Philharmonie de Paris
The Philharmonie de Paris is a cultural institution in Paris, France which combine spaces all dedicated to music. It is composed of concert halls, exhibition spaces, rehearsal rooms, educational services and bars; the main buildings are all located in the Parc de la Villette at the northeastern edge of Paris in the 19th arrondissement. At the core of this set of spaces is the symphonic concert hall of 2,400 seats designed by Jean Nouvel and opened in January 2015, its construction had been postponed for about twenty years to complete the current musical institution la Cité de la Musique designed by Christian de Portzamparc and opened since 1995. Dedicated to symphonic concerts, the Philharmonie de Paris present other forms of music such as jazz and world music; the project was announced on 6 March 2006, by the Minister of Culture and Communication, Renaud Donnedieu de Vabres, the Mayor of Paris, Bertrand Delanoë, the Director of the Cité de la musique and of the Salle Pleyel, Laurent Bayle, during a press conference on the reopening of the Salle Pleyel, now linked with the Cité de la Musique.
In 2007, Jean Nouvel won the design competition for the auditorium. He brought in Brigitte Métra as his partner, along with Marshall Day Acoustics, Nagata Acoustics and dUCKS Scéno; the cost of construction, expected to be €170 million, was shared by the national government, the Ville de Paris, the Région Île-de-France, but the final cost was around €386 million The hall opened on 14 January 2015, with a performance by the Orchestre de Paris of Faure's Requiem, conducted by Paavo Järvi, played to honor the victims of the Charlie Hebdo shootings which had taken place in the city a week earlier. It is located in the Parc de la Villette in the 19th arrondissement of Paris; this sector of the city was the home of the two brothers who carried out these killings. The opening concert was attended by French President François Hollande, but boycotted by the architect. Designed by Jean Nouvel, the Philharmonie 1 is an organic design with innovative forms rising like a hill within the Parc de la Villette.
Aluminium panels in a basketweave design swirl around the structure and contrast with the rest of its matte exterior. The exterior features the images of 340,000 birds etched into the surface in seven different shapes and four shades ranging from light grey to black to symbolize a grand take-off; the rooftop, 37 metres high, will be open to the public and will give visitors an expansive view of the city blending into the suburbs. The building houses the site's largest concert hall, called the Grande Salle Pierre Boulez; the design of the auditorium follows the model pioneered by the Berlin Philharmonie to intensify the feeling of intimacy between the performers and their audience. Indeed, the auditorium adapted the way the 2400 seats are distributed, between the parterre, behind the stage and on floating balconies around the central stage; the farthest spectator is only 32 metres from the conductor. The hall's enveloping configuration is designed to immerse the spectator in the music, its walls are composed of moving panels designed to redirect the sound in multiple directions.
These panels alternate with sound absorbing surfaces, specially treated to increase reflection and reverberation, the sound resonates throughout the vast acoustic volume. The tiers and parterre seating are retractable, offering an increased capacity of 3,650 people for events such as amplified concerts that require special configurations. A number of spaces for use by musicians are situated around the hall, including dressing rooms but rehearsal rooms. In all, the hall is encircled by five rehearsal rooms for various ensembles and ten chamber music studios. An entire section of the building is occupied by an 1,800-square-metre educational centre. With various rooms designed for collective practice, it will host workshop cycles for many groups; the site boasts an 800-square-metre exhibition space, a conference hall and two restaurants. The Philharmonie de Paris contracted the Austrian organ-maker Rieger Orgelbau to construct a pipe organ, it is made up of over 7,000 pipes with 91 stops and was designed to complement the building's architecture.
The organ debuted with a concert on 28 October 2015, with an improvisation by Thierry Escaich and a performance of Symphony No. 3. Another organ of 53 stops on 3 manuals and pedals had been built in 1991 by the same firm for the nearby Conservatoire de Paris. Official website Philharmonie de Paris at Google Cultural Institute 1:10 acoustic model of the Philharmonie de Paris
Conservatoire de Paris
The Conservatoire de Paris is a college of music and dance founded in 1795 associated with PSL Research University. It is situated in the avenue Jean Jaurès in the 19th arrondissement of France; the Conservatoire offers instruction in music and drama, drawing on the traditions of the "French School". In 1946 it was split in two, one part for acting and drama, known as the Conservatoire national supérieur d'art dramatique, the other for music and dance, known as the Conservatoire national supérieur de musique et de danse de Paris. Today the conservatories operate under the auspices of the Ministry of Communication. On 3 December 1783 Papillon de la Ferté, intendant of the Menus-Plaisirs du Roi, proposed that Niccolò Piccinni should be appointed director of a future École royale de chant; the school was instituted by a decree of 3 January 1784 and opened on 1 April with the composer François-Joseph Gossec as the provisional director. Piccinni did join the faculty as a professor of singing; the new school was located in buildings adjacent to the Hôtel des Menus-Plaisirs at the junction of the rue Bergère and the rue du Faubourg Poissonnière.
