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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Paramagnetism

Paramagnetism is a form of magnetism whereby some materials are weakly attracted by an externally applied magnetic field, form internal, induced magnetic fields in the direction of the applied magnetic field. In contrast with this behavior, diamagnetic materials are repelled by magnetic fields and form induced magnetic fields in the direction opposite to that of the applied magnetic field. Paramagnetic materials include some compounds; the magnetic moment induced by the applied field is rather weak. It requires a sensitive analytical balance to detect the effect and modern measurements on paramagnetic materials are conducted with a SQUID magnetometer. Paramagnetism is due to the presence of unpaired electrons in the material, so most atoms with incompletely filled atomic orbitals are paramagnetic, although exceptions such as copper exist. Due to their spin, unpaired electrons have a magnetic dipole act like tiny magnets. An external magnetic field causes the electrons' spins to align parallel to the field, causing a net attraction.

Paramagnetic materials include aluminium, oxygen and iron oxide. Therefore, a simple rule of thumb is used in chemistry to determine whether a particle is paramagnetic or diamagnetic: If all electrons in the particle are paired the substance made of this particle is diamagnetic. Unlike ferromagnets, paramagnets do not retain any magnetization in the absence of an externally applied magnetic field because thermal motion randomizes the spin orientations, thus the total magnetization drops to zero. In the presence of the field there is only a small induced magnetization because only a small fraction of the spins will be oriented by the field; this fraction is proportional to the field strength and this explains the linear dependency. The attraction experienced by ferromagnetic materials is non-linear and much stronger, so that it is observed, for instance, in the attraction between a refrigerator magnet and the iron of the refrigerator itself. Constituent atoms or molecules of paramagnetic materials have permanent magnetic moments in the absence of an applied field.

The permanent moment is due to the spin of unpaired electrons in atomic or molecular electron orbitals. In pure paramagnetism, the dipoles do not interact with one another and are randomly oriented in the absence of an external field due to thermal agitation, resulting in zero net magnetic moment; when a magnetic field is applied, the dipoles will tend to align with the applied field, resulting in a net magnetic moment in the direction of the applied field. In the classical description, this alignment can be understood to occur due to a torque being provided on the magnetic moments by an applied field, which tries to align the dipoles parallel to the applied field. However, the true origins of the alignment can only be understood via the quantum-mechanical properties of spin and angular momentum. If there is sufficient energy exchange between neighbouring dipoles, they will interact, may spontaneously align or anti-align and form magnetic domains, resulting in ferromagnetism or antiferromagnetism, respectively.

Paramagnetic behavior can be observed in ferromagnetic materials that are above their Curie temperature, in antiferromagnets above their Néel temperature. At these temperatures, the available thermal energy overcomes the interaction energy between the spins. In general, paramagnetic effects are quite small: the magnetic susceptibility is of the order of 10−3 to 10−5 for most paramagnets, but may be as high as 10−1 for synthetic paramagnets such as ferrofluids. In conductive materials, the electrons are delocalized, that is, they travel through the solid more or less as free electrons. Conductivity can be understood in a band structure picture as arising from the incomplete filling of energy bands. In an ordinary nonmagnetic conductor the conduction band is identical for both spin-up and spin-down electrons; when a magnetic field is applied, the conduction band splits apart into a spin-up and a spin-down band due to the difference in magnetic potential energy for spin-up and spin-down electrons.

Since the Fermi level must be identical for both bands, this means that there will be a small surplus of the type of spin in the band that moved downwards. This effect is a weak form of paramagnetism known as Pauli paramagnetism; the effect always competes with a diamagnetic response of opposite sign due to all the core electrons of the atoms. Stronger forms of magnetism require localized rather than itinerant electrons. However, in some cases a band structure can result in which there are two delocalized sub-bands with states of opposite spins that have different energies. If one subband is preferentially filled over the other, one can have itinerant ferromagnetic order; this situation only occurs in narrow bands, which are poorly delocalized. Strong delocalization in a solid due to large overlap with neighboring wave functions means that there will be a large Fermi velocity; this is why s- and p-type metals are either Pauli-paramagnetic or as in the case of gold diam

