Victor Hugo (Paris Métro)
Victor Hugo is a station on Paris Métro Line 2. It is named after the author Victor Hugo, located directly underneath Place Victor Hugo in the 16th arrondissement of Paris; when first opened in 1900 as part of line 2 Nord, the platforms were built on the tight bend between Avenue Victor Hugo and Avenue Bugeaud. However, when new rolling stocks were introduced in 1931, the curve of the track was too tight for people to board and alight safely on these new trains. So, the station was rebuilt closer to Charles de Gaulle – Étoile on the straight stretch of track after the curve; the original station is visible from the end of the platforms, remains accessible to staff. It still features some of the original flat tiles that were first in use on the network, have now entirely disappeared. In July 2018, after the France national football team won the 2018 FIFA World Cup, the station was temporarily renamed Victor Hugo Lloris after captain and goalkeeper Hugo Lloris. Roland, Gérard. Stations de métro. D’Abbesses à Wagram.
The RER C is one of the five lines in the RER system serving Paris, France. It is operated by SNCF; the line runs from the northwestern termini Pontoise, Versailles-Château-Rive-Gauche and Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines to the southeastern termini Massy-Palaiseau, Dourdan-la-Forêt, Saint-Martin d'Étampes and Versailles – Chantiers. The RER C line is the second-longest in the network, with over 187 km of route. RER C was created from an amalgamation and renovation of several old SNCF commuter lines unlike RER A and B which had newer sections owned and constructed by RATP; each day, over 531 trains run on the RER C alone, carries over 540,000 passengers daily, 150,000 passengers more than the entirety of the TGV network. It is the most popular RER line for tourists which represents 15% of its passengers, as the line serves many monuments and museums, including the Palace of Versailles. However, the numerous stops, combined with the old and fragile infrastructure the line inherited, makes the Parisian section of the RER C slow and inefficient.
The numerous old curves and steep grades on RER C means trains sometimes need to slow down to 40 km/h to safely pass sections with tight alignments. In contrast, RER A was constructed with more modern standards enabling much higher average operating speeds; these problems are evident on trips to and from the northern suburbs to the city center as taking Transilien lines and transferring to the Métro is much faster than taking the meandering RER C with spaced stops. In addition, the RER C's complicated operating schedule created by its complex network of numerous branches means the entire line is vulnerable to delays from the smallest incidents; these issues have led to the line being called "réseau escargot régional" by the local populace. Line C was opened on 26 September 1979 following the construction of a new 1-kilometre tunnel connecting the Gare d'Orsay railway terminus with the Invalides terminus of the Rive Gauche line to Versailles, along the banks of the Seine. Services operated between Versailles-Château-Rive-Gauche – Invalides – Quai-d'Orsay, branching to Massy – Palaiseau, Juvisy – Dourdan / Saint-Martin d'Étampes.
May 1980: Service extended Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines – Versailles – Chantiers – Gare des Invalides. On 25 September 1988 the VMI branch to the north-west opened; this branch used the infrastructure of the "ligne d'Auteuil", a new 3 kilometres tunnel connection between Batignolles and St-Ouen, connecting to the RER C's main trunk at Champ de Mars-Tour Eiffel via a curved bridge over the Seine river. This extended services to Montigny -- Argenteuil. Porte de Clichy opened on 29 September 1991. Located between Pereire – Levallois and St-Ouen. In 1992 the line was extended from Juvisy to Versailles. A further 9 kilometres extension from Montigny – Beauchamp to Pontoise was opened on 28 August 2000. On the same day a new station, Bibliothèque François Mitterrand, opened in order to create a new connexion with Métro Line 14. Located between Paris-Austerlitz and Boulevard Masséna. Another new station, St-Ouen-l'Aumône-Liesse, opened on 24 March 2002. Located between Pierrelaye and St-Ouen-l'Aumône; the C3 branch transferred to the Transilien Paris – Saint-Lazare suburban rail network on 27 August 2006.
