Parallel ATA AT Attachment, is an interface standard for the connection of storage devices such as hard disk drives, floppy disk drives, optical disc drives in computers. The standard is maintained by the X3/INCITS committee, it uses the underlying AT AT Attachment Packet Interface standards. The Parallel ATA standard is the result of a long history of incremental technical development, which began with the original AT Attachment interface, developed for use in early PC AT equipment; the ATA interface itself evolved in several stages from Western Digital's original Integrated Drive Electronics interface. As a result, many near-synonyms for ATA/ATAPI and its previous incarnations are still in common informal use, in particular Extended IDE and Ultra ATA. After the introduction of Serial ATA in 2003, the original ATA was renamed to Parallel ATA, or PATA for short. Parallel ATA cables have a maximum allowable length of 18 in; because of this limit, the technology appears as an internal computer storage interface.
For many years, ATA provided the least expensive interface for this application. It has been replaced by SATA in newer systems; the standard was conceived as the "AT Bus Attachment," called "AT Attachment" and abbreviated "ATA" because its primary feature was a direct connection to the 16-bit ISA bus introduced with the IBM PC/AT. The original ATA specifications published by the standards committees use the name "AT Attachment"; the "AT" in the IBM PC/AT referred to "Advanced Technology" so ATA has been referred to as "Advanced Technology Attachment". When a newer Serial ATA was introduced in 2003, the original ATA was renamed to Parallel ATA, or PATA for short. Physical ATA interfaces became a standard component in all PCs on host bus adapters, sometimes on a sound card but as two physical interfaces embedded in a Southbridge chip on a motherboard. Called the "primary" and "secondary" ATA interfaces, they were assigned to base addresses 0x1F0 and 0x170 on ISA bus systems, they were replaced by SATA interfaces.
The first version of what is now called the ATA/ATAPI interface was developed by Western Digital under the name Integrated Drive Electronics. Together with Control Data Corporation and Compaq Computer, they developed the connector, the signaling protocols and so on, with the goal of remaining software compatible with the existing ST-506 hard drive interface; the first such drives appeared internally in Compaq PCs in 1986. and were first separately offered by Conner Peripherals as the CP342 in June 1987. The term Integrated Drive Electronics refers not just to the connector and interface definition, but to the fact that the drive controller is integrated into the drive, as opposed to a separate controller on or connected to the motherboard; the interface cards used to connect a parallel ATA drive to, for example, a PCI slot are not drive controllers: they are bridges between the host bus and the ATA interface. Since the original ATA interface is just a 16-bit ISA bus in disguise, the bridge was simple in case of an ATA connector being located on an ISA interface card.
The integrated controller presented the drive to the host computer as an array of 512-byte blocks with a simple command interface. This relieved the mainboard and interface cards in the host computer of the chores of stepping the disk head arm, moving the head arm in and out, so on, as had to be done with earlier ST-506 and ESDI hard drives. All of these low-level details of the mechanical operation of the drive were now handled by the controller on the drive itself; this eliminated the need to design a single controller that could handle many different types of drives, since the controller could be unique for the drive. The host need only to ask for a particular sector, or block, to be read or written, either accept the data from the drive or send the data to it; the interface used by these drives was standardized in 1994 as ANSI standard X3.221-1994, AT Attachment Interface for Disk Drives. After versions of the standard were developed, this became known as "ATA-1". A short-lived, seldom-used implementation of ATA was created for the IBM XT and similar machines that used the 8-bit version of the ISA bus.
It has been referred to as "XT-IDE", "XTA" or "XT Attachment". In 1994, about the same time that the ATA-1 standard was adopted, Western Digital introduced drives under a newer name, Enhanced IDE; these included most of the features of the forthcoming ATA-2 specification and several additional enhancements. Other manufacturers introduced their own variations of ATA-1 such as "Fast ATA" and "Fast ATA-2"; the new version of the ANSI standard, AT Attachment Interface with Extensions ATA-2, was approved in 1996. It included most of the features of the manufacturer-specific variants. ATA-2 was the first to note that devices other than hard drives could be attached to the interface: 3.1.7 Device: Device is a storage peripheral. Traditionally, a device on the ATA interface has been a hard disk drive, but any form of storage device may be placed on the ATA interface provided it adheres to this standard; as mentioned in the previous sections, ATA was designed for, worked only with hard disk drives and devices that could emulate them.
