The RER B is one of the five lines in the RER rapid transit system serving Paris, France. The line runs from the northern termini Aéroport Charles de Gaulle and Mitry-Claye to the southern termini Robinson and Saint-Rémy-lès-Chevreuse. First opened: 9 December 1977 Length: 80.0 km Number of stops: 47 Traffic: 165 million journeys per annum The southern part of the line is operated by the RATP, the northern part by the SNCF. Trains are owned by either company; until December 2009, drivers changed at Gare du Nord. Trains moving from one network to the other at this station is known as the Interconnexion. Technical difficulties of the Interconnexion include the shared tunnel with RER D between Châtelet – Les Halles and Gare du Nord, the fact that while the SNCF part in the northern suburbs use 25 kV AC, the RATP part uses 1500 V DC, forcing the use of dual-voltage trains. Line B was the product of the connection in 1977 of the Ligne de Sceaux terminus, with the Gare du Nord via Châtelet – Les Halles.
In 1988 St-Michel – Notre-Dame station between Luxembourg and Châtelet – Les Halles was opened to provide connection with RER C and Métro Line 10 at Cluny – La Sorbonne, a station, closed since the beginning of World War II and was renovated for the occasion. 1846: The Ligne de Sceaux is inaugurated from Massy to Denfert-Rochereau. 1862: The Chemin de Fer du Nord line from Paris to Soissons via Mitry-Claye is opened. From 1889 to 1895: The Ligne de Sceaux is extended from Denfert-Rochereau to Luxembourg. 1937: The CMP buys from the PO company the "ligne de Sceaux" which connected the Luxembourg Garden to Robinson and Saint-Rémy-lès-Chevreuse. 1976: A new 13.5 km long line from Aulnay-sous-Bois to Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport is opened, linking it with Paris. 9 December 1977: The "ligne de Sceaux" is extended to Châtelet-les Halles, 2 km, becomes the RER B. 10 December 1981: The line is extended from Châtelet-les Halles to Gare du Nord, 2.5 km. RATP trains to Robinson and Saint-Rémy-lès-Chevreuse make end-to-end connections with SNCF trains to Aulnay-sous-Bois, Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport and Mitry, 42 km, but without through working due to a difference in electrical system.
January 1983: New station, Parc-des-Expositions, opened. Located between Villepinte and Roissy. 7 June 1983: Some trains work through between points north and south of Gare du Nord. Service increased in 1984 and 1987. 17 February 1988: The station St-Michel – Notre-Dame is inaugurated between Luxembourg and Châtelet in order to offer a quick connection with metro line 10 and the RER C. 2 October 1994: OrlyVAL line opens, connecting Antony station with Orly Airport, 8 km. 13 November 1994: The line is extended to Aéroport Charles de Gaulle 2 – TGV, 1 km. 28 January 1998: "La Plaine – Voyageurs" station is moved by a few hundred meters and renamed "La Plaine – Stade de France" in order to reflect the name of the Stade de France for the 1998 FIFA World Cup held in Paris. RER B3 Aéroport Charles de Gaulle 2 – TGV Aéroport Charles de Gaulle 1 Parc des Expositions Villepinte Sevran – Beaudottes B5 Mitry – Claye Villeparisis – Mitry-le-Neuf Vert-Galant Sevran – Livry Aulnay-sous-Bois Le Blanc-Mesnil Drancy Le Bourget La Courneuve – Aubervilliers La Plaine – Stade de France Gare du Nord Châtelet – Les Halles St-Michel – Notre-Dame Luxembourg Port-Royal Denfert-Rochereau Cité Universitaire Gentilly Laplace Arcueil – Cachan Bagneux Bourg-la-Reine B2 Sceaux Fontenay-aux-Roses Robinson B4 Parc de Sceaux La Croix de Berny Antony Fontaine-Michalon Les Baconnets Massy – Verrières Massy – Palaiseau Palaiseau Palaiseau – Villebon Lozère Le Guichet Orsay – Ville Bures-sur-Yvette La Hacquinière Gif-sur-Yvette Courcelle-sur-Yvette Saint-Rémy-lès-Chevreuse RER B is operated by 117 MI 79 and 31 MI 84 sets.
