Surrogacy is an arrangement supported by a legal agreement, whereby a woman agrees to become pregnant and give birth to a child for another person, or will become the parent of the child. People may seek a surrogacy arrangement when pregnancy is medically impossible, when pregnancy risks are too dangerous for the intended mother, or when a single man or a male couple wish to have a child. Surrogacy is considered one of many assisted reproductive technologies. In surrogacy arrangements, monetary compensation may not be involved. Receiving money for the arrangement is considered commercial surrogacy; the legality and cost of surrogacy varies between jurisdictions, sometimes resulting in problematic interstate or international surrogacy arrangements. Laws of some countries regulate surrogacy and its consequences; those wanting to seek a surrogacy arrangement who, live where it is banned may travel to a jurisdiction that permits it. The genetic origin of the egg and the sperm differentiate the two approaches to surrogacy: traditional surrogacy and gestational surrogacy.
In the United States, gestational surrogacy is more common than traditional surrogacy and is considered less complex. In traditional surrogacy, the surrogate mother's egg is used and the sperm of the commissioning father or a donor is used for fertilization. Insemination of the surrogate can either occur through artificial insemination. Using the sperm of a donor results in a child, not genetically related to the intended parent. If the intended father's sperm is used in the insemination the resulting child is genetically related both the intended father and the surrogate. In some cases, an insemination may be performed by the parties without the intervention of a doctor or physician. In some jurisdictions, the'commissioning parents' using donor sperms need to go through an adoption process in order to have legal parental rights of the resulting child. Many fertility centers that provide for surrogacy assist the parties through the legal process. Gestational surrogacy was first achieved in April 1986.
It takes place when an embryo created by in vitro fertilization technology is implanted in a surrogate, sometimes called a gestational carrier. Gestational surrogacy has several forms, in each form, the resulting child is genetically unrelated to the surrogate: the embryo is created using the intended father's sperm and the intended mother's eggs; the embryo is created using a donor egg. The embryo is created using the intended mother's donor sperm. A donor embryo is implanted in a surrogate; such an embryo may be available when others undergoing IVF have embryos left over, which they donate to others. The resulting child is genetically unrelated to the intended parent. Gestational surrogates have a smaller chance of having hypertensive disorder during pregnancy compared to mothers pregnant by oocyte donation; this is because surrogate mothers tend to be healthier and more fertile than women who use oocyte donation. Surrogate mothers have low rates of placenta praevia / placental abruptions. Among gestational surrogacy arrangements, between 19%-33% of surrogate mothers will become pregnant from an embryo transfer.
Of these cases, 30-70% will allow the intended parent to become parent of the resulting child. For surrogate pregnancies where only one child is born, the preterm birth rate in surrogacy is marginally lower than babies born from standard IVF. Babies born from surrogacy have similar average gestational age as infants born through in vitro fertilization and oocyte donation. Preterm birth rate was higher for surrogate twin pregnancies compared to single births. There are less babies with low birth weight when born through surrogacy compared to those born through in vitro fertilization but both methods have similar rates of birth defects. Women choose surrogacy if they do not have a uterus or have a non-functioning uterus; this may because they are born without a uterus as in the case of Mayer-Roakitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome. Women may lose their uterus due to complications in childbirth such as heavy bleeding or a ruptured uterus. Medical diseases such as cervical cancer can lead to surgical removal of the uterus.
Structural abnormalities, a scarred uterus, having multiple miscarriages, or having severe heart or renal conditions that may make pregnancy harmful, may prompt women to consider surrogacy. The biological impossibility of single men and same-sex couples having a baby may necessitate surrogacy; the surrogate mother may not be related to the intended parents. Ideally, a gestational carrier is between the ages of 21 and 45 although the Surrogacy bill in India restricts the age from 25-35; the surrogate mother should have had one full-term, uncomplicated pregnancy where she had at least one child. Additionally, the carrier should have no had three Caesarean sections. In India, surrogates are married women who have a child, at least 3 years old. For a married woman to become a surrogate mother, consent from the surrogate’s spouse is required, she should not have had pregnancies within two years; the surrogate mother is screened. Screening includes psychological tests, psychosocial consultations, as well as a criminal and financial background check.
