The Paris Commune was a radical socialist and revolutionary government that ruled Paris from 18 March to 28 May 1871. The Franco-Prussian War had led to the capture of Emperor Napoleon III in September 1870, the collapse of the Second French Empire, the beginning of the Third Republic; because Paris was under siege for four months, the Third Republic moved its capital to Tours. A hotbed of working-class radicalism, Paris was defended during this time by the politicised and radical troops of the National Guard rather than regular Army troops. Paris surrendered to the Prussians on 28 January 1871, in February Adolphe Thiers, the new chief executive of the French national government, signed an armistice with Prussia that disarmed the Army but not the National Guard. On 18 March, soldiers of the Commune's National Guard killed two French army generals, the Commune refused to accept the authority of the French government; the Commune governed Paris for two months, until it was suppressed by the regular French Army during "La semaine sanglante" beginning on 21 May 1871.
Debates over the policies and outcome of the Commune had significant influence on the ideas of Karl Marx, who described it as an example of the "dictatorship of the proletariat". On 2 September 1870, after France's defeat at the Battle of Sedan in the Franco-Prussian War, Emperor Napoleon III surrendered to the Prussian Chancellor Otto von Bismarck; when the news reached Paris the next day and angry crowds came out into the streets. Empress Eugénie de Montijo, the Emperor's wife and acting Regent at the time, fled the city, the Government of the Second Empire swiftly collapsed. Republican and radical deputies of the National Assembly went to the Hôtel de Ville, proclaimed the new French Republic, formed a Government of National Defence. Though the Emperor and the French Army had been defeated at Sedan, the war continued; the German army marched swiftly toward Paris. In 1871 France was divided between the large rural and conservative population of the French countryside and the more republican and radical cities of Paris, Lyon and a few others.
In the first round of the 1869 parliamentary elections held under the French Empire, 4,438,000 had voted for the Bonapartist candidates supporting Napoleon III, while 3,350,000 had voted for the republican opposition. In Paris, the republican candidates dominated, winning 234,000 votes against 77,000 for the Bonapartists. Of the two million people in Paris in 1869, according to the official census, there were about 500,000 industrial workers, or fifteen per cent of all the industrial workers in France, plus another 300,000–400,000 workers in other enterprises. Only about 40,000 were employed in large enterprises. There were 115,000 servants and 45,000 concierges. In addition to the native French population, there were about 100,000 immigrant workers and political refugees, the largest number being from Italy and Poland. During the war and the siege of Paris, various members of the middle- and upper-classes departed the city; the working class and immigrants suffered the most from the lack of industrial activity due to the war and the siege.
The Commune resulted in part from growing discontent among the Paris workers. This discontent can be traced to the first worker uprisings, the Canut revolts, in Lyon and Paris in the 1830s. Many Parisians workers and the lower-middle classes, supported a democratic republic. A specific demand was that Paris should be self-governing with its own elected council, something enjoyed by smaller French towns but denied to Paris by a national government wary of the capital's unruly populace, they wanted a more "just" way of managing the economy, if not socialist, summed up in the popular appeal for "la république démocratique et sociale!". Socialist movements, such as the First International, had been growing in influence with hundreds of societies affiliated to it across France. In early 1867, Parisian employers of bronze-workers attempted to de-unionise their workers; this was defeated by a strike organised by the International. In 1867, an illegal public demonstration in Paris was answered by the legal dissolution of its executive committee and the leadership being fined.
Tensions escalated: Internationalists elected a new committee and put forth a more radical programme, the authorities imprisoned their leaders, a more revolutionary perspective was taken to the International's 1868 Brussels Congress. The International had considerable influence among unaffiliated French workers in Paris and the big towns; the killing of journalist Victor Noir incensed Parisians, the arrests of journalists critical of the Emperor did nothing to quiet the city. The German military attaché, wrote in his diary in February: "Every night isolated barricades were thrown up, constructed for the most part out of disused conveyances omnibuses, a few shots were fired at random, scenes of disorder were taken part in by a few hundreds of persons quite young", he noted, that "working-men, as a class, took no part in the proceedings." A coup was attempted in early 1870, but tensions eased after the plebiscite in May. The war with Prussia, initiated by Napoleon III in July, was met with patriotic fervour.