These are to be replaced from 2024. List of stations of the Paris Métro List of stations of the Paris RER RATP official website RATP website in English Interactive Map of the RER Interactive Map of the Paris métro Mobidf website, dedicated to the RER Metro-Pole website, dedicated to Paris public transports
The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history; the causes of the French Revolution are still debated among historians. Following the Seven Years' War and the American Revolution, the French government was in debt, it attempted to restore its financial status through unpopular taxation schemes, which were regressive.
Leading up to the Revolution, years of bad harvests worsened by deregulation of the grain industry and environmental problems inflamed popular resentment of the privileges enjoyed by the aristocracy and the Catholic clergy of the established church. Some historians hold something similar to what Thomas Jefferson proclaimed: that France had "been awakened by our Revolution." Demands for change were formulated in terms of Enlightenment ideals and contributed to the convocation of the Estates General in May 1789. During the first year of the Revolution, members of the Third Estate took control, the Bastille was attacked in July, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was passed in August, the Women's March on Versailles forced the royal court back to Paris in October. A central event of the first stage, in August 1789, was the abolition of feudalism and the old rules and privileges left over from the Ancien Régime; the next few years featured political struggles between various liberal assemblies and right-wing supporters of the monarchy intent on thwarting major reforms.
The Republic was proclaimed in September 1792 after the French victory at Valmy. In a momentous event that led to international condemnation, Louis XVI was executed in January 1793. External threats shaped the course of the Revolution; the Revolutionary Wars beginning in 1792 featured French victories that facilitated the conquest of the Italian Peninsula, the Low Countries and most territories west of the Rhine – achievements that had eluded previous French governments for centuries. Internally, popular agitation radicalised the Revolution culminating in the rise of Maximilien Robespierre and the Jacobins; the dictatorship imposed by the Committee of Public Safety during the Reign of Terror, from 1793 until 1794, established price controls on food and other items, abolished slavery in French colonies abroad, de-established the Catholic church and created a secular Republican calendar, religious leaders were expelled, the borders of the new republic were secured from its enemies. After the Thermidorian Reaction, an executive council known as the Directory assumed control of the French state in 1795.
They suspended elections, repudiated debts, persecuted the Catholic clergy, made significant military conquests abroad. Dogged by charges of corruption, the Directory collapsed in a coup led by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799. Napoleon, who became the hero of the Revolution through his popular military campaigns, established the Consulate and the First Empire, setting the stage for a wider array of global conflicts in the Napoleonic Wars; the modern era has unfolded in the shadow of the French Revolution. All future revolutionary movements looked back to the Revolution as their predecessor, its central phrases and cultural symbols, such as La Marseillaise and Liberté, fraternité, égalité, ou la mort, became the clarion call for other major upheavals in modern history, including the Russian Revolution over a century later. The values and institutions of the Revolution dominate French politics to this day; the Revolution resulted in the suppression of the feudal system, emancipation of the individual, a greater division of landed property, abolition of the privileges of noble birth, nominal establishment of equality among men.
The French Revolution differed from other revolutions in being not only national, for it intended to benefit all humanity. Globally, the Revolution accelerated the rise of democracies, it became the focal point for the development of most modern political ideologies, leading to the spread of liberalism, radicalism and secularism, among many others. The Revolution witnessed the birth of total war by organising the resources of France and the lives of its citizens towards the objective of military conquest; some of its central documents, such as the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, continued to inspire movements for abolitionism and universal suffrage in the next century. Historians have pointed to many events and factors within the Ancien Régime that led to the Revolution. Rising social and economic inequality, new political ideas emerging from the Enlightenment, economic mismanagement, environmental factors leading to agricultural failure, unmanageable national debt, political mismanagement on the part of King Louis XVI have all been cited as laying the groundwork for the Revolution.
