he loves himself, honour her more than he honours himself. A husband was expected to discuss with his wife any worldly matters that might arise in his life; the Talmud forbids a husband from being overbearing to his household, domestic abuse by him was condemned. It was said of a wife.
As for the wife, the greatest praise the Talmudic rabbis offered to any woman was that given to a wife who fulfils the wishes of her husband. A wife was expected to be modest if the only other person present with her was her husband. God's presence dwells in a loving home. Marriage obligations and rights in Judaism are based on those apparent in the Bible, which have been clarified and expanded on by many prominent rabbinic authorities throughout history. Traditionally, the obligations of the husband include providing for his wife, he is obligated to provide for her sustenance for her benefit. However, this is a right to the wife, she can release her husband of the obligation of sustaining her, she can keep her income for herself; the document that provides for this is the ketuba. The Bible itself gives the wife protections, as per Exodus 21:10, although the rabbis may have added others later; the rights of the husband and wife are described in tractate Ketubot in the Talmud, which explains how the rabbis balanced the two sets of rights of the wife and the husband.
According to the non-traditional view, in the Bible the wife is treated as a possession owned by her husband, but Judaism imposed several obligations on the husband giving the wife several rights and freedoms. For example, the Talmud establishes the principle that a wife is entitled, but not compelled, to the same dignity and social standing as her husband, is entitled to keep any additional advantages she had as a result of her social status before her marriage. Biblical Hebrew has two words for "husband": ba'al, ish; the words are contrasted in Hosea 2:18, where God speaks to Israel as though it is his wife: "On that day, says the Lord, you will call'my husband', will no longer call me'my master'." A wife was seen as being of high value, was therefore carefully looked after. Early nomadic communities practised a form o
Tzedakah or Ṣ'daqah in Classical Hebrew, is a Hebrew word meaning "justice" or "righteousness", but used to signify charity Notably, this concept of "charity" is different from the modern Western understanding of "charity", understood as a spontaneous act of goodwill and a marker of generosity, as tzedakah is rather an ethical obligation. In Judaism, tzedakah refers to the religious obligation to do what is right and just, which Judaism emphasizes is an important part of living a spiritual life. Thus, unlike voluntary philanthropy, tzedakah is seen as a religious obligation that must be performed regardless of one's financial standing, is considered mandatory for those of limited financial means. More broadly, tzedakah is considered to be one of the three main acts that can positively influence an unfavorable heavenly decree; the word tzedakah is based on the Hebrew meaning righteousness, fairness or justice, is related to the Hebrew word Tzadik, meaning righteous as an adjective. Although the word appears 157 times in the Masoretic Text of the Hebrew Bible in relation to "righteousness" per se, its use as a term for "charity" in the above sense is an adaptation of Rabbinic Judaism in Talmudic times.
In the Middle Ages, Maimonides conceived of an eight-level hierarchy of tzedakah, where the highest form is to give a gift, loan, or partnership that will result in the recipient becoming self-sufficient, instead of living upon others. The Hebrew Bible teaches the obligation to aid those in need, but does not employ one single term for this obligation; the term tzedekah occurs 157 times in the Masoretic Text in relation to "righteousness" per se in the singular, but sometimes in the plural tzedekot, in relation to acts of charity. In the Septuagint this was sometimes translated as eleemosyne, "almsgiving." In classical rabbinical literature, it was argued that the Biblical regulations concerning left-overs only applied to corn fields and vineyards, not to vegetable gardens. It was stated that the farmer was not permitted to benefit from the gleanings, was not permitted to discriminate among the poor, nor try to frighten them away with dogs or lions the farmer was not allowed to help one of the poor to gather the left-overs.
However, it was argued that the law was only applicable in Canaan, although many classical rabbinical writers who were based in Babylon observed the laws there it was seen as only applying to Jewish paupers, but poor non-Jews were allowed to benefit for the sake of civil peace. Maimonides lists his Eight Levels of Giving, as written in the Mishneh Torah, Hilkhot matanot aniyim, Chapter 10:7–14: Giving an interest-free loan to a person in need. Giving tzedakah anonymously to an unknown recipient via a person, trustworthy and can perform acts of tzedakah with your money in a most impeccable fashion. Giving tzedakah anonymously to a known recipient. Giving tzedakah publicly to an unknown recipient. Giving tzedakah before being asked. Giving adequately after being asked. Giving willingly, but inadequately. Giving "in sadness": It is thought that Maimonides was referring to giving because of the sad feelings one might have in seeing people in need. Other translations say "Giving unwillingly." In practice, most Jews carry out tzedakah by donating a portion of their income to charitable institutions, or to needy people that they may encounter.