Paris is the traditional home of French radical m
Douglas D. Scott is an American archaeologist most notable for his work at the Little Bighorn in the mid-1980s. Working with Richard Fox, Melissa Connor, Doug Harmon, staff and volunteers from the National Park Service, Scott worked to sketch out a field methodology that has enabled archaeologists to systematically investigate battlefields; this work is internationally recognized as constituting a great step forward in our ability to interpret battlefields archaeologically, regardless of the extent of the historical record. At the Little Bighorn, the fieldwork produced an interpretation of the battle that for the first time gave a clear understanding of the way the battle developed and pointed out some of the glaring inaccuracies of the historiography of the event; the fieldwork helped determine which of the 242 headstones to the 210 U. S. soldiers lost at the Little Bighorn were erroneous, recovered skeletal elements allowed one of the soldiers to be positively identified. It was not as successful in recovering the remains of 24 men lost in Deep Ravine and whose whereabouts are unknown to this day.
Scott continued doing battlefield archaeology by working at Little Bighorn every season for 23 years. He directed work at Big Hole Battlefield National Historical Site, Sand Creek National Historic Site, Wilson’s Creek National Battlefield, Pea Ridge National Battlefield Park, Monroe’s Crossroads Battlefield, he has assisted, advised, or volunteered on over 40 other battlefield and conflict site investigations in the U. S. England, Belgium, including Washita National Historic Site and Honey Springs Battlefield with Bill Lees. In another convergence the work at the Little Bighorn and the discovery of soldiers’ skeletal remains brought Scott into contact with Clyde Snow. Snow did an exceptional analysis of those remains, but cajoled Doug Scott and Melissa Connor into taking the methods they developed in battlefield recovery to the field of forensic science. Snow’s statement that they should take their methods to a “real” battlefield led them to working for Physicians for Human Rights, the UN El Salvador Truth Commission, the UN Truth Commission for Former Yugoslavia, the International Criminal Tribunal for Former Yugoslavia, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, the U.
S. State Department on a case in northern Cyprus, for PHR on the Greek side of Cyprus, for the Regime Crime Liaison Office in Iraq. Connor shifted from prehistoric and historic archaeology to full-time forensic archaeology in 2000, she now directs the Forensic Investigation Research Station for Colorado Mesa University in Grand Junction, Colorado. Both Scott and Connor are Fellows of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences. For this work, Scott has been honored with awards from the National Park Service. In 1992, he was awarded the Department of Interior's Meritorious Service Award and Medal for career accomplishments and innovative research, he served as the president of the Society for Historical Archaeology from 2006-2007. In 2015 Scott received the J. C. Harrington Award, presented by the Society for Historical Archaeology for his life-time contributions to archaeology centered on scholarship. Scott is a member of the Advisory Board for Armchair General Magazine. Scott and Richard Fox, Jr. 1987 Archeological Insights into the Custer Battle: A Preliminary Assessment.
Norman, University of Oklahoma Press. Scott, Douglas D. Richard A. Fox, Jr. Melissa A. Connor, Dick Harmon 1989 Archaeological Perspectives on the Battle of the Little Bighorn. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. Scott, Douglas D. P. Willey, Melissa Connor 1998 They Died With Custer: The Soldiers’ Skeletons From The Battle of the Little Bighorn. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. Greene, Jerome A. and Douglas D. Scott 2004 Finding Sand Creek: History and Archeology of the 1864 Massacre. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. Scott, Lawrence Babits, Charles Haecker 2006 Fields of Conflict: Battlefield Archaeology from Imperial Rome to Korea, 2 Volumes. Praeger Security Press, Westport, CT. Cruse, J. Brett with contributions by Martha Doty Freeman and Douglas D. Scott 2005 Battles of the Red River War: Archaeological Perspectives on the Indian Campaign of 1874. Texas A&M University Press, College Station. Scott, Lawrence Babits, Charles Haecker 2009 Fields of Conflict: Battlefield Archaeology from Imperial Rome to Korea.
Potomac Books, Washington, DC. Geier, Clarence R. Lawrence E. Babits, Douglas D. Scott, David G. Orr 2010 Historical Archaeology of Military Sites: Method and Topics. Texas A&M Press, College Station. Scott, Douglas D. 2013 Uncovering History: Archeological Investigations at the Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. Scott, Douglas D. Peter Bleed, Stephen Damm 2013 Custer and the Grand Duke: Camp Alexis and the Royal Buffalo Hunt in Nebraska. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. Geier, Clarence R. Douglas D. Scott, Lawence E. Babits 2014 From These Honored Dead: Historical Archaeology of the American Civil War. University Press of Florida, Gainesville. Scott and Melissa Connor 1995 Post Mortem at the Little Bighorn. In Annual Editions: Archaeology 1995-1996, edited by Linda Hasten, pp 143–147, Dushkin Publishing, Connecticut. Scott, Douglas D. and Clyde Collins Snow 1996 Archeology and Forensic Anthropology of the Human Remains from the Reno Retreat Crossing.
