Paraphilia is the experience of intense sexual arousal to atypical objects, fantasies, behaviors, or individuals. No consensus has been found for any precise border between unusual sexual interests and paraphilic ones. There is debate over which, if any, of the paraphilias should be listed in diagnostic manuals, such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders or the International Classification of Diseases; the number and taxonomy of paraphilia is under debate. The DSM-5 has specific listings for eight paraphilic disorders. Several sub-classifications of the paraphilias have been proposed, some argue that a dimensional, spectrum or complaint-oriented approach would better reflect the evidence. Many terms have been used to describe atypical sexual interests, there remains debate regarding technical accuracy and perceptions of stigma. Sexologist John Money popularized the term paraphilia as a non-pejorative designation for unusual sexual interests. Money described paraphilia as "a sexuoerotic embellishment of, or alternative to the official, ideological norm."
Psychiatrist Glen Gabbard writes that despite efforts by Stekel and Money, "the term paraphilia remains pejorative in most circumstances."Coinage of the term paraphilia has been credited to Friedrich Salomon Krauss in 1903, it entered the English language in 1913, in reference to Krauss by urologist William J. Robinson, it was used with some regularity by Wilhelm Stekel in the 1920s. The term comes from the Greek παρά "beside" and φιλία "friendship, love". In the late 19th century and psychiatrists started to categorize various paraphilias as they wanted a more descriptive system than the legal and religious constructs of sodomy and perversion. Before the introduction of the term paraphilia in the DSM-III, the term sexual deviation was used to refer to paraphilias in the first two editions of the manual. In 1981, an article published in American Journal of Psychiatry described paraphilia as "recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving: Non-human objects The suffering or humiliation of oneself or one's partner Children Non-consenting persons Homosexuality, now accepted to be a normal variant of human sexuality, was at one time discussed as a sexual deviation.
Sigmund Freud and subsequent psychoanalytic thinkers considered homosexuality and paraphilias to result from psychosexual non-normative relations to the Oedipal complex. As such, the term sexual perversion or the epithet pervert have referred to gay men, as well as other non-heterosexuals. By the mid-20th century, mental health practitioners began formalizing "deviant sexuality" classifications into categories. Coded as 000-x63, homosexuality was the top of the classification list until the American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality from the DSM in 1973. Martin Kafka writes, "Sexual disorders once considered paraphilias are now regarded as variants of normal sexuality."A 2012 literature study by clinical psychologist James Cantor, when comparing homosexuality with paraphilias, found that both share "the features of onset and course, but they appear to differ on sex ratio, fraternal birth order, handedness, IQ and cognitive profile, neuroanatomy". The research concluded that the data seemed to suggest paraphilias and homosexuality as two distinct categories, but regarded the conclusion as "quite tentative" given the current limited understanding of paraphilias.
The causes of paraphilic sexual preferences in people are unclear, although a growing body of research points to a possible prenatal neurodevelopmental correlation. A 2008 study analyzing the sexual fantasies of 200 heterosexual men by using the Wilson Sex Fantasy Questionnaire exam determined that males with a pronounced degree of fetish interest had a greater number of older brothers, a high 2D:4D digit ratio, an elevated probability of being left-handed, suggesting that disturbed hemispheric brain lateralization may play a role in deviant attractions. Behavioral explanations propose that paraphilias are conditioned early in life, during an experience that pairs the paraphilic stimulus with intense sexual arousal. Susan Nolen-Hoeksema suggests that, once established, masturbatory fantasies about the stimulus reinforce and broaden the paraphilic arousal. There is scientific and political controversy regarding the continued inclusion of sex-related diagnoses such as the paraphilias in the DSM, due to the stigma of being classified as a mental illness.