In June, a class in dramatic declamation was added, the name was modified to École royale de chant et de déclamation. In 1792, Bernard Sarrette created the École gratuite de la garde nationale, which in the following year became the Institut national de musique; the latter was installed in the facilities of the former Menus-Plaisirs on the rue Bergère and was responsible for the training of musicians for the National Guard bands, which were in great demand for the enormous, popular outdoor gatherings put on by the revolutionary government after the Reign of Terror. On 3 August 1795, the government combined the École royale with the Institut national de musique, creating the Conservatoire de musique under the direction of Sarrette; the combined organization remained in the facilities on the rue Bergère. The first 351 pupils commenced their studies in October 1796. By 1800, the staff of the Conservatory included some of the most important names in music in Paris, besides Gossec, the composers Luigi Cherubini, Jean-François Le Sueur, Étienne Méhul, Pierre-Alexandre Monsigny, as well as the violinists Pierre Baillot, Rodolphe Kreutzer, Pierre Rode.
A concert hall, designed by the architect François-Jacques Delannoy, was inaugurated on 7 July 1811. The hall, which still exists today, was in the shape of a U, it held an audience of 1055. The acoustics were regarded as superb; the French composer and conductor Antoine Elwart described it as the Stradivarius of concert halls. In 1828 François Habeneck, a professor of violin and head of the Conservatory's orchestra, founded the Société des Concerts du Conservatoire; the Society held concerts in the hall continuously until 1945, when it moved to the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées. The French composer Hector Berlioz premiered his Symphonie fantastique in the conservatory's hall on 5 December 1830 with an orchestra of more than a hundred players; the original library was created by Sarrette in 1801. After the construction of the concert hall, the library moved to a large room above the entrance vestibule. In the 1830s, Berlioz became a part-time curator in the Conservatory library and was the librarian from 1852 until his death in 1869, but never held a teaching position.
He was succeeded as librarian by Félicien David. Sarrette was dismissed on 28 December 1814, after the Bourbon Restoration, but was reinstated on 26 May 1815, after Napoleon's return to power during the Hundred Days. However, after Napoleon's fall, Sarrette was compelled to retire on 17 November; the school was closed in the first two years of the Bourbon Restoration, during the reign of Louis XVIII, but reopened in April 1816 as the École royale de musique, with François-Louis Perne as its director. In 1819, François Benoist was appointed professor of organ; the best known director in the 19th century was Luigi Cherubini, who took over on 1 April 1822 and remained in charge until 8 February 1842. Cherubini maintained high standards and his staff included teachers such as François-Joseph Fétis, Fromental Halévy, Le Sueur, Ferdinando Paer, Anton Reicha. Cherubini was succeeded by Daniel-François-Esprit Auber in 1842. Under Auber, composition teachers included Adolphe Adam, Halévy, Ambroise Thomas.
In 1852, Camille Urso, who studied with Lambert Massart, became the first female student to win a prize on violin. The Conservatory Instrument Museum, founded in 1861, was formed from the instrument collection of Louis Clapisson; the French music historian Gustave Chouquet became the curator of the museum in 1871 and did much to expand and upgrade the collection. In the Franco-Prussian War, during the siege of Paris, the Conservatory was used as a hospital. On 13 May 1871, the day after Auber's death, the leaders of the Paris Commune appointed Francisco Salvador-Daniel as the director – however Daniel was shot and killed ten days by the troops of the French Army, he was replaced by Ambroise Thomas, who remained in the post until 1896. Thomas's rather conservative directorship was vigorously criticized by many of the students, notably Claude Debussy. During this period César Franck was ostensibly the organ teacher, but was giving classes in composition, his classes were attended by several st
In architecture, a folly is a building constructed for decoration, but suggesting through its appearance some other purpose, or of such extravagant appearance that it transcends the range of garden ornaments associated with the class of buildings to which it belongs. Eighteenth-century English landscape gardening and French landscape gardening featured mock Roman temples, symbolising classical virtues. Other 18th-century garden follies represented Chinese temples, Egyptian pyramids, ruined abbeys, or Tatar tents, to represent different continents or historical eras. Sometimes they represented rustic villages and cottages to symbolise rural virtues. Many follies during times of famine, such as the Irish potato famine, were built as a form of poor relief, to provide employment for peasants and unemployed artisans. In English, the term began as "a popular name for any costly structure considered to have shown folly in the builder", the OED's definition, were named after the individual who commissioned or designed the project.
