Arthur Robert Ashe Jr. was an American professional tennis player who won three Grand Slam titles. Ashe was the first black player selected to the United States Davis Cup team and the only black man to win the singles title at Wimbledon, the US Open, the Australian Open, he retired in 1980. He was ranked World No. 1 by Harry Hopman in 1968 and by Lance Tingay of The Daily Telegraph and World Tennis Magazine in 1975. In the ATP computer rankings, he peaked at No. 2 in May 1976. In the early 1980s, Ashe is believed to have contracted HIV from a blood transfusion he received during heart bypass surgery. Ashe publicly announced his illness in April 1992 and began working to educate others about HIV and AIDS, he founded the Arthur Ashe Foundation for the Defeat of AIDS and the Arthur Ashe Institute for Urban Health before his death from AIDS-related pneumonia at age 49 on February 6, 1993. On June 20, 1993, Ashe was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by the United States President Bill Clinton.
Arthur Ashe was born in Richmond, Virginia, to Arthur Ashe Sr. and Mattie Cordell Cunningham Ashe on July 10, 1943. He had a brother, five years younger than him. In March 1950, Ashe's mother Mattie died from complications related to a toxemic pregnancy at the age of 27. Ashe and his brother were raised by their father who worked as a handyman and salaried caretaker-Special Policeman for Richmond's recreation department. Ashe Sr. was a caring father and strict disciplinarian who encouraged Arthur to excel in both school and in sports, but forbid him to play American football, a popular game for many black children, due to his son's slight build, something that meant Arthur's childhood nicknames were "Skinny" or "Bones". The Ashes lived in the caretaker's cottage in the grounds of 18-acre Brookfield park, Richmond's largest blacks-only public playground, which had basketball courts, four tennis courts, a pool and three baseball diamonds. Ashe started playing tennis at 7 years of age and began practicing on the courts where his natural talent was spotted by Virginia Union University student and part-time Brookfield tennis instructor, Ron Charity, who as the best black tennis player in Richmond at the time, began to teach Ashe the basic strokes and encouraged him to enter local tournaments.
Ashe attended Maggie L. Walker High School. Ron Charity brought him to the attention of Robert Walter Johnson, a physician, the coach of Althea Gibson, who founded and funded the Junior Development Program of the American Tennis Association. Ashe was coached and mentored by Johnson at his tennis summer camp home in Lynchburg, Virginia from 1953 when Ashe was age 10, until 1960. Johnson helped fine-tune Ashe's game and taught him the importance of racial socialization through sportsmanship and the composure that would become an Ashe hallmark, he was told to return every ball that landed within two inches of a line and never to argue with an umpire's decision. In 1958, Ashe became the first African-American to play in the Maryland boys' championships, it was his first integrated tennis competition. In 1960, Ashe was precluded from competing against Caucasian youths in segregated Richmond during the school year and unable to use the city's indoor courts that were closed to black players, he accepted an offer from Richard Hudlin, a 62-year-old St. Louis teacher, tennis coach and friend of Dr. Johnson, to move to St. Louis and spend his senior year attending Sumner High School, where he could compete more freely.
Ashe lived with Hudlin and his family for the year, during which time Hudlin coached and encouraged him to develop the serve-and-volley game that Ashe's, now stronger, physique allowed. Ashe was able to practice at the National Guard Armory indoor courts and in 1961, after lobbying by Dr. Johnson, he was granted permission to compete in the segregated U. S. Interscholastic won it for the school. In December 1960 and again in 1963, Ashe was featured in Sports Illustrated, appearing in their Faces in the Crowd segment, he became the first African-American to win the National Junior Indoor tennis title and was awarded a tennis scholarship to the University of California, Los Angeles in 1963. During his time at UCLA, he was coached by J. D. Morgan and practiced with his sporting idol, Pancho Gonzales, who lived nearby and helped hone his game. Ashe was a member of the ROTC which required him to join active military service after graduation in exchange for money for tuition, he was active in other things, joining the Upsilon chapter of the Kappa Alpha Psi fraternity on campus.