Screening includes extensive medical tes
A mother is the female parent of a child. Mothers are women who inhabit or perform the role of bearing some relation to their children, who may or may not be their biological offspring. Thus, dependent on the context, women can be considered mothers by virtue of having given birth, by raising their child, supplying their ovum for fertilisation, or some combination thereof; such conditions provide a way of delineating the concept of motherhood, or the state of being a mother. Women who meet the third and first categories fall under the terms'birth mother' or'biological mother', regardless of whether the individual in question goes on to parent their child. Accordingly, a woman who meets only the second condition may be considered an adoptive mother, those who meet only the first or only the third a surrogacy mother. An adoptive mother is a female who has become the child's parent through the legal process of adoption. A biological mother is the female genetic contributor to the creation of the infant, through sexual intercourse or egg donation.
A biological mother may have legal obligations to a child not raised by her, such as an obligation of monetary support. A putative mother is a female whose biological relationship to a child is alleged but has not been established. A stepmother is a female, the wife of a child's father and they may form a family unit, but who does not have the legal rights and responsibilities of a parent in relation to the child; the above concepts defining the role of mother are neither exhaustive nor universal, as any definition of'mother' may vary based on how social and religious roles are defined. The parallel conditions and terms for males: those who are fathers do not, by definition, take up the role of fatherhood. Motherhood and fatherhood are not limited to those who have parented. Women who are pregnant may be referred to as expectant mothers or mothers-to-be, though such applications tend to be less applied to fathers or adoptive parents; the process of becoming a mother has been referred to as "matrescence".
The adjective "maternal" comparatively to "paternal" for a father. The verb "to mother" means to procreate or to sire a child from which derives the noun "mothering". Related terms of endearment are mom, mumsy and mammy. A female role model that children can look up to is sometimes referred to as a mother-figure. Biological motherhood for humans, as in other mammals, occurs when a pregnant female gestates a fertilized ovum. A female can become pregnant through sexual intercourse. In well-nourished girls, menarche takes place around the age of 12 or 13. A fetus develops from the viable zygote, resulting in an embryo. Gestation occurs in the woman's uterus. In humans, gestation is around 9 months in duration, after which the woman experiences labor and gives birth; this is not always the case, however, as some babies are born prematurely, late, or in the case of stillbirth, do not survive gestation. Once the baby is born, the mother produces milk via the lactation process; the mother's breast milk is the source of antibodies for the infant's immune system, the sole source of nutrition for newborns before they are able to eat and digest other foods.
Childlessness is the state of not having children. Childlessness may have social or political significance. Childlessness may be voluntary childlessness, which occurs by choice, or may be involuntary due to health problems or social circumstances. Motherhood is voluntary, but may be the result of forced pregnancy, such as pregnancy from rape. Unwanted motherhood occurs in cultures which practice forced marriage and child marriage. Mother can apply to a woman other than the biological parent if she fulfills the main social role in raising the child; this is either an adoptive mother or a stepmother. The term "othermother" or "other mother" is used in some contexts for women who provide care for a child not biologically their own in addition to the child's primary mother. Adoption, in various forms, has been practiced throughout history predating human civilization. Modern systems of adoption, arising in the 20th century, tend to be governed by comprehensive statutes and regulations. In recent decades, international adoptions have become more common.