The connotations of silliness or madness in this definition is in accord with the general meaning of the French word "folie". This sense included conventional, buildings that were thought unduly large or expensive, such as Beckford's Folly, an expensive early Gothic Revival country house that collapsed under the weight of its tower in 1825, 12 years after completion; as a general term, "folly" is applied to a small building that appears to have no practical purpose or the purpose of which appears less important than its striking and unusual design, but the term is subjective, so a precise definition is not possible. The concept of the folly is subjective and it has been suggested that the definition of a folly "lies in the eyes of the beholder". Typical characteristics include: They have no purpose other than as an ornament, they have some of the appearance of a building constructed for a particular purpose, such as a castle or tower, but this appearance is a sham. If they have a purpose, it may be disguised.
They are parts of buildings. Thus they are distinguished from other garden ornaments such as sculpture, they are purpose-built. Follies are deliberately built as ornaments, they are eccentric in design or construction. This is not necessary. There is an element of fakery in their construction; the canonical example of this is the sham ruin: a folly which pretends to be the remains of an old building but, in fact constructed in that state. They were commissioned for pleasure. Follies began as decorative accents on the great estates of the late 16th century and early 17th century but they flourished in the two centuries which followed. Many estates had ruins of Roman villas; however few follies are without a practical purpose. Apart from their decorative aspect, many had a use, lost such as hunting towers. Follies are misunderstood structures, according to The Folly Fellowship, a charity that exists to celebrate the history and splendour of these neglected buildings. Follies were an important feature of the English garden and French landscape garden in the 18th century, such as Stowe and Stourhead in England and Ermenonville and the gardens of Versailles in France.
They were in the form of Roman temples, ruined Gothic abbeys, or Egyptian pyramids. Painshill Park in Surrey contained a full set, with a large Gothic tower and various other Gothic buildings, a Roman temple, a hermit's retreat with resident hermit, a Turkish tent, a shell-encrusted water grotto and other features. In France they sometimes took the form of romantic farmhouses and cottages, as in Marie Antoinette's Hameau de la Reine at Versailles. Sometimes they were copied from landscape paintings by painters such as Claude Lorrain and Hubert Robert, they had symbolic importance, illustrating the virtues of ancient Rome, or the virtues of country life. The temple of philosophy at Ermenonville, left unfinished, symbolised that knowledge would never be complete, while the temple of modern virtues at Stowe was deliberately ruined, to show the decay of contemporary morals. In the 18th century, the follies became more exotic, representing other parts of the world, including Chinese pagodas, Japanese bridges, Tatar tents.
The Irish Potato Famine of 1845-49 led to the building of several follies in order to provide relief to the poor without robbing them of their dignity by issuing unconditional handouts. However, to hire the needy for work on useful projects would deprive existing workers of their jobs. Thus, construction projects termed; these included roads in the middle of nowhere, between two random points and estate walls, piers in the middle of bogs, etc. Follies are found worldwide, but they are abundant in Great Britain. Roman ruin and gloriettes, in the park of Schönbrunn Palace, Vienna Series of buildings in Lednice–Valtice Cultural Landscape Chanteloup Pagoda, near Amboise Désert de Retz, folly garden in Chambourcy near Paris, France Parc de la Villette in Paris has a number of modern follies by architect Bernard Tschumi. Ferdinand Cheval in Châteauneuf-de-Galaure, built what he called an Ideal Palace, seen as an example of naive architecture. Hameau de la Reine, in the park of the Château de Versailles Bergpark Wilhelmshöhe
Organisation internationale de la Francophonie
The Organisation internationale de la Francophonie known as the Francophonie, but called International Organisation of the Francophonie in English language context, is an international organization representing countries and regions where French is a lingua franca or customary language, where a significant proportion of the population are francophones, or where there is a notable affiliation with French culture. The organization comprises governments; the term francophonie, or francosphere refers to the global community of French-speaking peoples, comprising a network of private and public organizations promoting equal ties among countries where French people or France played a significant historical role, militarily, or politically. French geographer Onésime Reclus, brother of Élisée Reclus, coined the word Francophonie in 1880 to refer to the community of people and countries using the French language. Francophonie was coined a second time by Léopold Sédar Senghor, founder of the Négritude movement, in the review Esprit in 1962, who assimilated it into Humanism.