Soft matter

Soft matter or soft condensed matter is a subfield of condensed matter comprising a variety of physical systems that are deformed or structurally altered by thermal or mechanical stress of the magnitude of thermal fluctuations. They include liquids, polymers, gels, granular materials, liquid crystals, a number of biological materials; these materials share an important common feature in that predominant physical behaviors occur at an energy scale comparable with room temperature thermal energy. At these temperatures, quantum aspects are unimportant. Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, called the "founding father of soft matter," received the Nobel Prize in physics in 1991 for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to the more complex cases found in soft matter, in particular, to the behaviors of liquid crystals and polymers. Interesting behaviors arise from soft matter in ways that cannot be predicted, or are difficult to predict, directly from its atomic or molecular constituents.

Materials termed soft matter exhibit this property due to a shared propensity of these materials to self-organize into mesoscopic physical structures. By way of contrast, in hard condensed matter physics it is possible to predict the overall behavior of a material because the molecules are organized into a crystalline lattice with no changes in the pattern at any mesoscopic scale. One defining characteristic of soft matter is the mesoscopic scale of physical structures; the structures are much larger than the microscopic scale, yet are much smaller than the macroscopic scale of the material. The properties and interactions of these mesoscopic structures may determine the macroscopic behavior of the material. For example, the turbulent vortices that occur within a flowing liquid are much smaller than the overall quantity of liquid and yet much larger than its individual molecules, the emergence of these vortices control the overall flowing behavior of the material; the bubbles that comprise a foam are mesoscopic because they individually consist of a vast number of molecules, yet the foam itself consists of a great number of these bubbles, the overall mechanical stiffness of the foam emerges from the combined interactions of the bubbles.

A second common feature of soft matter is the importance of thermal fluctuations. Typical bond energies in soft matter structures are of similar scale as thermal energies. Therefore, the structures are affected by thermal fluctuations, undergoing Brownian motion. A third distinctive feature of soft matter system is self-assembly; the characteristic complex behavior and hierarchical structures arise spontaneously as the system evolves towards equilibrium. Soft materials present an interesting behavior during fracture because they become deformed before crack propagation. Therefore, the fracture of soft material differs from the general fracture mechanics formulation. Soft materials are important in a wide range of technological applications, they may appear as structural and packaging materials and adhesives, detergents and cosmetics, food additives and fuel additives, rubber in tires, etc. In addition, a number of biological materials are classifiable as soft matter. Liquid crystals, another category of soft matter, exhibit a responsivity to electric fields that make them important as materials in display devices.

In spite of the various forms of these materials, many of their properties have common physicochemical origins, such as a large number of internal degrees of freedom, weak interactions between structural elements, a delicate balance between entropic and enthalpic contributions to the free energy. These properties lead to large thermal fluctuations, a wide variety of forms, sensitivity of equilibrium structures to external conditions, macroscopic softness, metastable states. Active liquid crystals are another example of soft materials, where the constituent elements in liquid crystals can self propel. Soft matters, such as polymers and lipids have found applications in nanotechnology as well; the realization that soft matter contains innumerable examples of symmetry breaking, generalized elasticity, many fluctuating degrees of freedom has re-invigorated classical fields of physics such as fluids and elasticity. An important part of soft condensed matter research is biophysics. Active matter Hard matter Roughness I.