Over the course of the 18th century, there emerged what the philosopher Jürgen Habermas called the idea of the "public sphere" in France and elsewhere
Cedrus is a genus of coniferous trees in the plant family Pinaceae. They are native to the mountains of the western Himalayas and the Mediterranean region, occurring at altitudes of 1,500–3,200 m in the Himalayas and 1,000–2,200 m in the Mediterranean. Cedrus trees can grow up to 30–40 m tall with spicy-resinous scented wood, thick ridged or square-cracked bark, broad, level branches; the shoots are dimorphic, with long shoots, which form the framework of the branches, short shoots, which carry most of the leaves. The leaves are evergreen and needle-like, 8–60 mm long, arranged in an open spiral phyllotaxis on long shoots, in dense spiral clusters of 15–45 together on short shoots; the seed cones are barrel-shaped, 6–12 cm long and 3–8 cm broad, green maturing grey-brown, and, as in Abies, disintegrate at maturity to release the winged seeds. The seeds are 10–15 mm long, with a 20–30 mm wing. Cone maturation takes one year, with pollination in autumn and the seeds maturing the same time a year later.
The pollen cones are slender ovoid, 3–8 cm long, produced in late summer, shedding pollen in autumn. Cedars share a similar cone structure with the firs and were traditionally thought to be most related to them, but molecular evidence supports a basal position in the family; the five taxa of Cedrus are assigned according to taxonomic opinion to between one and four different species: Cedars are adapted to mountainous climates. Cedars are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including pine processionary and turnip moth. Cedars are popular ornamental trees used in horticulture in temperate climates where winter temperatures do not fall below about −25 °C; the Turkish cedar is hardier, to −30 °C or just below. Extensive mortality of planted specimens can occur in severe winters where temperatures do drop lower. Areas with successful long-term cultivation include the entire Mediterranean region, western Europe north to the British Isles, southern Australia and New Zealand, southern and western North America.
Cedar wood and cedar oil are known to be a natural repellent to moths, hence cedar is a popular lining for modern-day cedar chests and closets in which woolens are stored. This specific use of cedar is mentioned in The Iliad, referring to the cedar-roofed or lined storage chamber where Priam goes to fetch treasures to be used as ransom. However, the species used for cedar chests and closets in North America is Juniperus virginiana, different from the true cedars. Cedar is commonly used to make shoe trees as it can absorb moisture and deodorise. Many species of cedar trees are suitable for training as bonsai, they work well with many styles, including formal and informal upright and cascading. In North America, species of the genus Thuja, such as western red cedar, are — though mistakenly — confused with genuine cedar, as is J. virginiana known as red cedar or eastern red cedar. While some naturalized species of cedar can be found in the Americas, no species is native. Both the Latin word cedrus and the generic name cedrus are derived from Greek κέδρος kédros.
Ancient Greek and Latin used the same word, kédros and cedrus for different species of plants now classified in the genera Cedrus and Juniperus. Species of both genera are native to the area where Greek language and culture originated, though as the word kédros does not seem to be derived from any of the languages of the Middle East, it has been suggested the word may have applied to Greek species of juniper and was adopted for species now classified in the genus Cedrus because of the similarity of their aromatic woods; the name was applied to citron and the word citrus is derived from the same root. However, as a loan word in English, cedar had become fixed to its biblical sense of Cedrus by the time of its first recorded usage in AD 1000; the name "cedar" has more been applied to many other trees (such as western red cedar. Such usage is regarded by some authorities as a misapplication of the name to be discouraged. Cedars of God Cedar wood Media related to Cedrus at Wikimedia Commons Pine nut oil for ulcers and gastritis
Antoine Étex was a French sculptor and architect. He first exhibited in the Paris Salon of 1833, his work including a reproduction in marble of his Death of Hyacinthus, the plaster cast of his Cain and His Race Cursed By God. Adolphe Thiers, at this time minister of public works, now commissioned him to execute the two groups of Peace and War, flanking the arch on the east facade of the Arc de Triomphe; this last, which established his reputation, he reproduced in marble in the Paris Salon of 1839. The French capital contains numerous examples of the sculptural works of Étex, which included mythological and religious subjects besides a great number of portraits. Among the best known of his architectural productions is Étex's tomb of Théodore Géricault in Père Lachaise Cemetery, which includes a bronze figure of the painter, a low-relief version the painter's controversial Raft of the Medusa on a front panel.Étex's paintings include the subjects of Eurydice and the martyrdom of Saint Sebastian, he wrote a number of essays on subjects connected with the arts.