The introduction of ATAPI by a group called the Small Form Factor committee allowed ATA to be used for a variety of other devices that require functions beyond those necessary for hard disk drives. For example, any removable media device needs a "media eject" command, a way for the host to determine whether the media
Tri-City, Tricity or Tri-Cities may refer to: Tri-Cities, consisting of Coquitlam, Port Coquitlam, Port Moody, located in the north-eastern section of Metro Vancouver. Tri-Cities, consisting of Kitchener and Waterloo, Ontario. In California: Tri-City, San Diego County, California: Oceanside and Carlsbad are sometimes referred to as the tri-cities; the Tri-City area in the San Francisco Bay Area refers to the three neighboring cities Fremont and Union City. Tri-Cities, Illinois, in Kane County, the county seat of Geneva and the nearby cities of Batavia, St. Charles, In Georgia: Tri-Cities, consisting of College Park, East Point, Hapeville, all of which are near Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport In Michigan: Tri-Cities, consisting of Bay City and Midland in the Saginaw Valley The Tri-Cities is used locally to refer to Grand Haven, Spring Lake, Ferrysburg in West Michigan Tri-Cities, Nebraska in the south-central part of the state, Grand Island and Hastings In New York: The Triple Cities, Binghamton and Johnson City The Capital District, consisting of Albany and Troy In North Carolina: The Research Triangle in North Carolina, consisting of Raleigh and Chapel Hill.
The Piedmont Triad in North Carolina, consisting of Greensboro, Winston-Salem, High Point. Tri-Cities, Tuttle and Blanchard Tri-City, Oregon, is a census-designated place and unincorporated community in Douglas County, United States, named for 3 cities: Myrtle Creek and Riddle; the Lehigh Valley in Pennsylvania: Allentown and Easton The Golden Triangle consisting of Beaumont, Port Arthur, Orange. Tri-Cities, Tennessee and Virginia, consisting of the three cities of Bristol and Johnson City In Virginia: Tri-Cities, consisting of Petersburg, Colonial Heights, Hopewell in the Greater Richmond Region The Historic Triangle, three towns on the Virginia Peninsula, namely Jamestown and Yorktown Tri-Cities, consisting of Richland and Kennewick, Washington Tri-Cities metropolitan area, metropolitan area centered on the Tri-Cities, Washington The Chandigarh-Panchkula-Mohali metropolitan region collectively forms a Chandigarh Tricity, with a combined population of over 2 million and forms Chandigarh capital region or Greater Chandigarh Raipur Tricity, consisting of Raipur and Durg Warangal Tri-City, consisting of Warangal and Kazipet Tricity, Nepal consists of the cities of Baglung and Kusma.
The Dammam metropolitan area, consisting of Dhahran and Khobar in Saudi Arabia The Dubai-Sharjah-Ajman metropolitan area, consisting of Dubai and Sharjah in the United Arab Emirates Tricity, Poland consisting of Gdańsk, Gdynia and Sopot Kashubian Tricity consisting of Wejherowo and Reda Trollhättan, Uddevalla and Vänersborg are called Tri-city as a combination West Yorkshire Urban Area, the cities of Wakefield and Bradford Tri-City Americans, ice hockey team in Kennewick, Washington. Tri-City Dust Devils, a minor league baseball team in Pasco, United States. Tri-City ValleyCats, a minor league baseball team in Troy, New York Tri-City News, British Columbia's Lower Mainland Tri-City, the fictional setting of the computer game Need for Speed: Undercover Tricity Bendix, a brand of electrical appliances owned by Electrolux Yamaha Tricity, a tilting three-wheeled motor scooter Twin city Twin cities Tripoli Quad Cities
Turhan Nejat Veziroğlu, sometimes referred to as TN Veziroglu, is a professor emeritus at the University of Miami, during the 1970s chaired its mechanical engineering department and was its associate dean for research. He is the President of the International Association for Hydrogen Energy and founding editor of the International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. A research center at the University of Niğde, Turkey carries his name. Veziroğlu was born and raised in Turkey, where he attended elementary and middle school in Izmir attended Pertevniyal Lyceum in Istanbul. After attending Istanbul Technical University for one and a half years, he became a student in England during World War II, receiving a B. Sc from University of London in 1946, along with an A. C. G. I. in mechanical engineering in London that same year. In 1947, he received the D. I. C. in engineering and technology from the Imperial College of Science and Technology in London. In 1951, Veziroğlu wrote his PhD thesis at the University of London.