Traditional Jews practice ma'sar kesafim, tithing 10% of their income to support those in need. Special acts of tzedakah are performed on significant days; as for the more limited form of tzedakah expressed in the biblical laws, namely the leaving of gleanings from certain crops, the Shulchan Aruch argues that during the exile Jewish farmers are not obliged to obey it. In modern Israel, rabbis of Orthodox Judaism insist that Jews allow gleanings to be consumed by the poor and by strangers, all crops by anyone and everyone during sabbatical years. In addition, one must be careful about how one gives out tzedakah money, it is not sufficient to just give to anyone or any organization, one must check the credentials and finances to be sure that your Tzedakah money will be used wisely, efficiently and "Do not steal from a poor person, for he is poor," and from Talmudic-era c
Shabbat or Shabbos, or the Sabbath is Judaism's day of rest and seventh day of the week, on which religious Jews and certain Christians remember the Biblical creation of the heavens and the earth in six days and the Exodus of the Hebrews, look forward to a future Messianic Age. Shabbat observance entails refraining from work activities with great rigor, engaging in restful activities to honor the day. Judaism's traditional position is that unbroken seventh-day Shabbat originated among the Jewish people, as their first and most sacred institution, though some suggest other origins. Variations upon Shabbat are widespread in Judaism and, with adaptations, throughout the Abrahamic and many other religions. According to halakha, Shabbat is observed from a few minutes before sunset on Friday evening until the appearance of three stars in the sky on Saturday night. Shabbat is ushered in by reciting a blessing. Traditionally, three festive meals are eaten: in the evening, in the early afternoon, late in the afternoon.
The evening meal and the early afternoon meal begin with a blessing called kiddush and another blessing recited over two loaves of challah. Shabbat is closed the following evening with a havdalah blessing. Shabbat is a festive day, it offers an opportunity to spend time with family. The word "Shabbat" derives from the Hebrew verb shavat. Although translated as "rest", another accurate translation of these words is "ceasing ", as resting is not denoted; the related modern Hebrew word shevita, has the same implication of active rather than passive abstinence from work. The notion of active cessation from labor is regarded as more consistent with an omnipotent God's activity on the seventh day of Creation according to Genesis. Other significant connotations are to shevet which means sitting or staying, to sheva meaning seven, as Shabbat is the seventh day of the week. Sabbath is given special status as a holy day at the beginning of the Torah in Genesis 2:1–3, it is first commanded after the Exodus from Egypt, in Exodus 16:26 and in Exodus 16:29, as in Exodus 20:8–11.
Sabbath is commended many more times in the Torah and Tanakh. Sabbath is described by the prophets Isaiah, Ezekiel, Hosea and Nehemiah; the longstanding traditional Jewish position is that unbroken seventh-day Shabbat originated among the Jewish people, as their first and most sacred institution. The origins of Shabbat and a seven-day week are not clear to scholars. Seventh-day Shabbat did not originate with the Egyptians; the first non-Biblical reference to Sabbath is in an ostracon found in excavations at Mesad Hashavyahu, dated 630 BCE. Connection to Sabbath observance has been suggested in the designation of the seventh, nineteenth, twenty-first and twenty-eight days of a lunar month in an Assyrian religious calendar as a'holy day' called ‘evil days’; the prohibitions on these days, spaced seven days apart, include abstaining from chariot riding, the avoidance of eating meat by the King. On these days officials were prohibited from various activities and common men were forbidden to "make a wish", at least the 28th was known as a "rest-day".
The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia advanced a theory of Assyriologists like Friedrich Delitzsch that Shabbat arose from the lunar cycle in the Babylonian calendar containing four weeks ending in Sabbath, plus one or two additional unreckoned days per month. The difficulties of this theory include reconciling the differences between an unbroken week and a lunar week, explaining the absence of texts naming the lunar week as Sabbath in any language; the Tanakh and siddur describe Shabbat as having three purposes: To commemorate God's creation of the universe, on the seventh day of which God rested from his work. Judaism accords Shabbat the status of a joyous holy day. In many ways, Jewish law gives Shabbat the status of being the most important holy day in the Jewish calendar: It is the first holy day mentioned in the Bible, God was the first to observe it with the cessation of Creation. Jewish liturgy treats Shabbat as a "bride" and "queen"; the Sefer Torah is read during the Torah reading, part of the Shabbat morning services, with a longer reading than during the week.