The last year of his life was spent at Nice, he died at Chaville, Seine-et-Oise in 1888. He was buried in the Cimetière du Montparnasse in Paris. Sainte-Geneviève, marble, 1830, collégiale Saint-Martin Caïn et sa race maudits de Dieu, Lyon, musée des Beaux-Arts La Résistance de 1814, Paris, arc de triomphe de l'Étoile, western facade La Paix, Paris, arc de triomphe de l'Étoile, western facade Tombeau de Géricault, Paris, Père Lachaise Cemetery, its plaster model was at the 1841 Salon, Musée des Beaux-Arts Portrait de Léon Pelet, marble, 1848, musée du Louvre Portrait du baron Dufour, maire de Metz, marble, 1845, Grand salon de l'Hôtel de Ville Médaillon du poète Auguste Brizeux at the cemetery of Carnel in Lorient. Antoine Étex in American public collections, on the French Sculpture Census website
Paulownia tomentosa is a deciduous tree in the family Paulowniaceae, native to central and western China. It is an fast-growing tree, is a persistent exotic invasive in North America; the generic name Paulownia honors Anna Pavlovna of Russia. The specific epithet tomentosa is a Latin word meaning ‘covered in hairs’; this tree grows 10–25 m tall, with large heart-shaped to five-lobed leaves 15–40 cm across, arranged in opposite pairs on the stem. On young growth, the leaves may be in whorls of three and be much bigger than the leaves on more mature growth; the leaves can be mistaken for those of the catalpa. The fragrant flowers are produced before the leaves in early spring, on panicles 10–30 cm long, with a tubular purple corolla 4–6 cm long resembling a foxglove flower; the fruit is a dry egg-shaped capsule 3 -- 4 cm long. The seeds are disperse by wind and water. Pollarded trees do not produce flowers. Paulownia tomentosa can survive wildfire because the roots can regenerate new fast-growing stems.
It is tolerant of pollution and it is not fussy about soil type. For this reason it functions ecologically as a pioneer plant, its nitrogen-rich leaves provide its roots prevent soil erosion. Paulownia is succeeded by taller trees that shade it, it cannot thrive in the shade of other trees. It is able to grow from small cracks in walls; the primary reason for the rapid growth of "Paulownia tomentosa" is because of an evolutionary adaptation that allows it to use C4 Carbon Fixation in the photosynthetic process. This is uncommon among trees. Paulownia tomentosa is cultivated as an ornamental tree in gardens, it has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. The characteristic large size of the young growth is exploited by gardeners: by pollarding the tree and ensuring there is vigorous new growth every year, massive leaves are produced; these are popular in the modern style of gardening which uses large-foliaged and "architectural" plants. In Japan, the tree is planted at the birth of a girl.
The fast-growing tree matures. When she is eligible for marriage the tree is cut down and carved into wooden articles for her dowry. Carving the wood of Paulownia is an art form in Japan. In legend, it is said that the phoenix will land only on this tree, only when a good ruler is in power. Several Asian string instruments are made from P. tomentosa, including the Japanese koto and Korean gayageum zithers. The soft, lightweight seeds were used as a packing material by Chinese porcelain exporters in the 19th century, before the development of polystyrene packaging. Packing cases would leak or burst open in transit and scatter the seeds along rail tracks; the magnitude of the numbers of seeds used for packaging, together with seeds deliberately planted for ornament, has allowed the species to be viewed as an invasive species in areas where the climate is suitable for its growth, notably Japan and the eastern United States. Some geranylflavonoids can be found in P. tomentosa. Verbascoside can be produced in hairy roots cultures of P. tomentosa.