Veziroğlu returned to Turkey after graduating, joining the Turkish military for compulsory military service, in the ordnance section from 1952 to 1953. He worked as an engineer and scientific advisor for the Office of Soil Products in Ankara from 1954 to 1956, he spent a summer working on nuclear engineering at the Electric Power Research Institute in Ankara during 1956. He was an engineering consultant in Istanbul during 1957 and 1958 worked in his family's business, Veziroğlu Construction Company, as technical director from 1959 to 1961. In 1962, Veziroğlu became an associate professor at the University of Miami in Coral Gables, becoming full professor of mechanical engineering there in 1966, he was made a full member of their research faculty in 1969, serving as Director of Graduate Studies from 1965 to 1971, as chairman of the department of Mechanical Engineering from 1971 through 1975. Veziroğlu created the first engineering Ph. D program at the university, in 1974 was organizer of an early conference on hydrogen energy.
He accepted a visiting professorship to the Middle East Technical University. In 1973, shortly after the energy crisis, Veziroğlu established the Clean Energy Research Institute within the university, was its director from 1974 onward, he organized a conference on hydrogen energy in 1974. He became Associate Dean for Research in 1975, maintained that role through 1979, he was a visiting lecturer at Xi'an Jiatong University during the summer of 1980, a visiting lecturer at the Atomic Research Laboratories in Argentina during the summer of 1985. As a researcher in hydrogen energy and two-phase flows, Veziroğlu has co-authored over 300 scientific papers, was a founding editor of the International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. Veziroğlu was named honorary editor-in-chief of Engineering Science and Technology, The International Journal of Sciences and Engineering: Research and Applications, International Scientific Journal for Alternative Energy and Ecology. In his seventies, Veziroğlu took a leave of absence from the University of Miami, becoming founding director of UNIDO-ICHET.
He returned to his professorship in 2007, on May 15, 2009 became professor emeritus. In 2010, the 10th International Conference on Clean Energy was dedicated to his work, he was founding editor of the International Journal of Hydrogen Energy and founder of Hydrogen Energy Publications LLC. He was president of the International Association for Hydrogen Energy, initiator of the World Hydrogen Energy Conference, initiator of the World Hydrogen Technology Convention. Chair, commission on energy, World Constitution and Parliament Association Turkish Presidential Science Award, 1975. Medal of the City of Paris, France, 1977. Kurchatov Medal from the Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy, Moscow, USSR, 1982. 1995 science award, Academy of Television Arts & Sciences, January 1995. Honorary doctorate from Anadolu University in Eskisehir, October 1998. Honorary doctorate from the Donetsk State Technical University in the Ukraine, March 2001. Honorary professorship, Ministry of Education, People's Republic of China, 1981.
Married since 2006 to Ayfer Kale. Veziroğlu was Vice President and Advisor of Hydrogen Development for Fuel Cells at Apollo Energy Systems. Veziroğlu has been a board member of the Learning Disabilities Foundation since 1970. In 2013, Veziroğlu and his family donated money to the University of Miami to establish a named professorship. 1996, Performance analysis of photovoltaic thermal air heaters, Yigit/Liu/Kakac/Veziroglu/etc, Elsevier 2001, "From hydrogen economy to hydrogen civilization," VA Goltsov, TN Veziroglu, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 2002, Current status of hydrogen energy, M Momirlan, TN Veziroglu and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier 2004, A review of hydrogen storage systems based on boron and its compounds. E Fakioğlu, Y Yürüm, TN Veziroğlu, Elsevier 2005, "Wind energy and the hydrogen economy — review of the technology"' SA Sherif, F Barbir, TN Veziroglu, Solar Energy, Vol. 78, No. 5, pp. 647–660, May 2005 2008, Advances in biological hydrogen production processes.
D Das, TN Veziroglu, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy Official website