On 16 December 2006, Boulevard Victor was renamed Boulevard Victor – Pont du Garigliano to highlight the new interchange with tramway line T3. In February 2012, Versailles - Rive Gauche was renamed Versailles-Château-Rive-Gauche, to avoid frequent tourist confusion with other stations in Versailles. List of stations of the Paris Métro List of stations of the Paris RER Media related to Paris RER ligne C at Wikimedia Commons RATP official website RATP English website Interactive map of the RER Interactive map of the Paris métro Mobidf website, dedicated to the RER Metro-Pole website, dedicated to Paris public transports
Paris Métro Line 13
Line 13 is one of the sixteen lines of the Paris Métro rapid transit system. It originated as Line B of the Nord-Sud Company before becoming Line 13 when the Nord-Sud was merged into the CMP in 1930. Line 13 was extended in 1976 to reach one end of Métro Line 14, absorbed into it. Line 13 was once planned to be replaced by a north-south RER line, but this was cancelled after the reorganisation of the Île-de-France region in 1965. Today, Line 13 connects the western part of Paris to the suburbs of Saint-Denis, Asnières, Gennevilliers in the north and to Châtillon and Montrouge in the south. At 24.3 km in length, counting both of its northern branches, it is the longest line of the Métro. In 2004, it carried over about 540,000 per weekday. Annual traffic grew by about ten million passengers after the opening of two new stations on the Asnières branch on 14 June 2008. According to data from December 2009, there are 610,050 riders per day. Line 13's use of two northern branches serving populated areas, its long length, extension into the suburbs, rapid development of areas that it serves have culminated in the line's overloading, further highlighted by associations representing passengers.
It is the most crowded line in the system the section closest to Saint-Lazare. 26 February 1911: Line B of the Nord-Sud company was opened from Saint-Lazare to Porte de Saint-Ouen. 20 January 1912: A second branch of Line B was opened between La Fourche and Porte de Clichy. 1930: The Nord-Sud company was bought by the CMP company. Line B became Line 13, the Nord-Sud's planned future Line C was assigned the number 14. 21 January 1937: The original Line 14 was opened between Bienvenüe and Porte de Vanves. 27 July 1937: Line 14 was extended north from Bienvenüe to Duroc and took over the section between Duroc and Invalides from Line 10. 30 June 1952: Line 13 was extended north from Porte de Saint-Ouen to Carrefour Pleyel. 27 June 1973: The line was extended south from Saint-Lazare to Miromesnil. 18 February 1975: The line was extended south from Miromesnil to Champs-Elysées – Clémenceau. 26 May 1976: The line was extended north from Carrefour Pleyel to Saint-Denis – Basilique. 9 November 1976: The line was extended from Champs-Elysées to Invalides.
Line 14 was eliminated as a separate line and incorporated into Line 13. The line was extended south from Porte de Vanves to Châtillon – Montrouge. 9 May 1980: The northwestern branch of the line was extended from Porte de Clichy to Gabriel Péri. 25 May 1998: The northern branch was extended from Basilique de Saint-Denis to Saint-Denis – Université. 14 June 2008: The northwestern branch was extended from Gabriel Péri to Les Courtilles. On 28 December 1901, the Société du chemin de fer éléctrique souterrain Nord-Sud de Paris, or Nord-Sud Company, obtained a concession from the City of Paris to build a rapid transit network of two lines concurrent with the more prominent CMP, which had opened the first lines of the Métro. Connecting Porte de Saint-Ouen and Saint-Lazare, the construction of Line B began on 19 June 1905 with 2.8 km of track. Four years building commenced on the branch to Porte de Clichy; the line ran under Rue d'Amsterdam until its split at La Fourche, with each branch following either the Avenue de Clichy or the Avenue de Saint-Ouen.