Paulownia tomentosa images at bioimages.vanderbilt.edu Species Profile- Princess Tree, National Invasive Species Information Center, United States National Agricultural Library. Lists general information and resources for Princess Tree
The hectare is an SI accepted metric system unit of area equal to a square with 100-metre sides, or 10,000 m2, is used in the measurement of land. There are 100 hectares in one square kilometre. An acre is about 0.405 hectare and one hectare contains about 2.47 acres. In 1795, when the metric system was introduced, the "are" was defined as 100 square metres and the hectare was thus 100 "ares" or 1⁄100 km2; when the metric system was further rationalised in 1960, resulting in the International System of Units, the are was not included as a recognised unit. The hectare, remains as a non-SI unit accepted for use with the SI units, mentioned in Section 4.1 of the SI Brochure as a unit whose use is "expected to continue indefinitely". The name was coined from the Latin ārea; the metric system of measurement was first given a legal basis in 1795 by the French Revolutionary government. The law of 18 Germinal, Year III defined five units of measure: The metre for length The are for area The stère for volume of stacked firewood The litre for volumes of liquid The gram for massIn 1960, when the metric system was updated as the International System of Units, the are did not receive international recognition.
The International Committee for Weights and Measures makes no mention of the are in the current definition of the SI, but classifies the hectare as a "Non-SI unit accepted for use with the International System of Units". In 1972, the European Economic Community passed directive 71/354/EEC, which catalogued the units of measure that might be used within the Community; the units that were catalogued replicated the recommendations of the CGPM, supplemented by a few other units including the are whose use was limited to the measurement of land. The names centiare, deciare and hectare are derived by adding the standard metric prefixes to the original base unit of area, the are; the centiare is one square metre. The deciare is ten square metres; the are is a unit of area, used for measuring land area. It was defined by older forms of the metric system, but is now outside the modern International System of Units, it is still used in colloquial speech to measure real estate, in particular in Indonesia, in various European countries.
In Russian and other languages of the former Soviet Union, the are is called sotka. It is used to describe the size of suburban dacha or allotment garden plots or small city parks where the hectare would be too large; the decare is derived from deca and are, is equal to 10 ares or 1000 square metres. It is used in Norway and in the former Ottoman areas of the Middle East and the Balkans as a measure of land area. Instead of the name "decare", the names of traditional land measures are used, redefined as one decare: Stremma in Greece Dunam, donum, or dönüm in Israel, Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey Mål is sometimes used for decare in Norway, from the old measure of about the same area; the hectare, although not a unit of SI, is the only named unit of area, accepted for use within the SI. In practice the hectare is derived from the SI, being equivalent to a square hectometre, it is used throughout the world for the measurement of large areas of land, it is the legal unit of measure in domains concerned with land ownership and management, including law, agriculture and town planning throughout the European Union.
The United Kingdom, United States, to some extent Canada use the acre instead. Some countries that underwent a general conversion from traditional measurements to metric measurements required a resurvey when units of measure in legal descriptions relating to land were converted to metric units. Others, such as South Africa, published conversion factors which were to be used "when preparing consolidation diagrams by compilation". In many countries, metrication clarified existing measures in terms of metric units; the following legacy units of area have been redefined as being equal to one hectare: Jerib in Iran Djerib in Turkey Gong Qing in Hong Kong / mainland China Manzana in Argentina Bunder in The Netherlands The most used units are in bold. One hectare is equivalent to: 1 square hectometre 15 mǔ or 0.15 qǐng 10 dunam or dönüm 10 stremmata 6.25 rai ≈ 1.008 chō ≈ 2.381 feddan Conversion of units Hecto- Hectometre Order of magnitude Official SI website: Table 6. Non-SI units accepted for use with the International System of Units
Platanus is a genus consisting of a small number of tree species native to the Northern Hemisphere. They are the sole living members of the family Platanaceae. All members of Platanus are tall. All except for P. kerrii are deciduous, most are found in riparian or other wetland habitats in the wild, though proving drought-tolerant in cultivation. The hybrid London plane has proved tolerant of urban conditions, has been planted in London and elsewhere in the United Kingdom, they are known in English as planes or plane trees. Some North American species are called sycamores, although the term sycamore refers to the fig Ficus sycomorus, the plant so named, to the sycamore maple Acer pseudoplatanus; the genus name Platanus comes from Ancient Greek πλάτανος. The flowers are borne in balls. Male and female flowers are separate, but borne on the same plant; the number of heads in one cluster is indicative of the species. The male flower has 3–8 stamens. Plane trees are wind-pollinated. Male flower-heads fall off after shedding their pollen.