The modern organisation was created in 1970. Its motto is égalité, complémentarité, solidarité, a deliberate allusion to France's motto liberté, égalité, fraternité. Starting as a small club of northern French-speaking countries, the Francophonie has since evolved into a global organization whose numerous branches cooperate with its member states in the fields of culture, economy and peace; the convention which created the Agency for Cultural and Technical Co-operation was signed on 20 March 1970 by the representatives of the 21 states and governments under the influence of African Heads of State, Léopold Sédar Senghor of Senegal, Habib Bourguiba of Tunisia, Hamani Diori of Niger and Prince Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia. Based on the sharing of the French language, the missions of this new intergovernmental organization are the promotion of the cultures of its members and the intensification of the cultural and technical cooperation between them, as well as the solidarity and the connection between them through dialogue.
The Francophonie project ceaselessly evolved since the creation of the Agency for Cultural and Technical Co-operation, it became the intergovernmental Agency of the Francophonie in 1998 to remind its intergovernmental status. In 2005, the adoption of a new Charter of the Francophonie gives the name to the Agency of international Organisation of the Francophonie; the position of Secretary-General was created in 1997 at the seventh leaders' summit held in Hanoi. Canadian Jean-Louis Roy was secretary of the Agence de coopération culturelle et technique from 1989 until the formal creation of the Agence intergouvernementale de la Francophonie in 1997 with former Secretary-General of the United Nations Boutros Boutros-Ghali as the first secretary-general of La Francophonie. Abdou Diouf, the former president of the Republic of Senegal, became Secretary General on January 1, 2003, he was reelected on 29 September 2006, for a second mandate during the Summit of the Francophonie of Bucharest, elected again in 2010 at the Summit of the Francophonie of Montreux for another mandate which ran until 31 December 2014.
At the 2014 summit in Dakar, former Governor General of Canada Michaëlle Jean was chosen to lead the organization starting in January 2015. The Secretary General of the Francophonie is elected during the Summit, serves as the spokesperson and the official representative internationally of the political actions of the Francophonie; the Secretary General is responsible for proposing priority areas for multilateral Francophonie actions. His/her job is to facilitate Francophone multilateral cooperation and to ensure that programs and activities of all operating agencies work in harmony; the Secretary General carries out his/her four-year mandate under the authority of the three main institutions of the Francophonie: the Summits, the Ministerial Conference and the Permanent Council. The Summit, the highest authority in the Francophonie, is held every two years and gathers the Heads of states and governments of all member countries of the International Organisation of the Francophonie around themes of discussion.
It is chaired by the Head of state and government of the host country, this person assumes that responsibility until the next Summit. By enabling the Heads of state and government to hold a dialogue on all of the international issues of the day, the Summit serves to develop strategies and goals of the Francophonie so as to ensure the organisation's influence on the world scene. Tunisia is to host the next summit in 2020; the Ministerial Conference of the Francophonie gathers the foreign or francophone affairs ministers of member states and governments every year to ensure the political continuity of the Summit. This conference ensures that the decisions made during the previous Summits are carried out and to plan the next Summit, it recommends new members and observers to the Summit. The Permanent Council of the Francophonie gathers the Ambassadors of the member countries, chaired by the General Secretary of the Francophonie and under the authority of the Ministerial Conference, its main task is to plan Summits.
