Paramount Pictures

Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American film studio, a subsidiary of ViacomCBS. It is the fifth oldest surviving film studio in the world, the second oldest in the United States, the sole member of the "Big Five" film studios still located in the Los Angeles neighborhood of Hollywood. In 1916, film producer Adolph Zukor put 22 actors and actresses under contract and honored each with a star on the logo. In 2014, Paramount Pictures became the first major Hollywood studio to distribute all of its films in digital form only; the company's headquarters and studios are located at 5555 Melrose Avenue, California, United States. Paramount Pictures is a member of the Motion Picture Association. Paramount is the fifth oldest surviving film studio in the world after the French studios Gaumont Film Company and Pathé, followed by the Nordisk Film company, Universal Studios, it is the last major film studio still headquartered in the Hollywood district of Los Angeles. Paramount Pictures dates its existence from the 1912 founding date of the Famous Players Film Company.

Hungarian-born founder Adolph Zukor, an early investor in nickelodeons, saw that movies appealed to working-class immigrants. With partners Daniel Frohman and Charles Frohman he planned to offer feature-length films that would appeal to the middle class by featuring the leading theatrical players of the time. By mid-1913, Famous Players had completed five films, Zukor was on his way to success, its first film was Les Amours de la reine Élisabeth. That same year, another aspiring producer, Jesse L. Lasky, opened his Lasky Feature Play Company with money borrowed from his brother-in-law, Samuel Goldfish known as Samuel Goldwyn; the Lasky company hired as their first employee a stage director with no film experience, Cecil B. DeMille, who would find a suitable site in Hollywood, near Los Angeles, for his first feature film, The Squaw Man. Starting in 1914, both Lasky and Famous Players released their films through a start-up company, Paramount Pictures Corporation, organized early that year by a Utah theatre owner, W. W. Hodkinson, who had bought and merged several smaller firms.

Hodkinson and actor, producer Hobart Bosworth had started production of a series of Jack London movies. Paramount was the first successful nationwide distributor. Famous Players and Lasky were owned while Paramount was a corporation. In 1916, Zukor maneuvered a three-way merger of his Famous Players, the Lasky Company, Paramount. Zukor and Lasky bought Hodkinson out of Paramount, merged the three companies into one; the new company Lasky and Zukor founded, Famous Players-Lasky Corporation, grew with Lasky and his partners Goldwyn and DeMille running the production side, Hiram Abrams in charge of distribution, Zukor making great plans. With only the exhibitor-owned First National as a rival, Famous Players-Lasky and its "Paramount Pictures" soon dominated the business; because Zukor believed in stars, he signed and developed many of the leading early stars, including Mary Pickford, Marguerite Clark, Pauline Frederick, Douglas Fairbanks, Gloria Swanson, Rudolph Valentino, Wallace Reid. With so many important players, Paramount was able to introduce "block booking", which meant that an exhibitor who wanted a particular star's films had to buy a year's worth of other Paramount productions.

It was this system that gave Paramount a leading position in the 1920s and 1930s, but which led the government to pursue it on antitrust grounds for more than twenty years. The driving force behind Paramount's rise was Zukor. Through the teens and twenties, he built the Publix Theatres Corporation, a chain of nearly 2,000 screens, ran two production studios, became an early investor in radio, taking a 50% interest in the new Columbia Broadcasting System in 1928. In 1926, Zukor hired independent producer B. P. Schulberg, an unerring eye for new talent, to run the new West Coast operations, they purchased the Robert Brunton Studios, a 26-acre facility at 5451 Marathon Street for US$1 million. In 1927, Famous Players-Lasky took the name Paramount Famous Lasky Corporation. Three years because of the importance of the Publix Theatres, it became Paramount Publix Corporation. In 1928, Paramount began releasing Inkwell Imps, animated cartoons produced by Max and Dave Fleischer's Fleischer Studios in New York City.