Reprinted in Images of the Recent Past, Readings in Historical Archaeology edited by Charles E. Orser, Jr. pp 355–367, Altimira Press, Walnut Creek, California. Scott, Douglas D. 1996 Archaeological Perspectives on the Battle of the Little Bighorn: A Retrospective. In Legacy, New Perspectives on the Battle of the Little Bigho
Dashamir Xhika is an Albanian professional footballer who plays as a goalkeeper for FK Kukësi in the Albanian Superliga. During the 2011–12 season with Besëlidhja in the Albanian First Division, Xhika was distinguished for his performances, conceding only 15 goals in 28 league appearances scoring twice for himself, becoming one of few Albanian goalkeepers to do that. Xhika's first goal of the season came from a penalty kick and was the only goal of the match against Ada, giving his team three important points in their bid to achieve promotion to the Albanian Superliga, his second goal of the season came again from a penalty kick, this time in a 2–0 home win against Burreli. Besëlidhja ended the season in the fifth position. On 19 May 2012, in the play-off round, the team encountered Tomori at Qemal Stafa Stadium where the regular and extra time finished in a goalless draw, but Besëlidhja was eliminated in the penalty shootouts. Xhika retained his status as the number one goalkeeper for the next season, making 27 league appearances out of 30.
On 24 November 2012, during the clash against Dinamo Tirana, Xhika received a straight red-card in the 83rd minute, levelling the team's on the field, in an 1–0 away defeat. Besëlidhja's season was characterized by the negative results, which led the team to the relegation in the Albanian Second Division, which forced Xhika to terminate his cooperating with the club. Xhika himself expressed his sadness for the club's season, citing that "This year Besëlidhja did not had the echoes of the past two seasons, where it was the favourite team to achieve promotion in Albanian Superliga". In August 2013, Xhika signed with fellow Albanian First Division side Tërbuni, whose main goal was to achieve promotion to Albanian Superliga for the first time in history, he made his official debut with the team on 31 August in the team's opening league match of 2013–14 season, a 2–1 away defeat to Elbasani. He was the team's starting goalkeeper during the whole season, collecting 28 league appearances as Tërbuni managed to win the promotion to Albanian Superliga for the first time in its history.
Xhika himself was praised for his individual performances throughout the season. Following the end of the season, Xhika announced his departure from the club to return to his first club Partizani. Following the end of 2013–14 season, Xhika left Tërbuni to return in his boyhood club Partizani after more than three years absence, he was assigned the squad number 1 and during the 2014–15 season he served as a back-up for the first-choice keeper Alban Hoxha. Due to Hoxha's issue family problems, Xhika made his Albanian Superliga return debut in an away match against Skënderbeu, but it was not a match to remember as he was red-carded in the 25th minute for a foul on Peter Olayinka. Despite being used in league, Xhika was the team's starting goalkeeper in Albanian Cup, appearing in both legs against Iliria in the first round, keeping a clean-sheet in the first match. Partizani qualified to the next round with the aggregate 5–1, he had to wait until 31 January of the following year to make his second league appearance of the season, when he played the entire match against Apolonia, keeping a clean sheet in a 2–0 win away.
In the last three league matches in May, Xhika was used as a starter, keeping clean sheets against Flamurtari and Elbasani. He finished his first return season with Partizani by making nine appearances between league and cup. By finish third in the league, Partizani Tirana gained to right to play in European competitions for the first time after seven years. Xhika continued to be the Alban Hoxha's back-up for the 2015–16 season. On 2 July 2015, in the first leg of 2015–16 UEFA Europa League first qualifying round against Strømsgodset, Xhika made his European debut by entering in the field in the 30th minute due to an injury of Hoxha, making several good saves, but Partizani lost the match 3–1. In the returning leg at home, Xhika was unused substitute as Partizani suffered another defeated and was eliminated from the competition with the aggregate 4–1. Xhika made his first league appearance of the season on 1 November 2015 by playing the last eight minutes of the 1–0 away win against Teuta, replacing Hoxha following a head injury.
In the next match against Laçi at Elbasan Arena, Xhika was beaten for the first time in league by Olsi Gocaj in the 7th minute of the match. On 25 April of the following year, in the decisive match against Kukësi, Hoxha was given a straight red card after giving away a penalty. Xhika saved the penalty taken by Izair Emini; the game ended in a 1–0 away win for Partizani thanks to Xhevahir Sukaj last-minute winner. Xhika started on goal in the opening match of 2017–18 Albanian Superliga versus Laçi, making a howler which resulted in Laçi's first goal scored by Kallaku in an eventual 0–2 loss. Ahead of the 2019-20 season, Xhika joined FK Kukësi; as of 10 September 2017 Dashamir Xhika – UEFA competition record