Hamley, Introduction to Soft Matter, J. Wiley, Chichester. R. A. L. Jones, Soft Condensed Matter, Oxford University Press, Oxford. T. A. Witten, Structured Fluids: Polymers, Surfactants, Oxford. M. Kleman and O. D. Lavrentovich, Soft Matter Physics: An Introduction, Springer. M. Mitov, Sensitive Matter: Foams, Liquid Crystals and Other Miracles, Harvard University Press. J. N. Israelachvili and Surface Forces, Academic Press. A. V. Zvelindovsky, Nanostructured Soft Matter - Experiment, Theory and Perspectives, Springer/Dordrecht, ISBN 978-1-4020-6329-9. M. Daoud, C. E. Williams, Soft Matter Physics, Springer Verlag, Berlin. Gerald H. Ristow, Pattern Formation in Granular Materials, Springer Tracts in Modern Physics, v. 161. Springer, Berlin. ISBN 3-540-66701-6. de Gennes, Pierre-Gilles, Soft Matter, Nobel Lecture, December 9, 1991 S. A. Safran,Statistical thermodynamics of surfaces and membranes, Westview Press R. G. La

Keller Ferry

The Keller Ferry or Clark Ferry, is a ferry crossing on Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake in the US state of Washington; the crossing carries State Route 21 between the Colville Indian Reservation in Ferry County and Clark in Lincoln County. The ferry has been in operation since the 1890s and under state control since 1930. During that time, five vessels have served the crossing, including the Martha S. which operated from 1948 to 2013, the current ferry, the M/V Sanpoil. The M/V Sanpoil is the only Washington State Department of Transportation owned and operated ferry in Eastern Washington; this was the first ferry crossing operated by the state of Washington. The other fare-free public ferry in Eastern Washington, the Gifford–Inchelium ferry, is operated by the Colville Confederated Tribes. Hours of operation are 6:00 a.m. to Midnight 7 days per week. The fare to ride is free. Before the construction of the Grand Coulee Dam, the Keller, a cable ferry, served the crossing, at the confluence of the Columbia River and the Sanpoil River.

The Keller had an on-board motor to winch the boat across the river. The L. A. McLeod, a Diesel powered side-wheeler, served the crossing from 1939 to 1944, a period which saw the completion of the Grand Coulee Dam and the formation of Lake Roosevelt. Between 1944 and 1948, the route was served by a barge called the San Poil, pushed by a tugboat, the Ann of Wilbur. Launched in 1948, the Martha S. was powered by two diesel engines making total 470 horsepower, was 80 feet in length and 30 feet in beam. Its maximum capacity was 12 cars, or a single tractor-trailer truck alone, but it was unable to accommodate highway legal double tractor-trailer trucks; the ferry was in service from its launch until its retirement on Sunday, July 7, 2013. The vessel was named in honor of Martha Shain, the wife of State Highway Director Clarence Shain at the time it was put in service; the current Keller ferry, the M/V Sanpoil, is 116 feet in length, is designed to carry 20 passenger vehicles, two single tractor-trailer trucks and 9 passenger vehicles, or a double tractor-trailer truck and 8 passenger vehicles.

It was christened, received a tribal blessing, began service on August 14, 2013, after the Martha S. docks were refit to handle the larger replacement vessel. The name "Sanpoil" is an Anglicized version of the name of the native peoples of the surrounding area, is the name of the river adjacent SR 21 to the north of the ferry; the project to acquire a replacement ferry for the Martha S. was funded by the Washington State Legislature during the 2011 session. The Colville Confederated Tribes contributed $2 million of the $12 million cost of the new vessel. On November 16, 2011, WSDOT awarded a contract for construction of the replacement vessel with delivery slated for May 2013. Justification for replacing the Martha S. included replacement parts for it no longer being commercially manufactured, requiring them to be custom-made as needed. Ferries in Washington State Washington State Ferries Keller Ferry replacement website

Granville Leveson-Gower, 1st Marquess of Stafford

Granville Leveson-Gower, 1st Marquess of Stafford, PC, known as Viscount Trentham from 1746 to 1754 and as The Earl Gower from 1754 to 1786, was a British politician from the Leveson-Gower family. Stafford was a son of 1st Earl Gower and his wife Lady Evelyn Pierrepont, his maternal grandparents were Evelyn Pierrepont, 1st Duke of Kingston-upon-Hull and his first wife Lady Mary Feilding. Mary was 3rd Earl of Denbigh and his wife Mary King, his father was a prominent Tory politician who became the first major Tory to enter government since the succession of George I of Great Britain, joining the administration of John Carteret, 2nd Earl Granville in 1742. Gower was educated at Christ Church, Oxford. Stafford was elected to parliament in 1744. With the death of his elder brother in 1746, he became known by the courtesy title of Viscount Trentham until he succeeded his father as Earl Gower in 1754, he built the earlier Lilleshall Hall, converting a 17th-century house located in the village of Lilleshall into a country residence around the late 1750s.