After graduating with a Bachelor's Degree in Business Administration, Ashe joined the United States Army on August 4, 1966. Ashe completed his basic training in Washington and was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Adjutant General Corps, he was assigned to the United States Military Academy at West Point where he worked as a data processor. During his time at West Point, Ashe headed the academy's tennis program, he was promoted to 1st lieutenant on February 23, 1968, was discharged from the Army in 1969. In 1963, Arthur Ashe became the first black player selected for the United States Davis Cup team. In 1965, ranked the number 3 player in the United States, Ashe won both the National Collegiate Athletic Association singles title and the doubles title, helping UCLA win the team NCAA tennis championship. In 1966 and 1967, Ashe reached the final of the Australian Championship but lost on both occasions to Roy Emerson. 1968 was another groundbreaking year for Ashe. He won the United States Amateur Championships against Davis Cup Teammate Bob Lutz, the
Marcel Granollers Pujol is a tennis player from Spain who turned professional in 2003. He reached his career-high singles ranking of World No. 19 in July 2012, his highest doubles ranking of World No. 4 in February 2013. Granollers has won 16 doubles titles, including the 2012 ATP World Tour Finals, his brother Gerard Granollers is a tennis player. Granollers lost to Andrei Pavel. In the qualifying rounds, he beat Konstantinos Economidis and Marco Chiudinelli. In 2007, Granollers won the Naples and Rome Challengers for doubles with Flavio Cipolla, the Maspalomas Challenger for doubles with Marc López. At the 2007 French Open, he made the second round of the men's doubles tournament with Feliciano López before they lost in three close sets to the number 4 seeds Fabrice Santoro and Nenad Zimonjić, who won 7–5, 1–6, 6–4, he lost at the French and Wimbledon Championships both times in the second round of qualifying for the main draws. 2008 saw Granollers qualify for the Australian Open Singles Draw, but lost to Evgeny Korolev in straight sets in the first round.
He reached the quarterfinals of the 2008 Abierto Mexicano Telcel in Acapulco, Mexico, an International Series Gold tournament, before losing to José Acasuso 7–6, 6–3. On 20 April, he won his first ATP singles title at the U. S. Men's Clay Court Championships, he had saved two match points in the semifinals. The previous day, he and Pablo Cuevas lost in the doubles final. Following Rafael Nadal's announcement that he would not play the Davis Cup Final at Argentina on 21–23 November, Spain's Captain Emilio Sánchez announced that Marcel Granollers would replace Nadal; this was Granollers' first Davis Cup appearance. In 2009, Granollers won three ATP doubles titles at the 2009 Brasil Open, the 2009 Copa Telmex, the 2009 Kremlin Cup, teaming up with Tommy Robredo, Alberto Martín, Pablo Cuevas respectively. In the first round of the 2010 Australian Open, Granollers pulled off a remarkable comeback when he recovered from 2 sets down against world no.8 and French Open finalist, Robin Söderling. He lost to Alejandro Falla in the 2nd round.
Granollers lost in the first round of the Australian Open to eventual champion Novak Djokovic, he didn't win consecutive matches until the 2011 Miami Masters, where he got to the fourth round. In July, he beat Stanislas Wawrinka, Mikhail Youzhny, Fernando Verdasco to win his first title of the year and his second career title at the Swiss Open. In the US Open, he reached the third round of a Grand Slam for the first time in his career, to break into the Top 30. In November, Granollers claimed the title at the Valencia Open 500 by defeating Juan Mónaco in three sets and said, "Winning here has been the biggest achievement in my whole career." He beat four Top 20 players: Alexandr Dolgopolov, Marin Čilić, Gaël Monfils and Juan Martín del Potro en route to the final at the ATP World Tour 500 tournament. Granollers played for the victorious Spain Davis Cup team in 2011, losing the doubles rubber in the quarter final against United States. Marcel Granollers reached the fourth round of a Grand Slam for the first time at French Open, losing to David Ferrer in three straight sets.
Granollers lost to Marin Čilić in the final match of Croatia Open on 15 July 2012. Playing doubles alongside countryman Marc López, he went 3–4 in finals, winning titles at the Internazionali BNL d'Italia, Swiss Open and ATP World Tour Finals. Granollers and Lopez were the first Spanish pair to play at the season-ending championships since Sergio Casal and Emilio Sánchez in 1994, he partnered López at the 2012 Summer Olympics. Granollers made it to the fourth round of the US Open for the first time, he lost to top-seed Novak Djokovic in straight sets. In 2014, he had a consistent doubles performances at the French & US Open, making the finals at both events. Granollers suffered a significant loss in form, with only one tour-level late round appearance: the semifinals in Zagreb Indoors losing to Andreas Seppi, his year-end ranking dropped to No. 84. He reached the Quarterfinals of the 2016 Monte-Carlo Rolex Masters before losing to Gaël Monfils in straight sets. Granollers' good serve and net skills account for his excellent doubles record.