No connection was provided to the CMP. On 26 February 1911, Line B opened between Saint-Lazare and Porte de Saint-Ouen, with the northwestern branch to Porte de Clichy opening a year later. Due to the narrow width of Rue d'Amsterdam, Berlin station was built unusually with non-aligned platforms; the Nord-Sud Company operated Line B with 368 trains per a minimum of 2.5 minute headways. On 1 January 1930, the CMP absorbed the Nord-Sud Company and renamed Line B to Line 13 in accordance with its numerical naming policy; the electrical supply needed to be changed. In order to allow interoperability, Line 13 was switched to third rail power. Line 13 is the least-appreciated line of the Métro by riders and is the object of a number of criticisms on part of its constant overcrowding north of Saint-Lazare where the line splits in two, leading to reduced frequencies, it is not rare for passengers to wait for several trains to load before being able to board due to the sheer volume of users. Within trains, there may be up to 4.5 people per square metre, while the cars on Line 13 can only hold four people per square metre.
In December 2003, the extension of Line 14 to Saint-Lazare resulted in a large increase of passengers using the station. However, this has only worsened the chronic congestion of Line 13. Important economic development at Plaine Saint-Denis around a vast urban project since the construction of the Stade de France has worsened conditions on the line since a number of companies have moved there, forcing more employees to use the line for their commutes. In 2007, the delay of the automatic control system named Ouragan led the RATP to propose to STIF the employment of "pushers", responsible for smoother boarding and detraining at the busiest stations on Line 13. Since December 2006, more than eighty additional trains have been added to provide supplemental service, a nearly 10% increase including additional Asnières branch service. Two years an automatic reversal at Châtillon-Montrouge went into effect, which reduces the turn-back time by ten seconds so as to circulate train
Pigalle (Paris Métro)
Pigalle is a station on lines 2 and 12 of the Paris Métro, named after the Place Pigalle, which commemorates the sculptor Jean-Baptiste Pigalle on the border of the 9th and the 18th arrondissement. The station is located under the Boulevard de Clichy in Montmartre and serves the famous Pigalle red-light district; the station was opened on 21 October 1902 as part of the extension of line 2 from Étoile to Anvers. The line 12 platforms were opened on 8 April 1911 with the extension of the Nord-Sud Company's line C from Notre-Dame-de-Lorette, it was the northern terminus of line C until its extension to Jules Joffrin on 31 October 1912. This line was taken over by the Compagnie du chemin de fer métropolitain de Paris and was renamed line 12 on 27 March 1931; the Place Pigalle was named after the Barrière Pigalle, a gate built for the collection of taxation as part of the Wall of the Farmers-General. Roland, Gérard. Stations de métro. D’Abbesses à Wagram. Éditions Bonneton
Charles de Gaulle–Étoile
Charles de Gaulle–Étoile is a station of the Paris Métro and of Île-de-France's regional high-speed RER. It serves lines 1, 2, 6 of the Paris Métro and line A of the RER and lies on the boundary of the 8th, 16th, 17th arrondissements of Paris. Called Étoile, after its location at Place de l'Étoile, it took on the additional name of President Charles de Gaulle from 1970; the station serves as the western terminus of Paris Métro Line 6. The platforms are built beneath Place de l'Étoile, situated at the western end of the Avenue des Champs-Élysées; the Arc de Triomphe is located in the center of the Place. Lines 1 and 2 have two side platforms each, while the terminus on Line 6 is a single track with two platforms situated in a loop. Trains depart from this station and make a longer stop at Kléber. Although Line 1 had opened on 19 July 1900, Étoile station only opened on 1 September that year, being followed by the Line 6 station and the line 2 station; the RER line A station, 30 m deeper, opened on 21 February 1970 as the terminus of a shuttle from La Défense.
After the death of Charles de Gaulle on 13 November 1970, Place de l'Étoile was renamed Place Charles de Gaulle and the station was renamed as Charles de Gaulle–Étoile. The RER was extended to Auber on 23 November 1971. List of stations of the RER
Paris Métro Line 7
Paris Métro Line 7 is one of sixteen lines of the Paris Métro system. Crossing the capital from its north-eastern to south-eastern sections via a moderately curved path, it links La Courneuve – 8 Mai 1945 in the north with Mairie d'Ivry and Villejuif – Louis Aragon in the south, while passing through important parts of central Paris. Line 7 began operating in 1910 and, along with Line 13, is one of only two Métro lines that has a branch. Located in the northeast and splitting at Louis Blanc, it was transferred in 1967 to what is now Line 7bis. In 1982, a new branch was added in the southeast to Mairie d'Ivry. Line 7 has only steel rails. At 18.6 km, Line 7 is one of the longest in the Paris Métro network. In addition, it contains the most stations as well as being the third most-used line of the Métro, with 120.7 million riders in 2004. 5 November 1910: Line 7 was opened linking Opéra to Porte de la Villette. 18 January 1911: A new branch was opened from Louis Blanc to Pré-Saint-Gervais. 1 July 1916: The line was extended in the south from Opéra to Palais Royal.