The Torah is read over a yearly cycle of one for each Shabbat. On Shabbat, the reading is divided into seven sections, more than on any other holy day, including Yom Kippur; the Haftarah reading from the Hebrew prophets is read. A tradition states that the Jewish Messiah will come if every Jew properly observes two consecutive Shabbatoth; the punishme
Bereavement in Judaism
Bereavement in Judaism is a combination of minhag and mitzvah derived from Judaism's classical Torah and rabbinic texts. The details of observance and practice vary according to each Jewish community. In Judaism, the principal mourners are the first-degree relatives: parent, child and spouse. There are some customs. Halachot concerning mourning do not apply to those under thirteen years of age, nor do they apply when the deceased is aged 30 days or less. Upon receiving the news of the passing, the following blessing is recited: Transliteration: Barukh atah Adonai Eloheinu melekh ha'olam, dayan ha-emet. Translation: "Blessed are You, our God, King of the universe, the Judge of Truth."There is a custom of rending one's clothes at the moment one hears news of a passing. Another prevalent custom is to tear at the funeral. Petira – passing Shomayr – watcher. Shmira means watching. Chevra kadisha – burial society. Chevra kadisha Kria – tearing. Timing varies by custom. At times deferred to funeral chapel or at the cemetery.
Keriah Onayn – the day when the news is heard. Aninut Tahara – purification of the body Preparing the body — Taharah Levaya – The funeral service; the word means escort. Funeral service Hesped – Eulogy. Eulogies Kvura – burial. Burial Aveil – mourner. Aveilut – mourning: Mourning AvelutShiva – seven days, from the Hebrew word for seven. Begins day of burial. Shiva Shloshim – 30 days, starting from the day of burial. Shloshim – Thirty days Yud Bais Chodesh – means 12 months, for a parent. Yud Bais means 12. Yud Bet means 12. Chodesh means month. Shneim asar chodesh – Twelve monthsMatzevah – means monument. Matzevah Yahrtzeit – is Yiddish for anniversary of the date of passing. Annual remembrances Kaddish – said by a mourner Memorial through prayer L'Illui NishMat - Hebrew for Elevation of the soul, sometimes abbreviated LI"N; the chevra kadisha is a Jewish burial society consisting of volunteers and women, who prepare the deceased for proper Jewish burial. Their job is to ensure that the body of the deceased is shown proper respect, ritually cleansed, shrouded.
Many local chevra kadishas in urban areas are affiliated with local synagogues, they own their own burial plots in various local cemeteries. Some Jews pay an annual token membership fee to the chevra kadisha of their choice, so that when the time comes, the society will not only attend to the body of the deceased as befits Jewish law, but will ensure burial in a plot that it controls at an appropriate nearby Jewish cemetery. If no gravediggers are available it is additionally the function of the male society members to ensure that graves are dug. In Israel, members of chevra kadishas consider it an honor to not only prepare the body for burial but to dig the grave for a fellow Jew's body if the deceased was known to be a righteous person. Many burial societies hold one or two annual fast days the 7th day of Adar, Yartzeit of Moshe Rabbeinu. and organize regular study sessions to remain up to date with the relevant articles of Jewish law. In addition, most burial societies support families during the shiva by arranging prayer services, preparing meals, providing other services for the mourners.
There are three major stages to preparing the body for burial: washing, ritual purification, dressing. The term taharah is used to refer both to the overall process of burial preparation, to the specific step of ritual purification. Prayers and readings from Torah, including Psalms, Song of Songs, Isaiah and Zechariah are recited; the general sequence of steps for performing taharah is. The body is uncovered; the body is washed carefully. Any bleeding is stopped and all blood is buried along with the deceased; the body is cleaned of dirt, body fluids, solids, anything else that may be on the skin. All jewelry is removed; the beard is not shaved. The body is purified with water, either by immersion in a mikveh or by pouring a continuous stream of 9 kavim in a prescribed manner; the body is dried. The body is dressed in traditional burial clothing. A sash is wrapped around the clothing and tied in the form of the Hebrew letter shin, representing one of the names of God; the casket is prepared by removing other embellishments.