Adoption in the United States is common and easy from a legal point of view. In 2001, with over 127,000 adoptions, the US accounted for nearly half of the total number of adoptions worldwide. A surrogate mother is a woman who bears a child that came from another woman's fertilized ovum on behalf of a couple unable to give birth to children, thus the surrogate mother carries and gives birth to a child that she is not the biological mother of. Surrogate motherhood became possible with advances in reproductive technologies, such as in vitro fertilization. Not all women who become pregnant via in vitro fertilization are surrogate mothers. Surrogacy involves both a genetic mother, who provides the ovum, a gestational mother, who carries the child to term; the possibility for lesbian and bisexual women in same-sex relationships to become mothers has increased over the past few decades due to technological developments. Mod
A father is the male parent of a child. Besides the paternal bonds of a father to his children, the father may have a parental and social relationship with the child that carries with it certain rights and obligations. An adoptive father is a male who has become the child's parent through the legal process of adoption. A biological father is the male genetic contributor to the creation of the infant, through sexual intercourse or sperm donation. A biological father may have legal obligations to a child not raised by him, such as an obligation of monetary support. A putative father is a man whose biological relationship to a child is alleged but has not been established. A stepfather is a male, the husband of a child's mother and they may form a family unit, but who does not have the legal rights and responsibilities of a parent in relation to the child; the adjective "paternal" comparatively to "maternal" for a mother. The verb "to father" means to procreate or to sire a child from which derives the noun "fathering".
Biological fathers determine the sex of their child through a sperm cell which either contains an X chromosome, or Y chromosome. Related terms of endearment are dad, pappa and pop. A male role model that children can look up to is sometimes referred to as a father-figure; the paternity rights of a father with regard to his children differ from country to country reflecting the level of involvement and roles expected by that society. Paternity leaveParental leave is when a father takes time off to support his newly born or adopted baby. Paid paternity leave first began in Sweden in 1976, is paid in more than half of European Union countries. In the case of male same-sex couples the law makes no provision for either one or both fathers to take paternity leave. Child custodyFathers' rights movements such as Fathers 4 Justice argue that family courts are biased against fathers. Child supportChild. Paternity fraudAn estimated 2% of British fathers experiences paternity fraud during a non-paternity event, bringing up a child they wrongly believe to be their biological offspring.
In all cultures fathers are regarded as secondary caregivers. This perception is changing with more and more fathers becoming primary caregivers, while mothers go to work or in single parenting situations, male same-sex parenting couples. In the West, the image of the married father as the primary wage-earner is changing; the social context of fatherhood plays an important part in the well-being of men and all their children. In the United States 16% of single parents were men as of 2013. Involved fathers offer developmentally specific provisions to their children and are impacted themselves by doing so. Active father figures may play a role in reducing behavior and psychological problems in young adults. An increased amount of father–child involvement may help increase a child's social stability, educational achievement, their potential to have a solid marriage as an adult, their children may be more curious about the world around them and develop greater problem solving skills. Children who were raised with fathers perceive themselves to be more cognitively and physically competent than their peers without a father.
Mothers raising children together with a father reported less severe disputes with their child. The father-figure is not always a child's biological father and some children will have a biological father as well as a step- or nurturing father; when a child is conceived through sperm donation, the donor will be the "biological father" of the child. Fatherhood as legitimate identity can be dependent on domestic behaviors. For example, a study of the relationship between fathers, their sons, home computers found that the construction of fatherhood and masculinity required that fathers display computer expertise. Roman law defined fatherhood as "Mater semper certa; the recent emergence of accurate scientific testing DNA testing, has resulted in the family law relating to fatherhood experiencing rapid changes. In medieval and most of modern European history, caring for children was predominantly the domain of mothers, whereas fathers in many societies provide for the family as a whole. Since the 1950s, social scientists and feminists have challenged gender roles in Western countries, including that of the male breadwinner.