Stafford was associated with the faction of the John Russell, Duke of Bedford, his brother-in-law, as a member of that faction, called the "Bloomsbury Gang", was given many governmental positions. Following Bedford's death in 1771, Gower became leader of the group, as Lord President in the administration of Frederick North, Lord North, he was a key supporter of a hard-line policy towards the American colonists. Between 1775-1778, Stafford proceeded to make substantial alterations to his home at Trentham Hall based on the designs by Henry Holland. By 1779, Gower resigned from the cabinet being frustrated by what he saw as the North administration's inept handling of the American Revolutionary War, and when North resigned in March 1782, Gower was approached to form a ministry, but he refused, he refused subsequent overtures from both Lord Shelburne and the Fox-North coalition to enter the government. Instead, he became a key figure in bringing about the fall of the Fox-North coalition, was rewarded with the position of Lord President once again in the new administration of William Pitt the Younger.

Although he soon exchanged this office for that of Lord Privy Seal, began to withdraw from public affairs, he remained a cabinet minister until his retirement in 1794. He was elected F. S. A. on 28 April 1784. In 1786, he was created Marquess of Stafford as a reward for his services, he died at Trentham Hall, Staffordshire, on 26 October 1803. He was the last surviving member of the Bloomsbury Gang. Stafford married three times, he married firstly Elizabeth Fazakerley, daughter of Nicholas Fazakerley, in 1744. Elizabeth died of smallpox two years later, they had no children. Stafford married secondly Lady Louisa Egerton, daughter of the Scroop Egerton, 1st Duke of Bridgewater, in 1748, she died in 1761. They were parents to four children: Lady Louisa Leveson-Gower, she married Sir Archibald MacDonald, 1st Baronet. Lady Margaret Caroline Leveson-Gower, she married Frederick Howard, 5th Earl of Carlisle and was the mother of George Howard, 6th Earl of Carlisle. George Leveson-Gower, 1st Duke of Sutherland.

Lady Anne Leveson-Gower. She married the Right Reverend Archbishop of York. Stafford married thirdly Lady Susanna Stewart, daughter of Alexander Stewart, 6th Earl of Galloway, 23 May 1768, they were parents to four children: Lady Georgiana Augusta Leveson-Gower. She married William Eliot, 2nd Earl of St Germans. Lady Charlotte Sophia Leveson-Gower, she married Henry Somerset, 6th Duke of Beaufort and was mother of Henry Somerset, 7th Duke of Beaufort and Lord Granville Somerset. Lady Susanna Leveson-Gower, she married 1st Earl of Harrowby. Granville Leveson-Gower, 1st Earl Granville; when Lord Stafford died at the age of 82, he was succeeded in his titles by his eldest son George from his second marriage, created Duke of Sutherland in 1833. The Marchioness of Stafford died in August 1805. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Barker, George Fisher Russell. "Leveson-Gower, Granville". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 33. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages

Ounasjoki

The Ounasjoki River is the Kemijoki River's largest tributary and is Finland's longest single river tributary. It is the largest river within its borders. Ounasjoki is 299.6 kilometres in length, the catchment area is 13,968 square kilometres, 27 percent of the Kemi catchment area. The Ounasjoki River originates at Ounasjärvi Lake in Enontekiö, it turns south after some seven kilometres. The river follows southern-southeasterly course until its confluence with the Kemi River at Rovaniemi. Näkkäläjoki Käkkälöjoki Syvä Tepastojoki Loukinen Meltausjoki Marrasjoki Grayling, trout and other fish typical to northern Finland are found in the Ounasjoki. Media related to Ounasjoki at Wikimedia Commons