His comparatively technically weak groundstrokes are underpowered with low takebacks on both wings but they provide a decent defensive framework. He is known for his heavy grunting, so much as to result in ridicule and accusations of gamesmanship due to its loud volume and questionable timing during matches. Current till 2018 Paris Masters. Current through 2018 Paris Masters. Official website Marcel Granollers at the Association of Tennis Professionals Marcel Granollers at the International Tennis Federation Marcel Granollers at the Davis Cup
Andrés Gimeno Tolaguera is a retired Spanish tennis player. His greatest achievement came in 1972. Andres came from a family that loved his father Esteban supported him to play tennis. Esteban had been a good tennis player and he became Andres' coach, they practiced at Real Club de Tenis Barcelona. At an early age Andres started to become a good tennis player, winning some important tournaments in his region. At age sixteen he won the U-18 Championship of Spain. In 1954 he won the Championship of Spain in the doubles’ category playing with Juan Manuel Couder. At the same time, he stopped studying to focus on his tennis’ career, he was a successful tennis player in Spain, but represented his country throughout Europe. He played in the Galea's Cup, the European Championship U21, won it in 1956 and 1957, he was the runner-up in 1958. After that, he decided to go to Australia to play with the man, considered the best tennis coach in the world, Harry Hopman, he increased his tennis level and soon, he had two important victories in the championships in Perth and in Sidney.
Gimeno went back to Spain in 1960 where he did his best year as an amateur, winning the titles in Barcelona, Monte Carlo, Queen's. In Barcelona, he became the first Spanish player to win the Torneo Conde de Godó, beating the Italian player Giuseppe Merlo; that same year he reached the doubles final too, but failed to win in that category, losing to an Australian duo in the final. After that year, he joined the professional group “World Championship Tennis”, where Jack Kramer offered him $50,000 for three years, more money for each victory; the group consisted of some of the best tennis players in history such as Rod Laver, Pancho Gonzalez, Ken Rosewall. Gimeno won the World Championship in 1966, beating Rod Laver in five sets and the same tournament in doubles, he won the Netherlands' Open, the Madison Square Garden's Championship in 1969, the Dakar and Hamburg in 1971. His Grand Slam's results came in 1968 when the Open Era started and the professional could participate in Grand Slams, his first good result was the final in Australian Open in 1969, where he lost to Rod Laver in three sets.
Andres Gimeno's best year was in 1972, when he was a finalist in Brussels and in Paris, he won in Los Angeles, in Eastbourne, in Gstaad, the French Open. The Catalan won his first and only Grand Slam in 1972, he holds the record for the oldest male player to win the French Open. In the final, he beat the French player Patrick Proisy in four sets. In addition, he reached the semifinals at Wimbledon. In 1973 he reached the final in Hilversum. Gimeno was recording an 18 -- 5 singles record and 5 -- 5 his doubles record, his debut was in the match that Spain played against Egypt with one of the most important players in Spain, Manuel Santana. He couldn’t play the competition while he was a part of the professional group, but he participated as coach in 1966. In 1973 he decided to quit playing tennis, he became the tennis coach in the RFET, Tennis’ Spanish Federation and in the Suisse Federation. Gimeno was ranked World No. 6 for 1961 by L'Équipe, World No. 4 for 1964 by Joe McCauley and World No. 3 for 1962, 1963, 1966 and 1967 by Károly Mazák in his amateur-pro combined rankings.
After his professional career, he decided to join the tennis circuit for retired players called Legends Championship. He founded a tennis club in 1974 called "Club de Tenis Andres Gimeno" in Castelldefels, Barcelona, he worked as tennis commentator in Television Espanola and in Telecinco, both Spanish televisions. He was elected to the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 2009, becoming the fourth Spanish tennis player in it, after Arantxa Sánchez Vicario, Manuel Alonso and Manuel Santana, he got married to Cristina Corolla in 1962 and together they have three children: Alejo Gimeno, Andres Gimeno Jr and Cristina Gimeno. In 2011, Gimeno lost all his money and some of the best Spanish tennis players such as Rafael Nadal, Tommy Robredo, Feliciano López and David Ferrer played an exhibition tennis tournament in Palau Blaugrana to raise funds for him. Andrés Gimeno at the Association of Tennis Professionals Andrés Gimeno at the International Tennis Federation Andrés Gimeno at the Davis Cup Andrés Gimeno at the International Tennis Hall of Fame
AccorHotels Arena is an indoor sports arena and concert hall located in the neighborhood of Bercy, on boulevard de Bercy, in the 12th arrondissement of Paris, France. The closest métro station is Bercy. Designed by the architectural firm Andrault-Parat, Jean Prouvé and Aydin Guvan, the arena has a pyramidal shape, walls covered with a sloping lawn, it has a seating capacity ranging depending on the event. It has been used as the main venue for the Paris Masters ATP Tour tennis tournament, for many sports events, such as: table tennis, basketball, gymnastics, track cycling, show jumping, more. POPB hosted the European gymnastics championship in 2000, the 1991 and 1996 FIBA EuroLeague Final Fours, the FIBA EuroBasket championship in 1999, among others, it hosted the 2009–10 EuroLeague Final Four. It hosted the Masters Karting Paris Bercy star race, from 1993 to 2001, again in 2011, it is serving as a host, along with Lanxess Arena in Cologne, Germany of the 2017 IIHF World Championship. On 28 June, it was announced that the arena would host the 2017 European League of Legends Championship Series Summer Finals.