The Fleischers, veterans in the animation industry, were among the few animation producers capable of challenging the prominence of Walt Disney. The Paramount newsreel series Paramount News ran from 1927 to 1957. Paramount was one of the first Hollywood studios to release what were known at that time as "talkies", in 1929, released their first musical, Innocents of Paris. Richard A. Whiting and Leo Robin composed the score for the film. By acquiring the successful Balaban & Katz chain in 1926, Zukor gained the services of Barney Balaban, his brother A. J. Balaban, their partner Sam Katz. Balaban and Katz had developed the Wonder Theater

Novi Grad, Zemun

Novi Grad is an urban neighborhood of Belgrade, the capital of Serbia. It is located in Belgrade's municipality of Zemun. Novi Grad is located in the central-west section of the urban Zemun, it stretches along the starting section of the new Belgrade-Novi Sad highway, from the Belgrade-Novi Sad railway on the south, where it borders the neighborhood of Kolonija Zmaj to the Ugrinovačka street on the north, where it borders the neighborhood of Zemun Bačka. On the east it borders the neighborhoods of Železnička Kolonija and Sutjeska, while it extends into the neighborhoods of Altina and Plavi Horizonti on the west, until whose rapid development in the late 1990s Novi Grad was the final residential extension of Zemun in this direction, it comprises sub-neighborhoods of Vojni Put I and Vojni Put II. The name means "new town", as a reference to the two older sections of Zemun, Donji Grad and Gornji Grad. In 2002 census of population it had 19,158 inhabitants, out of which 4,982 lived in a local community of the same name.

The neighborhood is close to several important traffic routes, including two highways, one railway and some of the most important streets of Zemun. It has its own railway station. In the 1970s and 1980s failed attempt was made to rename the part of the neighborhood between the highway to Zagreb and Prvomajska street to Franjine Rudine but the name fell into total oblivion today. Triangularly shaped northern section of Novi Grad, on both sides of Belgrade-Novi Sad highway, bounded by the roads of Dobanovački put and Pazovački put, it directly continues into Altina on the north-west. The name means "military road"; the neighborhood originated as an informal Romany settlement. In time it expanded as a regular settlement and got urbanized. Southwestern section of Novi Grad, across the Belgrade-Novi Sad highway, it continues into the neighborhood of Plavi Horizonti in the west

Information gain ratio

In decision tree learning, Information gain ratio is a ratio of information gain to the intrinsic information. It was proposed by Ross Quinlan, to reduce a bias towards multi-valued attributes by taking the number and size of branches into account when choosing an attribute. Information Gain is known as Mutual Information. Let A t t r be the set of all attributes and E x the set of all training examples, v a l u e with x ∈ E x defines the value of a specific example x for attribute a ∈ A t t r, H specifies the entropy; the v a l u. The information gain for an attribute a ∈ A t t r is defined as follows: I G = H − ∑ v ∈ v a l u e s The information gain is equal to the total entropy for an attribute if for each of the attribute values a unique classification can be made for the result attribute. In this case the relative entropies subtracted from the total entropy are 0; the intrinsic value for a test is defined as follows: I V = − ∑ v ∈ v a l u e s | | | E x | ⋅ log 2 ⁡ The information gain ratio is just the ratio between the information gain and the intrinsic value: I G R = I G / I V Information gain ratio biases the decision tree against considering attributes with a large number of distinct values.

So it solves the drawback of information gain—namely, information gain applied to attributes that can take on a large number of distinct values might learn the training set too well. For example, suppose that we are building a decision tree for some data describing a business's customers. Information gain is used to decide which of the attributes are the most relevant, so they can be tested near the root of the tree. One of the input attributes might be the customer's credit card number; this attribute has a high information gain, because it uniquely identifies each customer, but we do not want to include it in the decision tree: deciding how to treat a customer based on their credit card number is unlikely to generalize to customers we haven't seen before. Information gain in decision trees