Policies are targeting fatherhood as a tool of changing gender relations. In early human history there have been notable instances of patricide. For example: Tukulti-Ninurta I, Assyrian king, was killed by his own son after sacking Babylon. Sennacherib, Assyrian king, was killed by two of his sons for his desecration of Babylon. King Kassapa I creator of the Sigiriya citadel of ancient Sri Lanka killed his father king Dhatusena for the throne. Emperor Yang of Sui in Chinese history killed his father, Emperor Wen of Sui. Beatrice Cenci, Italian noblewoman who, according to legend, killed her father after he imprisoned and raped her, she was condemned and beheaded for the crime along with her brother and her stepmother in 1599. Lizzie Borden killed her father and her stepmother with an axe in Fall River, Massachusetts, in 1892, she was acquitted. Iyasus I of Ethiopia, one of the great warrior emperors of Ethiopia, was deposed by his son Tekle Haymanot in 1706 and subsequentl
Parenting or child rearing is the process of promoting and supporting the physical, emotional and intellectual development of a child from infancy to adulthood. Parenting refers to the intricacies of raising a child and not to the biological relationship; the most common caretaker in parenting is the biological parent of the child in question, although others may be an older sibling, a grandparent, a legal guardian, uncle or other family member, or a family friend. Governments and society may have a role in child-rearing. In many cases, orphaned or abandoned children receive parental care from non-parent blood relations. Others may be raised in foster care, or placed in an orphanage. Parenting skills vary, a parent with good parenting skills may be referred to as a good parent. Parenting styles vary by historical time period, race/ethnicity, social class, other social features. Additionally, research has supported that parental history both in terms of attachments of varying quality as well as parental psychopathology in the wake of adverse experiences, can influence parental sensitivity and child outcomes.
Social class, wealth and income have a strong impact on what methods of child rearing parents use. Cultural values play a major role in. However, parenting is always evolving. A family's social class plays a large role in the opportunities and resources that will be available to a child. Working-class children grow up at a disadvantage with the schooling and level of parental attention available compared to middle-class or upper-class. Lower working-class families do not get the kind of networking that the middle and upper classes do through helpful family members and community individuals or groups as well as various professionals or experts. A parenting style is indicative of the overall emotional climate in the home. Developmental psychologist Diana Baumrind identified three main parenting styles in early child development: authoritative and permissive; these parenting styles were expanded to four, to include an uninvolved style. On the one hand, these four styles involve combinations of acceptance and responsiveness, on the other hand, involve demand and control.
Research has found that parenting style is related to a child's subsequent mental health and well-being. In particular, authoritative parenting is positively related to mental health and satisfaction with life, authoritarian parenting is negatively related to these variables. Authoritative parenting Described by Baumrind as the "just right" style, it combines a medium level demands on the child and a medium level responsiveness from the parents. Authoritative parents rely on positive infrequent use of punishment. Parents are more aware of a child's feelings and capabilities and support the development of a child's autonomy within reasonable limits. There is a give-and-take atmosphere involved in parent-child communication and both control and support are balanced. Research shows that this style is more beneficial than the too-hard authoritarian style or the too-soft permissive style. Authoritarian parenting styles Authoritarian parents are rigid and strict. High demands are placed on the child.
Parents who practice authoritarian style parenting have a non-negotiable set of rules and expectations that are enforced and require rigid obedience. When the rules are not followed, punishment is used to promote future obedience. There is no explanation of punishment except that the child is in trouble for breaking a rule; this parenting style is associated with corporal punishment, such as spanking and "Because I said so" is a typical response to a child's question of authority. This type of parenting is seen more in working-class families than in the middle class. In 1983 Diana Baumrind found that children raised in an authoritarian-style home were less cheerful, more moody and more vulnerable to stress. In many cases these children demonstrated passive hostility. Permissive parenting Permissive, or indulgent, parenting is more popular in middle-class than in working-class families. In these settings, a child's freedom and autonomy are valued, parents tend to rely on reasoning and explanation.