After being pollinated, the female flowers become achenes. The fruit is a multiple of achenes; the core of the ball is 1 cm in diameter and is covered with a net of mesh 1 mm, which can be peeled off. The ball is 2.5–4 cm in diameter and contains several hundred achenes, each of which has a single seed and is conical, with the point attached downward to the net at the surface of the ball. There is a tuft of many thin stiff yellow-green bristle fibers attached to the base of each achene; these bristles help in wind dispersion of the fruits as in the dandelion. The leaves are alternate. In the subgenus Platanus they have a palmate outline; the base of the leaf stalk is enlarged and wraps around the young stem bud in its axil. The axillary bud is exposed; the mature bark peels off or exfoliates in irregularly shaped patches, producing a mottled, scaly appearance. On old trunks, bark may not thickens and cracks instead. There are two subgenera, subgenus Castaneophyllum containing the anomalous P. kerrii, subgenus Platanus, with all the others.
Within subgenus Platanus, genetic evidence suggests that P. racemosa is more related to P. orientalis than it is to the other North American species. There are fossil records of plane trees as early as 115 million years. Despite the geographic separation between North America and Old World, species from these continents will cross resulting in fertile hybrids such as the London plane; the following are recognized species of plane trees: Planes are susceptible to plane anthracnose, a fungal disease that can defoliate the trees in some years. The most severe infections are associated with wet spring weather. P. occidentalis and the other American species are the most susceptible, with P. orientalis the most resistant. The hybrid London plane is intermediate in resistance. Ceratocystis platani, a wilt disease, has become a significant problem in recent years in much of Europe; the North American species are resistant to the disease, with which they coevolved, while the old world species are sensitive.
Other diseases such as powdery mildew occur but are of lesser importance. Platanus species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Phyllonorycter platani and Setaceous Hebrew Character. In the 21st century a disease known as Massaria disease, has attacked plane trees across Europe, it is caused by the fungus Splanchnonema platani, causes large lesions on the upper sides of branches. The principal use of these trees is as ornamental trees in urban areas and by roadsides; the London plane is popular for this purpose. The American plane is cultivated sometimes for timber and investigations have been made into its use as a biomass crop; the oriental plane is used as an ornamental and has a number of minor medicinal uses. Most significant aspects of cultural history apply to Platanus orientalis in the Old World; the tree is an important part of the literary scenery of Plato's dialogue Phaedrus. Because of Plato, the tree played an important role in the scenery of Cicero's De Oratore.
The legendary Dry tree first recorded by Marco Polo was a platanus. According to the legend, it marked the site of the battle between Alexander the Great and Darius III; the German camouflage pattern Platanenmuster, designed in 1937–1942 by Johann Georg Otto Schick, was the first dotted camouflage pattern. BooksNaumann, Helmut. "Die Platane von Gortyna". In Kämmerer. Thomas Richard. Studien zu Ritual und Sozialgeschichte im Alten. Berlin, de Gruyter. Pp. 207–226. Sunset Western Garden Book. 1995. Pp. 606–607. JournalsFeng, Y.. H.. S.. "Phylogeny and Historical Biogeography of the Genus Platanus as Inferred From Nuclear and Chloroplast DNA". Systematic Botany. 30: 786–799. Doi:10.1600/036364405775097851. Nixon, K. C.. "Revision of the Mexican and Guatemalan species of Platanus". Lundellia. 6: 103–137. Doi:10.2