Some groups, seeking greater understanding and acceptance of sexual diversity, have lobbied for changes to the legal and medical status of unusual sexual interests and practices. Charles Allen Moser, a physician and advocate for sexual minorities, has argued that the diagnoses should be eliminated from diagnostic manuals. Albert Eulenburg noted a commonality across the paraphilias, using the terminology of his time, "All the forms of sexual perversion...have one thing in common: their roots reach down into the matrix of natural and normal sex life. They are...hyperbolic intensifications, monstrous fruits of certain partial and secondary expressions of this erotism, considered'normal' or at least within the limits of healthy sex feeling."The clinical literature contains reports of many paraphilias, only some of wh
The Bugatti Type 57S Atalante number 57502, built in 1937 by Automobiles Ettore Bugatti, is one of 43 Bugatti Type 57S made and one of only 17 Type 57S produced with the in-house Atalante coupé coachwork. The car hit the headlines in 2009 when auctioned by Bonhams, after having been rediscovered in 2008, following 48 years of storage in a private owner's garage in Gosforth, with few people aware of its location. Chassis number 57502 was completed at the Bugatti works on 5 May 1937, with the works number plate 1127-W5; the car was ordered new from the factory by Francis Curzon, 5th Earl Howe, a keen motor racing enthusiast, who took delivery of it on 9 June 1937 from Sorel of London, the UK agents for Bugatti. 57502 passed through three intermediate owners before being bought in 1955 by Dr. Harold Carr, from Newcastle upon Tyne. Passionate for machinery and adventuring, Carr suffered from obsessive compulsive disorder, which in his life caused him to become a recluse and a hoarder. In December 1960, after its last tax disc expired, Carr stored the Bugatti along with other classic cars in a lock-up garage in Gosforth, Newcastle upon Tyne.
There it remained unused and untouched until after Carr's death, when it was discovered by Carr's nephew clearing the garage of his uncle's possessions in 2008. 57502 still possessed its original chassis, drive train and body, though it did contain some modifications: bespoke bumpers, rear-view mirrors on the A-pillars, a luggage rack dating from the Earl Howe ownership, as well as a Marshall K200 supercharger fitted by a owner. According to the nephew, notes found in the garage showed that some people had inquired about the car, attempted to buy it from Carr. Other family members had known of the Bugatti and other cars in Dr. Carr's possession, but weren't aware of the car's true value. Auction house Bonhams, instructed to sell the car by the eight Carr heirs, made it the centrepiece of their February 2009 sale at the Rétromobile car show in Paris. Due to its rarity, low mileage and original condition, it was speculated that it could become the most expensive car sold at auction, at around £6 million.
However, it fell short of the £3 million reserve price, selling for £2,989,495. "A Sale of Exceptional Motor Cars and related Automobilia: "Automobiles d'Exception à Retromobile" - Saturday 7 February, 2009". Bonhams. Archived from the original on 16 December 2008. "Chassis 57502". Bugatti Builder.com. Archived from the original on 11 February 2009. TheExStig. 1937 Bugatti Atalante 57S discovered in lock up. YouTube
UFC 53: Heavy Hitters was a mixed martial arts event held by the Ultimate Fighting Championship on June 4, 2005, at the Boardwalk Hall in Atlantic City, New Jersey. The event was broadcast live on pay-per-view in the United States, released on DVD; this event was scheduled to take place at the Yokohama Arena in Japan with an Interim Heavyweight Championship bout between Andrei Arlovski and Mirko Filipović serving as the main event. However the lack of sponsorship for the event forced the event to be moved to Atlantic City. Former champion Ricco Rodriguez was slated to contend for the Heavyweight Championship, but withdrew from the bout, citing complications with his training camp. Headlining the card opposite of Interim Heavyweight Champion Arlovski, was Miletich protégé Justin Eilers. Although there was some criticism directed at the UFC for giving Eilers a title shot after coming off a knockout loss to Paul Buentello at UFC 51, the UFC explained that Buentello was not medically cleared to fight when the main event was scheduled.
This was Forrest Griffin's first fight after winning The Ultimate Fighter show. Ultimate Fighting Championship List of UFC champions List of UFC events 2005 in UFC UFC 53: Heavy Hitters Results on Sherdog.com "Ultimate Fighting Championship Cards" on Wrestling Information Archives