Parents are undemanding, so there tends to be little if any punishment or explicit rules in this style of parenting. These parents say that their children are free from external constraints and tend to be responsive to whatever the child wants at the time. Children of permissive parents are happy but sometimes show low levels of self-control and self-reliance because they lack structure at home. Uninvolved parenting An uninvolved or neglectful parenting style is when parents are emotionally or physically absent, they have little to no expectation of the child and have no communication. They have little to no behavioral expectations. If present, they may provide. There is a large gap between parents and children with this parenting style. Children with little or no communication with their own parents tended to be victimized by other children and may themselves be exhibit deviant behavior. Children of uninvolved parents suffer in social competence, academic performance, psychosocial developme
DNA profiling is the process of determining an individual's DNA characteristics, which are as unique as fingerprints. DNA analysis intended to identify. DNA profiling is a forensic technique in criminal investigations, comparing criminal suspects' profiles to DNA evidence so as to assess the likelihood of their involvement in the crime, it is used in parentage testing, to establish immigration eligibility, in genealogical and medical research. DNA profiling has been used in the study of animal and plant populations in the fields of zoology and agriculture. Starting in the 1980s scientific advances allowed for the use of DNA as a mechanism for the identification of an individual; the first patent covering the modern process of DNA profiling was filed by Dr. Jeffrey Glassberg in 1983, based upon work he had done while at Rockefeller University in 1981. Glassberg, along with two medical doctors, founded Lifecodes Corporation to bring this invention to market; the Glassberg patent was issued in Belgium BE899027A1, Canada FR2541774A1, Germany DE3407196 A1, Great Britain GB8405107D0, Japan JPS59199000A, United States as US5593832A.
In the United Kingdom, Geneticist Sir Alec Jeffreys independently developed a DNA profiling process in beginning in late 1984 while working in the Department of Genetics at the University of Leicester. The process, developed by Jeffreys in conjunction with Peter Gill and Dave Werrett of the Forensic Science Service, was first used forensically in the solving of the murder of two teenagers, raped and murdered in Narborough, Leicestershire in 1983 and 1986. In the murder inquiry, led by Detective David Baker, the DNA contained within blood samples obtained voluntarily from around 5,000 local men who willingly assisted Leicestershire Constabulary with the investigation, resulted in the exoneration of Richard Buckland, an initial suspect who had confessed to one of the crimes, the subsequent conviction of Colin Pitchfork on January 2, 1988. Pitchfork, a local bakery employee, had coerced his coworker Ian Kelly to stand in for him when providing a blood sample—Kelly used a forged passport to impersonate Pitchfork.
Another coworker reported the deception to the police. Pitchfork was arrested, his blood was sent to Jeffrey's lab for processing and profile development. Pitchfork's profile matched that of DNA left by the murderer which confirmed Pitchfork's presence at both crime scenes. Although 99.9% of human DNA sequences are the same in every person, enough of the DNA is different that it is possible to distinguish one individual from another, unless they are monozygotic twins. DNA profiling uses repetitive sequences that are variable, called variable number tandem repeats, in particular short tandem repeats known as microsatellites, minisatellites. VNTR loci are similar between related individuals, but are so variable that unrelated individuals are unlikely to have the same VNTRs; the process, developed by Glassberg and independently by Jeffreys, begins with a sample of an individual's DNA. Reference samples are collected through a buccal swab; when this is unavailable other methods may be needed to collect a sample of blood, semen, vaginal lubrication, or other fluid or tissue from personal use items or from stored samples.
Samples obtained from blood relatives can indicate an individual's profile, as could previous profiled human remains. A reference sample is analyzed to create the individual's DNA profile using one of the techniques discussed below; the DNA profile is compared against another sample to determine whether there is a genetic match. When a sample such as blood or saliva is obtained, the DNA is only a small part of what is present in the sample. Before the DNA can be analyzed, it must be purified. There are many ways this can be accomplished; the cell and nuclear membranes need to be broken up to allow the DNA to be free in solution. Once the DNA is free, it can be separated from all other cellular components. After the DNA has been separated in solution, the remaining cellular debris can be removed from the solution and discarded, leaving only DNA; the most common methods of DNA extraction include organic extraction, Chelex extraction, solid phase extraction. Differential extraction is a modified version of extraction in which DNA from two different types of cells can be separated from each other before being purified from the solution.