A winding sheet is laid into the casket. Outside the Land of Israel, if the deceased wore a prayer shawl during their life, one is laid in the casket for wrapping the body once it is placed therein. One of the corner fringes is removed from the shawl to signify that it will no longer be used for prayer and that the person is absolved from having to keep any of the mitzvot; the body is wrapped in the prayer shawl and sheet. Soil from Eretz Israel, if available, is placed over various parts of the body and sprinkled in the casket; the casket is closed. After the closing of the casket, the chevra asks forgiveness of the deceased for any inadvertent lack of honor shown to the deceased in the preparation of the body for burial. There is no open casket at the funeral. Som
The Talmud is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and Jewish theology. Until the advent of modernity, in nearly all Jewish communities, the Talmud was the centerpiece of Jewish cultural life and was foundational to "all Jewish thought and aspirations", serving as "the guide for the daily life" of Jews; the term "Talmud" refers to the collection of writings named the Babylonian Talmud, although there is an earlier collection known as the Jerusalem Talmud. It may traditionally be called Shas, a Hebrew abbreviation of shisha sedarim, or the "six orders" of the Mishnah; the Talmud has two components. The term "Talmud" may refer to either the Gemara alone; the entire Talmud consists of 63 tractates, in standard print is over 6,200 pages long. It is written in Mishnaic Hebrew and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic and contains the teachings and opinions of thousands of rabbis on a variety of subjects, including halakha, Jewish ethics, customs, history and many other topics.
The Talmud is the basis for all codes of Jewish law, is quoted in rabbinic literature. Talmud translates as "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study". Jewish scholarship was oral. Rabbis expounded and debated the Torah and discussed the Tanakh without the benefit of written works, though some may have made private notes, for example of court decisions; this situation changed drastically as the result of the destruction of the Jewish commonwealth and the Second Temple in the year 70 and the consequent upheaval of Jewish social and legal norms. As the rabbis were required to face a new reality—mainly Judaism without a Temple and Judea without at least partial autonomy—there was a flurry of legal discourse and the old system of oral scholarship could not be maintained, it is during this period. The oldest full manuscript of the Talmud, known as the Munich Talmud, dates from 1342 and is available online; the process of "Gemara" proceeded in what were the two major centers of Jewish scholarship and Babylonia.
Correspondingly, two bodies of analysis developed, two works of Talmud were created. The older compilation is called the Talmud Yerushalmi, it was compiled in the 4th century in Galilee. The Babylonian Talmud was compiled about the year 500; the word "Talmud", when used without qualification refers to the Babylonian Talmud. While the editors of Jerusalem Talmud and Babylonian Talmud each mention the other community, most scholars believe these documents were written independently. Here the argument from silence is convincing." The Jerusalem Talmud known as the Palestinian Talmud, or Talmuda de-Eretz Yisrael, was one of the two compilations of Jewish religious teachings and commentary, transmitted orally for centuries prior to its compilation by Jewish scholars in the Land of Israel. It is a compilation of teachings of the schools of Tiberias and Caesarea, it is written in Jewish Palestinian Aramaic, a Western Aramaic language that differs from its Babylonian counterpart. This Talmud is a synopsis of the analysis of the Mishnah, developed over the course of nearly 200 years by the Academies in Galilee Because of their location, the sages of these Academies devoted considerable attention to analysis of the agricultural laws of the Land of Israel.
Traditionally, this Talmud was thought to have been redacted in about the year 350 by Rav Muna and Rav Yossi in the Land of Israel. It is traditionally known as the Talmud Yerushalmi, but the name is a misnomer, as it was not prepared in Jerusalem, it has more been called "The Talmud of the Land of Israel". Its final redaction belongs to the end of the 4th century, but the individual scholars who brought it to its present form cannot be fixed with assurance. By this time Christianity had become the state religion of the Roman Empire and Jerusalem the holy city of Christendom. In 325, Constantine the Great, the first Christian emperor, said "let us have nothing in common with the detestable Jewish crowd." This policy made a Jew an pauper. The compilers of the Jerusalem Talmud lacked the time to produce a work of the quality they had intended; the text is not easy to follow. The apparent cessation of work on the Jerusalem Talmud in the 5th century has been associated with the decision of Theodosius II in 425 to suppress the Patriarchate and put an end to the practice of semikhah, formal scholarly ordination.
Some modern scholars have questioned this connection. Despite its incomplete state, the Jerusalem Talmud remains an indispensable source of knowledge of the development of the Jewish Law in the Holy Land, it was an important resource in the study of the Babylonian Talmud by the Kairouan school of Chana