16 April 1926: The line was extended from Palais Royal to Pont Marie. 15 February 1930: While a tunnel was being built on line 7 to cross the River Seine, a new section between Place Monge and Place d'Italie was opened and temporarily operated as part of Line 10. 3 June 1930: The line was extended from Pont Marie to Pont de Sully. 7 March 1930: That section temporarily operating as part of Line 10 was extended from Place d'Italie to Porte de Choisy. 26 April 1931: The section between Pont de Sully and Place Monge was opened. The section between Place Monge and Porte de Choisy was transferred to Line 7 and it was extended to Porte d'Ivry simultaneously. 1 May 1946: The line was extended from Porte d'Ivry to Mairie d'Ivry. 1967: Because of a lack of traffic, the northern branch of the line 7 between Louis Blanc and Pré-Saint-Gervais became a new independent line known as Line 7bis. 4 October 1979: The line was extended to the north from Porte de la Villette to Fort d'Aubervilliers. 10 December 1982: A new branch was opened to the south from Maison Blanche to Le Kremlin-Bicêtre.
28 February 1985: The line was extended from Le Kremlin-Bicêtre to Villejuif Louis Aragon. 6 May 1987: The line was extended from Fort d'Aubervilliers to La Courneuve – 8 mai 1945. An extension of Line 7 from La Courneuve to Le Bourget may be considered in the future; the southern fork of the line from Maison Blanche to Villejuif – Louis Aragon may be taken over by line 14 in the future. Line 7bis, line 7's sister, may be merged with line 3bis to form a new line, with its western terminus at Château-Landon on line 7. Line 7 runs for 18.6 km underground, stopping at 38 stations. Southbound trains terminate alternately at Villejuif - Louis Aragon and Mairie d'Ivry, diverging at Maison Blanche. Late at night, through trains only operate to Mairie d'Ivry. In the north, the line begins at La Courneuve in the department of Seine-Saint-Denis at the intersection of National Routes 2 and 186. La Courneuve station acts as a transfer between the Métro and Paris' fragmented, suburban tramway system, with a station on Paris Tramway Line 1.
Unlike most stations in Paris, there are three tracks, the central one used for departures and arrivals. Running below National Route 2, the line heads to the south-west, entering Paris in two single-line tunnels so as to avoid a now-unused terminal loop at Porte de la Villette, it descends a 4% grade below Canal Saint-Denis and climbs back up to stop at Corentin Cariou. Two stations beyond, Line 7 reaches Stalingrad, an important transfer point in the Métro system, where the line turns to run below Rue La Fayette. Metro Line 7 passes near several places of interest: The Parc de la Villette with the Cités des Sciences et de l'Industrie; the Opera Garnier. The Latin Quarter. Place d'Italie and the Butte aux Cailles. One of Paris' "Chinatowns" in the south of the 13th arrondissement. RATP Official Website RATP English-language website Interactive Map of the RER Interactive Map of the Paris Métro Mobidf website, dedicated to the RER Metro-Pole website, dedicated to Paris public transport
The Montmartre Funicular serves the Montmartre neighbourhood of Paris, France, in the 18th arrondissement. It is operated by the Paris transport authority, it was opened in 1900 and rebuilt in 1935 and again in 1991. It carries passengers between the foot of the butte of Montmartre and its summit, near the foot of the Sacré-Cœur basilica, it provides an alternative to the multiple stairways of more than 300 steps that lead to the top of the Butte Montmartre. At 108 m long, the funicular drops the 36 m in under a minute and a half, it carries two million passengers a year. Despite the word funicular in its name, in its modern state the Montmartre Funicular is technically a double inclined elevator; the funicular is open every day from 6 am until 12.45 am, transporting 6,000 people a day, or around 2 million a year tourists and pilgrims en route to the Sacré-Cœur, Parisians and those who love the ambience of the Place du Tertre. The lower station was built between the Place Saint-Pierre and the Place Suzanne-Valadon, the upper one on the Rue du Cardinal-Dubois.