Each method of extraction works well in the laboratory, but analysts selects their preferred method based on factors such as the cost, the time involved, the quantity of DNA yielded, the quality of DNA yielded. After the DNA is extracted from the sample, it can be analyzed, whether it be RFLP analysis or quantification and PCR analysis; the first methods for finding out genetics used for DNA profiling involved RFLP analysis. DNA is cut into small pieces using a restriction enzyme; this generates DNA fragments of differing sizes as a consequence of variations between DNA sequences of different individuals. The fragments are separated on the basis of size using gel electrophoresis; the separated fragments are transferred to a nitrocellulose or nylon filter. The DNA fragments within the blot are permanently fixed to the filter, the DNA strands
Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus. The first allele is dominant and the second allele is recessive. For genes on an autosome, the alleles and their associated traits are autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive. Dominance is a key concept in Mendelian inheritance and classical genetics; the dominant allele codes for a functional protein whereas the recessive allele does not. A classic example of dominance is the inheritance of seed shape in peas. Peas associated with allele r. In this case, three combinations of alleles are possible: RR, Rr, rr; the RR individuals have round peas and the rr individuals have wrinkled peas. In Rr individuals the R allele masks the presence of the r allele, so these individuals have round peas. Thus, allele R is dominant to allele r, allele r is recessive to allele R; this use of upper case letters for dominant alleles and lower case ones for recessive alleles is a followed convention.
More where a gene exists in two allelic versions, three combinations of alleles are possible: AA, Aa, aa. If AA and aa individuals show different forms of some trait, Aa individuals show the same phenotype as AA individuals allele A is said to dominate, be dominant to or show dominance to allele a, a is said to be recessive to A. Dominance is not inherent to either its phenotype, it is a relationship between two alleles of their associated phenotypes. An allele may be dominant for a particular aspect of phenotype but not for other aspects influenced by the same gene. Dominance differs from epistasis, a relationship in which an allele of one gene affects the expression of another allele at a different gene; the concept of dominance was introduced by Gregor Johann Mendel. Though Mendel, "The Father of Genetics", first used the term in the 1860s, it was not known until the early twentieth century. Mendel observed that, for a variety of traits of garden peas having to do with the appearance of seeds, seed pods, plants, there were two discrete phenotypes, such as round versus wrinkled seeds, yellow versus green seeds, red versus white flowers or tall versus short plants.
When bred separately, the plants always produced generation after generation. However, when lines with different phenotypes were crossed and only one of the parental phenotypes showed up in the offspring. However, when these hybrid plants were crossed, the offspring plants showed the two original phenotypes, in a characteristic 3:1 ratio, the more common phenotype being that of the parental hybrid plants. Mendel reasoned that each parent in the first cross was a homozygote for different alleles, that each contributed one allele to the offspring, with the result that all of these hybrids were heterozygotes, that one of the two alleles in the hybrid cross dominated expression of the other: A masked a; the final cross between two heterozygotes would produce AA, Aa, aa offspring in a 1:2:1 genotype ratio with the first two classes showing the phenotype, the last showing the phenotype, thereby producing the 3:1 phenotype ratio. Mendel did not use the terms gene, phenotype, genotype and heterozygote, all of which were introduced later.
He did introduce the notation of capital and lowercase letters for dominant and recessive alleles still in use today. Most animals and some plants have paired chromosomes, are described as diploid, they have two versions of each chromosome, one contributed by the mother's ovum, the other by the father's sperm, known as gametes, described as haploid, created through meiosis. These gametes fuse during fertilization during sexual reproduction, into a new single cell zygote, which divides multiple times, resulting in a new organism with the same number of pairs of chromosomes in each cell as its parents; each chromosome of a matching pair is structurally similar to the other, has a similar DNA sequence. The DNA in each chromosome functions as a series of discrete genes that influence various traits. Thus, each gene has a corresponding homologue, which may exist in different versions called alleles; the alleles at the same locus on the two homologous chromosomes may be different. The blood type of a human is determined by a gene that creates an A, B, AB or O blood type and is located in the long arm of chromosome nine.
