Parchment is a writing material made from specially prepared untanned skins of animals—primarily sheep and goats. It has been used as a writing medium for over two millennia. Vellum is a finer quality parchment made from the skins of young animals such as lambs and young calves, it may be called animal membrane by libraries and museums that wish to avoid distinguishing between "parchment" and the more-restricted term vellum. Today the term "parchment" is used in non-technical contexts to refer to any animal skin goat, sheep or cow, scraped or dried under tension; the term referred only to the skin of sheep and goats. The equivalent material made from calfskin, of finer quality, was known as vellum; some authorities have sought to observe these distinctions strictly: for example, lexicographer Samuel Johnson in 1755, master calligrapher Edward Johnston in 1906. However, when old books and documents are encountered it may be difficult, without scientific analysis, to determine the precise animal origin of a skin either in terms of its species, or in terms of the animal's age.
In practice, there has long been considerable blurring of the boundaries between the different terms. In 1519, William Horman wrote in his Vulgaria: "That stouffe that we wrytte upon, is made of beestis skynnes, is somtyme called parchement, somtyme velem, somtyme abortyve, somtyme membraan." In Shakespeare's Hamlet the following exchange occurs: Hamlet. Is not parchment made of sheepskins? Horatio. Ay, my lord, of calves' skins too. Lee Ustick, writing in 1936, commented that: To-day the distinction, among collectors of manuscripts, is that vellum is a refined form of skin, parchment a cruder form thick, less polished than vellum, but with no distinction between skin of calf, or sheep, or of goat, it is for these reasons that many modern conservators and archivists prefer to use either the broader term "parchment", or the neutral term "animal membrane". The word parchment evolved from the name of the city of Pergamon, a thriving center of parchment production during the Hellenistic period; the city so dominated the trade that a legend arose which said that parchment had been invented in Pergamon to replace the use of papyrus which had become monopolized by the rival city of Alexandria.
This account, originating in the writings of Pliny the Elder, is dubious because parchment had been in use in Anatolia and elsewhere long before the rise of Pergamon. Herodotus mentions writing on skins as common in his time, the 5th century BC. In the 2nd century BC, a great library was set up in Pergamon that rivaled the famous Library of Alexandria; as prices rose for papyrus and the reed used for making it was over-harvested towards local extinction in the two nomes of the Nile delta that produced it, Pergamon adapted by increasing use of parchment. Writing on prepared animal skins had a long history, however. David Diringer noted that "the first mention of Egyptian documents written on leather goes back to the Fourth Dynasty, but the earliest of such documents extant are: a fragmentary roll of leather of the Sixth Dynasty, unrolled by Dr. H. Ibscher, preserved in the Cairo Museum. Though the Assyrians and the Babylonians impressed their cuneiform on clay tablets, they wrote on parchment from the 6th century BC onward.
Rabbinic literature traditionally maintains that the institution of employing parchment made of animal hides for the writing of ritual objects such as the Torah and tefillin is Sinaitic in origin, with special designations for different types of parchment such as gevil and klaf. Early Islamic texts are found on parchment. In the Middle Ages the 15th century, parchment was replaced by paper for most uses except luxury manuscripts, some of which were on paper. New techniques in paper milling allowed it to be much cheaper than parchment. With the advent of printing in the fifteenth century, the demands of printers far exceeded the supply of animal skins for parchment. There was a short period during the introduction of printing where parchment and paper were used at the same time, with parchment the more expensive luxury option, preferred by rich and conservative customers. Although most copies of the Gutenberg Bible are on paper, some were printed on parchment. In 1490, Johannes Trithemius preferred the older methods, because "handwriting placed on parchment will be able to endure a thousand years.
But how long will printing last, dependent on paper? For if... it lasts for two hundred years, a long time." In fact high quality paper from this period has survived 500 years or more well, if kept in reasonable library conditions. The heyday of parchment use was during the medieval period, but there has been a growing revival of its use among artists since the late 20th century. Although parchment never stopped being used (primarily for gove
Mr. and Mrs. Loving is a 1996 drama television film directed by Richard Friedenberg that aired on Showtime, it is with fictionalized parts. A racially mixed couple live in Virginia. Arrested on the night of their wedding, Richard Loving and Mildred “Bean” Jeter are given the option to either be imprisoned or leave the state; the couple chooses to move to Washington, D. C.. The Civil Rights Movement and the fight for their marriage led to their win of the Supreme Court case Loving v. Virginia. Timothy Hutton as Richard Loving Lela Rochon as Mildred'Bean' Jeter Ruby Dee as Sophia Bill Nunn as Leonard Corey Parker as Bernie Cohen Isaiah Washington as Blue Lawrence Dane as Sheriff Lisa D. Horowitz, writing for Variety said, "Director-scripter Richard Friedenberg has fashioned a straightforward tale that doesn’t pull any punches. He's a better writer than helmer, but he’s blessed with an excellent cast, led by the reliably understated Hutton". Scott D. Pierce of Deseret News wrote, "Showtime doesn't make a lot of movies worth watching, but Mr. and Mrs. Loving is an exception."
According to Mildred Loving, "not much of it was true. The only part of it right was I had three children." Mr. and Mrs. Loving on IMDb
Kang & Kodos' Twirl'n' Hurl is a children's ride at Universal Studios Florida. It opened on August 11, 2013; the ride is based on The Simpsons' Treehouse of Horror specials. The queue is a brief walk into a shaded area where you board the ride. While waiting, guests could watch brief clips from the Treehouse of Horror specials. After waiting guests enter their UFO spaceships; the UFO spaceships have space based puns on them. Before the ride starts a woman tells to stay in your UFO spaceship; the woman says that you will know when the ride has ended when it comes to a complete stop or you are eaten. Once the ride starts Kodos says that you have been tricked by them and the only way to get off the ride is to "Attack" Springfield. Nelson, Bart and Grandpa will interact with the riders when the riders pass their faces which spin when they are passed. During the ride Kodos interacts with the riders as well; when the ride ends Kodos says that they are the only ones who had fun. They say that any fun the riders had should be forgotten immediately.
The woman says. You exit right near the entrance of the ride; the ride is manufactured by Zamperla. Kang & Kodos' Twirl'n' Hurl is a part of the Springfield expansion; as part of the expansion, The International Food & Film Festival was demolished in order to make way for Fast Food Boulevard. Minigames were built in front of The Simpsons Ride and the Duff Gardens, Lard Lad Donuts, Bumblebee Man's Taco Truck were built as well. Kang & Kodos' Twirl'n' Hurl was the last experience opened in the Springfield expansion; the Simpsons Ride Springfield Acquisition of 21st Century Fox by Disney, The Walt Disney Company purchased Fox's parent company, 21st Century Fox in a deal that includes the rights to The Simpsons on March 2019