The funicular runs alongside a wide 220-step staircase. Constructed by the Schindler Group, the new funicular with electrical traction entered service on 1 June 1991, it has two cabins with sixty places each which travel on two separate, parallel tracks using the international standard gauge of 1,435 mm. It has a capacity of 2,000 passengers per hour in each direction. A trip in either direction, which covers a vertical distance of 36 m over a track distance of 108 m, takes less than 90 seconds and climbs or descends a gradient as high as 35.2%. The technology of the Montmartre line differs from conventional funicular railways in that it is derived from that of standard up-down elevators, with each car being equipped with its own counterweight, rather than relying on the other car for counterbalance; the benefit of this design is that it allows each car to function independently, with its own hoist and cables. This allows one car to remain in service. At busy times, both cabins can ascend at the same time.
The see-through stations were designed by the architect François Deslaugiers, while the new cabins with their distinctive glass sections were by the industrial designer Roger Tallon, who designed the carriages of the TGV Atlantique. The cabin roofs are glazed, which allows a view while in transit of the Montmartre Basilica or the panorama over Paris; the Paris city government voted to construct the Montmartre funicular in 1891. Operation of the funicular was subcontracted to Decauville through a concession that ended in 1931. Thereafter, the Société des transports en commun de la région parisienne took control, this was nationalized together with the Compagnie du chemin de fer métropolitain de Paris to form the Régie autonome des transports parisiens, which continues to operate the funicular today; the original funicular was water-powered, using a system of cisterns of 5 m3 each that were filled or emptied to move the cars and to compensate for passenger load. In 1935, the system was converted to electricity.
The funicular was rebuilt by the RATP in 1990–1991. The funicular was shut down after a minor accident during tests by the RATP in December 2006, it reopened in July 2007. 5 June 1891: Decision to create a funicular at Montmartre 12 or 13 July 1900: Inauguration of the first water-driven funicular 1 November 1931: Closure of the water-driven funicular 2 February 1935: Opening of the electric funicular 1 October 1990: Closure of the funicular for the second renovation 5 October 1991: Opening of the modern funicular 7 December 2006: Accident during a brake load test, without passengers The construction of the Montmartre funicular was decided upon by the Paris municipal council in 1891. It was built to serve the Sacré-Cœur Basilica at the summit of the outlier of Montmartre and was inaugurated on 5 June 1891. If built according to the plan of the project selected the funicular would have used electrical traction and had a much longer route, serving six stations as well as two termini, it ended up being far more modest with only two terminal stations, using water-filled counterweights for motion.
The funicular entered service on 12 or 13 July, its operation was handed over to the Decauville company with a contract lasting until 1931. However, lacking the necessary authorisation from the Paris Prefecture of Police to run the service, the company had to close the funicular from 24 November 1900 until 22 May 1901; the funicular was of double track at standard gauge, using the Strub rack system for braking. The rails were supported by sleepers made of structural steel, supported on concrete pedestals; the system was powered by two sealed water tanks with a capacity of 5 m3 placed underneath the floor of each cabin. The cabin's tank was refilled at the upper station which allowed its descent under gravity with the combined weight of the passengers and the water, enabling the other carriage to ascend. A steam engine situated at the lower station worked the filling pumps at the upper station; the cabins had a capacity of forty-eight passengers in four closed compartments arranged like a staircase.
These were retained for a brake system established on the rack railway. This system transported a million passengers a year for some thirty years; when the contract expired, the Mayor of Paris and the Seine Department charged the Société des transpor