There are three different alleles that could be present at this locus, but only two can be present in any individual, one inherited from their mother and one from their father. If two alleles of a given gene are identical, the organism is called a homozygote and is said to be homozygous with respect to that gene; the genetic makeup of an organism, either at a single locus or over all its genes collectively, is called its genotype. The genotype of an organism directly and indirectly affects its molecular and other traits, which individually or collectively are called its phenotype. At heterozygous gene loci, the two alleles interact to produce the phenotype. In complete dominance, the effect of one allele in a heterozygous genotype masks the effect of the other; the allele that mas
Child neglect is a form of child abuse, is a deficit in meeting a child's basic needs, including the failure to provide adequate health care, clothing, housing as well as their physical, social and safety needs. Society believes there are necessary behaviors a caregiver must provide in order for a child to develop physically and emotionally. Causes of neglect may result from several parenting problems including mental disorders, substance abuse, domestic violence, unplanned pregnancy, poverty. Child neglect depends on how a society perceives the parents' behavior. Parental failure to provide for a child, when options are available, is different from failure to provide when options are not available. Poverty and lack of resources are contributing factors and can prevent parents from meeting their children's needs, when they otherwise would; the circumstances and intentionality must be examined before defining behavior as neglectful. Child neglect is the most frequent form of child abuse, with children born to young mothers at a substantial risk for neglect.
In 2008, the U. S. state and local Child Protective Services received 3.3 million reports of children being abused or neglected. Seventy-one percent of the children were classified as victims of child neglect. Maltreated children were about five times more to have a first emergency department presentation for suicide related behavior, compared to their peers, in both boys and girls. Children permanently removed from their parental home because of substantiated child abuse, are at an increased risk of a first presentation to the emergency department for suicide related behavior. Neglected children are at risk of developing lifelong social and health problems if neglected before the age of two years. Neglect is difficult to define, since there are no clear, cross-cultural standards for desirable or minimally adequate child-rearing practices. Research shows that neglect coexists with other forms of abuse and adversity. While neglect refers to the absence of parental care and the chronic failure to meet children's basic needs, defining those needs has not been straightforward.
In "Working Together", the Department for Education and Skills defined neglect in 2006 as:...the persistent failure to meet a child's basic physical and/or psychological needs to result in the serious impairment of the child's health or development. Neglect may occur during pregnancy as a result of maternal substance abuse. Once a child is born, neglect may involve a parent or carer failing to provide adequate food and shelter, it may include neglect of, or unresponsiveness to, a child's basic emotional needs. Child neglect is defined as a failure by a child's caregiver to meet a child's physical, educational, or medical needs. Forms of child neglect include: Allowing the child to witness violence or severe abuse between parents or adult, insulting, or threatening the child with violence, not providing the child with a safe environment and adult emotional support, showing reckless disregard for the child's well-being. Other definitions of child neglect are: "a form of child abuse caused by the denial of basic requirements like correct nutrition and love", per wiktionary.
"the failure of a person responsible for a child's care and upbringing to safeguard the child's emotional and physical health and general well-being" per Webster's New World Law Dictionary "Acts of omission: failure to provide for a child's basic physical, emotional, or educational needs or to protect a child from harm or potential harm. Harm to a child may not be the intended consequence. Failure to provide physical neglect, emotional neglect, medical/dental neglect, educational neglect; the failure to supervise inadequate supervision, exposure to violent environments." Per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention "the persistent failure to meet a child's basic physical and/or psychological needs resulting in serious impairment of health and/or development". Summary: The definition of child neglect is broad. There are no specific guidelines. In general, child neglect is considered the failure of parents or caregivers to meet the needs that are necessary for the mental and emotional development of a child.
Child neglect is one of the most common forms of child maltreatment, it continues to be a serious problem for many children. Child neglect tremendously affects the physical development, mental development, emotional development of a child causing long term consequences, such as poor academic achievement and personality disorders; these consequences impact society, since it is more that children who suffered from child neglect will have drug abuse problems and educational failure when they grow up. There are various types of child neglect. Physical neglect refers to the failure to provide a child with basic necessities of life such as food and clothing. Medical neglect is a failure of caregivers to meet a child’s basic health care needs. Example: not brushing teeth on a daily basis, bathing a child and or taking children to doctor visits when