Foggia railway station

Foggia railway station serves the city and comune of Foggia, in the region of Apulia, Southern Italy. Opened in 1864, it forms part of the Adriatic Railway, is the terminus of the Naples–Foggia railway, it is a junction for several other, secondary lines, namely the Foggia–Manfredonia, Lucera–Foggia and Foggia–Potenza railways. The station is managed by Rete Ferroviaria Italiana. However, the commercial area of the passenger building is managed by Centostazioni. Train services are operated by Trenitalia; each of these companies is a subsidiary of Italy's state-owned rail company. Foggia railway station is situated at Piazzale Vittorio Veneto, at the north eastern edge of the city centre; the station was opened on 25 April 1864, upon the inauguration of the Ortona–Foggia section of the Adriatic Railway. Just under four months on 11 August 1864, the Adriatic Railway was extended from Brindisi to Trani. On 30 December 1886, Foggia became a junction station, when the first two sections of the Naples–Foggia railway were opened, between Bovino-Deliceto and Foggia via Cervaro.

The number of lines terminating at Foggia was expanded on 12 July 1885, with the opening of the Foggia–Manfredonia railway, again on 2 August 1887, upon the completion of the Lucera–Foggia railway. On 18 September 1897, a line branching from the Naples–Foggia railway at Cervaro was completed to form a link between Foggia and Potenza. By the end of the nineteenth century, the station had therefore become a crucial junction between the lines that running between the north and south of Italy and those linking the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian seas. During World War II, the passenger building was damaged, it was rebuilt as a project of the architect Roberto Narducci. The passenger building looks impressive in combination with the piazza, it consists of a central section housing the main entrance, two wings a little set back from it. On the ground floor are passenger services such as ticketing and bar and the office of traffic management and the headquarters of the Railway Police, while the upper floors are occupied by offices of Trenitalia.

In the station yard, there are eight through tracks, interspersed with four platforms equipped with shelters and linked by a subway. Additionally, there are several dock platforms used for passenger traffic; the station is equipped with a large goods yard with adjoining buildings and several through tracks used for overtaking. The station has about four million passenger movements each year, due to passenger interchanges between different lines, it is therefore the second busiest station in Apulia after Bari Centrale. The next busiest Apulian stations are Barletta, Brindisi and Taranto, respectively; the station is served by the following services: High speed services Rome - Foggia - Bari - Brindisi - Lecce High speed services Milan - Parma - Bologna - Ancona - Pescara - Foggia - Bari - Brindisi - Lecce High speed services Milan - Bologna - Ancona - Pescara - Foggia – Bari High speed services Milan - Parma - Bologna - Ancona - Pescara - Foggia - Bari - Taranto High speed services Turin - Parma - Bologna - Ancona - Pescara - Foggia - Bari - Brindisi - Lecce High speed services Venice - Padua - Bologna - Ancona - Pescara - Foggia - Bari - Brindisi - Lecce Intercity services Rome - Foggia - Bari Intercity services Bologna - Rimini - Ancona - Pescara - Foggia - Bari - Brindisi - Lecce Intercity services Bologna - Rimini - Ancona - Pescara - Foggia - Bari - Taranto Night train Rome - Foggia - Bari - Brindisi - Lecce Night train Milan - Parma - Bolgona - Ancona - Pescara - Foggia - Bari - Brindisi - Lecce Night train Milan - Ancona - Pescara - Foggia - Bari - Taranto - Brindisi - Lecce Night train Turin - Alessandria - Bolgona - Ancona - Pescara - Foggia - Bari - Brindisi - Lecce Regional services Foggia - Barletta - Bari Regional services Foggia - Melfi - Potenza Local services San Severo - Foggia Local services Foggia - Lucera Local services Foggia - Manfredonia History of rail transport in Italy List of railway stations in Apulia Rail transport in Italy Railway stations in Italy Media related to Foggia railway station at Wikimedia Commons History and pictures of Foggia railway station This article is based upon a translation of the Italian language version as at January 2011