This conference supervises the execution of the Summit decisions made by the ministerial conferences on a day-to-day basis, about the examination of the proposition
Napoleon III, the nephew of Napoleon I, was the first elected President of France from 1848 to 1852. When he could not constitutionally be re-elected, he seized power in 1851 and became the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870, he founded the Second French Empire and was its only emperor until the defeat of the French army and his capture by Prussia and its allies in the Franco-Prussian War in 1870. He worked to modernize the French economy, rebuilt the center of Paris, expanded the overseas empire, engaged in the Crimean War and the war for Italian unification. After his defeat and downfall he went into exile and died in England in 1873. Napoleon III commissioned the grand reconstruction of Paris, carried out by his prefect of the Seine, Baron Haussmann, he launched similar public works projects in Marseille and other French cities. Napoleon III modernized the French banking system expanded and consolidated the French railway system and made the French merchant marine the second largest in the world.
He promoted the building of the Suez Canal and established modern agriculture, which ended famines in France and made France an agricultural exporter. Napoleon III negotiated the 1860 Cobden–Chevalier free trade agreement with Britain and similar agreements with France's other European trading partners. Social reforms included giving French workers the right to organize; the first women students were admitted at the Sorbonne, women's education expanded as did the list of required subjects in public schools. In foreign policy, Napoleon III aimed to reassert French influence around the world, he was a supporter of popular sovereignty and of nationalism. In Europe, he defeated Russia in the Crimean War, his regime assisted Italian unification and in doing so annexed Savoy and the County of Nice to France—at the same time, his forces defended the Papal States against annexation by Italy. Napoleon III doubled the area of the French overseas empire in Asia, the Pacific and Africa, however his army's intervention in Mexico, which aimed to create a Second Mexican Empire under French protection, ended in total failure.
From 1866, Napoleon had to face the mounting power of Prussia as its Chancellor Otto von Bismarck sought German unification under Prussian leadership. In July 1870, Napoleon entered the Franco-Prussian War without allies and with inferior military forces; the French army was defeated and Napoleon III was captured at the Battle of Sedan. The Third Republic was proclaimed in Paris and Napoleon went into exile in England, where he died in 1873. Charles-Louis Napoleon Bonaparte known as Louis Napoleon and Napoleon III, was born in Paris on the night of 20–21 April 1808, his presumed father was Louis Bonaparte, the younger brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, who made Louis the King of Holland from 1806 until 1810. His mother was Hortense de Beauharnais, the only daughter of Napoleon's wife Joséphine de Beauharnais by her first marriage to Alexandre de Beauharnais; as empress, Joséphine proposed the marriage as a way to produce an heir for the Emperor, who agreed, as Joséphine was by infertile. Louis married Hortense when he was twenty-four and she was nineteen.
They had a difficult relationship, only lived together for brief periods. Their first son died in 1807 and—though separated—they decided to have a third, they resumed their marriage for a brief time in Toulouse in July 1807, Louis was born prematurely, two weeks short of nine months. Louis-Napoleon's enemies, including Victor Hugo, spread the gossip that he was the child of a different man, but most historians agree today that he was the legitimate son of Louis Bonaparte. Charles-Louis was baptized at the Palace of Fontainebleau on 5 November 1810, with Emperor Napoleon serving as his godfather and Empress Marie-Louise as his godmother, his father stayed away. At the age of seven, Louis-Napoleon visited his uncle at the Tuileries Palace in Paris. Napoleon held him up to the window to see the soldiers parading in the courtyard of the Carousel below, he last saw his uncle with the family at the Château de Malmaison, shortly before Napoleon departed for Waterloo. All members of the Bonaparte dynasty were forced into exile after the defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo and the Bourbon Restoration of monarchy in France.
Hortense and Louis-Napoleon moved from Aix to Berne to Baden, to a lakeside house at Arenenberg in the Swiss canton of Thurgau. He received some of his education in Germany at the gymnasium school at Bavaria; as a result, for the rest of his life his French had a noticeable German accent. His tutor at home was Philippe Le Bas, an ardent republican and the son of a revolutionary and close friend of Robespierre. Le Bas taught him radical politics; when Louis-Napoleon was fifteen, Hortense moved to Rome. He passed his time learning Italian, exploring the ancient ruins, learning the arts of seduction and romantic affairs, which he used in his life, he became friends with the French Ambassador, François-René Chateaubriand, the father of romanticism in French literature, with whom he remained in contact for many years. He was reunited with his older brother Napoléon Louis, together they became involved with the Carbonari, secret revolutionary societies fighting Austria's domination of northern Italy.
In the spring of 1831, when he was twenty-three, the Austrian and papal governments launched an offensive against the Carbonari, the two brothers, wanted by the police, were forced to flee. During their flight Napoleon-Louis contracted measles and, on 17 March 1831, died i
19th arrondissement of Paris
The 19th arrondissement of Paris is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France. In spoken French, this arrondissement is referred to as dix-neuvième; the arrondissement, known as Butte-Chaumont, is situated on the right bank of the River Seine. It is crossed by two canals, the Canal Saint-Denis and the Canal de l'Ourcq, which meet near the Parc de la Villette; the 19th arrondissement includes two public parks: the Parc des Buttes Chaumont, located on a hill, the Parc de la Villette, home to the Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie, a museum and exhibition centre, the Conservatoire de Paris, one of the most renowned music schools in Europe, the Philharmonie de Paris, both part of the Cité de la Musique. The land area of the arrondissement is 6.786 km2. The population of the 19th arrondissement is still increasing. At the last census, in 1999, the population was 172,730 inhabitants; as of the same census, 68,101 people worked in the arrondissement. This sector has become the home for many immigrants to France from North Africa.
Parc des Buttes Chaumont Parc de la Villette Parc de la Butte-du-Chapeau-Rouge The Cent Quatre arts centre 19th arrondissement travel guide from Wikivoyage
Cité de la Musique
The Cité de la Musique known as Philharmonie 2, is a group of institutions dedicated to music and situated in the Parc de la Villette, 19th arrondissement of Paris, France. It was designed with the nearby Conservatoire de Paris by the architect Christian de Portzamparc and opened in 1995. Part of François Mitterrand's Grands Projets, the Cité de la Musique reinvented La Villette – the former slaughterhouse district, it consists of an amphitheater, a concert hall that can accommodate an audience of 800–1,000, a music museum containing an important collection of classical music instruments dating from the fifteenth- to twentieth-century, a music library, exhibition halls and workshops. In 2015 it was renamed Philharmonie 2 as part of the Philharmonie de Paris when a larger symphony hall was built by Jean Nouvel and named Philharmonie 1, its official address is Avenue Jean Jaurès, 75019 Paris. Philharmonie 1, a new 2400-seat symphony hall, is a project whose construction had been postponed for about twenty years, to complete the Cité de la Musique.
On 6 March 2006 the French minister of Culture and communication Renaud Donnedieu de Vabres, the mayor of Paris Bertrand Delanoë, the director of the Cité de la Musique, Laurent Bayle, announced the beginning of the construction at a press conference concerning the reopening of the Salle Pleyel, now associated with the Museum. The cost of construction was expected to be 170 million euros, will be shared by the national government, the Ville de Paris, the Région Île-de-France, but the cost in the end is expected to be €381 million In April 2007 Jean Nouvel won the design competition for the auditorium. He brought in Brigitte Métra as his partner, along with Marshall Day Acoustics and Nagata Acoustics; the hall opened on 14 January 2015 with a performance by the Orchestre de Paris of Faure's Requiem to honour the victims of the Charlie Hebdo shootings, which had taken place in the city a week earlier. The opening concert was attended by the President of France; the first season of the Philharmonie de Paris started in January 2015.
The purpose of the season was to reach out to new audiences by providing musical creation and varied repertory in classical music, jazz, world music and contemporary music. On weekends, a diverse program of affordably-priced events and activities was offered each with a theme; the Musée de la Musique features a collection of about 8,390 items, comprising around 4,442 musical instruments, 1,097 instrument elements or 939 pieces of art collected by the Conservatoire de Paris since 1793 as well as some archives and a library of 110,000 written and audiovisual documents. The museum's collection, which opened to the public in 1864 and was relocated at the Cité de la musique in 1997, contains instruments used in classical and popular music from the sixteenth century to the present time including lutes, archlutes 200 classical guitars, violins by Italian luthiers Antonio Stradivari, the Guarneri family, Nicolò Amati; the instruments are exhibited in 5 departments by type. Audio devices are provided at the entrance allowing visitors to hear commentary and excerpts of music played on the instruments, complemented by video screens and scale models along the visit.
List of music museums Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie, in Parc de la Villette La Géode, an IMAX domed theatre in Parc de la Villette Le Zénith, a concert arena in Parc de la Villette Kim Eling, The Politics of Cultural Policy in France, Chapter 3: "La Cité de la Musique", Macmillan, 1999, pages 38–61. ISBN 0-312-21974-1. Cité de la Musique official website Médiathèque de la Cité de la musique – Listen to excerpts of concerts