As part of the 2014–15 renovations efforts, the arena was renamed to Bercy Arena on 1 January 2015. It was again renamed to AccorHotels Arena in October 2015; the arena will host the 2019 League of Legends World Championship Finals. AccorHotels Arena will be a venue for 2024 Summer Olympics. List of tennis stadiums by capacity Official website
Stanley Roger Smith is a former world No. 1 American tennis player and two-time Grand Slam singles champion who with his partner Bob Lutz, formed one of the most successful doubles teams of all time. Together, they won many major titles all over the world. In 1970, Smith won the first year end championship Masters Grand Prix title. Smith's two major singles titles were the 1971 US Open, 1972 Wimbledon. In 1972, he was the year-ending world No. 1 singles player. In 1973, he won his last year end championship title at the Dallas WCT Finals. In addition, he won four Grand Prix Championship Series titles, his name is used in a popular brand of tennis shoes. In his early years he improved his tennis game through lessons from Pancho Segura, the Pasadena Tennis Patrons, the sponsorship of the Southern California Tennis Association headed by Perry T. Jones. Smith grew up in Pasadena and was coached by Pancho Segura, he played collegiate tennis at the University of Southern California, under Coach George Toley, where he was a three-time All-American and won the 1968 NCAA Singles Championship as well as the 1967 and 1968 Doubles Titles.
At USC, Smith was a member of Beta Theta Pi fraternity's Gamma Tau chapter. As a kid, he went to get a job as a ball boy for the Davis Cup, but was turned down because the organizers thought he was too clumsy. In his 1979 autobiography, Jack Kramer, the long-time tennis promoter and great player himself, ranked Smith as one of the 21 best players of all time. In 2005, TENNIS magazine ranked Smith as 35th in its "40 Greatest Players of the TENNIS Era". Smith was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1987. Following his playing career, Smith became active as a Coach for the United States Tennis Association, he now has his own Tennis Academy with Billy Stearns called Smith Stearns Tennis Academy, on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina. In 1974 Smith married Princeton University tennis player Marjory Gengler, they mentored South African tennis player Mark Mathabane, helping increase pressure on the South African government to end Apartheid. Today, Smith lives in Hilton Head with his wife and four children, all of whom competed in collegiate tennis.
In Hilton Head he is a co-owner of the tennis academy Smith Stearns. He is the President of the International Tennis Hall of Fame. To non-tennis players, Stan Smith is best known for his line of Adidas tennis shoes. Although the Adidas Stan Smith shoe is not recommended for modern tennis playing, it continues to be a available iconic fashion brand. Note: Smith won 7 titles from 1966-1968 and an additional 8 titles in 1969 Smith, Stan. Stan Smith's Winning Doubles. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics. ISBN 0-7360-3007-7. Little Pancho by Caroline Seebohm The Golden Age of College Tennis by George Toley Stan Smith at the Association of Tennis Professionals Stan Smith at the International Tennis Federation Stan Smith at the Davis Cup Stan Smith at the International Tennis Hall of Fame
Ivan Dodig is a Croatian tennis player. His career-high ATP rankings are world No. 29 in world No. 4 in doubles. Dodig is a Grand Slam champion after winning the 2015 French Open men's doubles title with Marcelo Melo. At the 2010 Australian Open, he qualified for the main draw and beat former world no. 1 Juan Carlos Ferrero in the first round in five sets. However, he bowed out to Stefan Koubek in the second round. Dodig had a pretty average year, playing many Challenger tournaments throughout the year, he failed to qualify for the 2010 French Open, but he notably reached the second round at 2010 Wimbledon Championships, beating Óscar Hernández before stretching Sam Querrey to four tough sets. He reached the second round at the 2010 US Open, after beating Fernando González, who retired with a knee injury, but Dodig retired himself with an injury against Thiemo de Bakker. At the 2011 Australian Open, Dodig played Ivo Karlović in the first round and prevailed in a tough five set match, he was drawn to play third seed and eventual champion Novak Djokovic in the second round.
Although he lost in four sets, he was the only player to win a set against Djokovic in the whole tournament. He followed this up with a surprise first tournament win in front of his home crowd at the 2011 PBZ Zagreb Indoors, beating the previous year's finalist Michael Berrer, he made a second-round appearance at the 2011 Regions Morgan Keegan Championships, losing to the comeback kid Juan Martín del Potro. Dodig reached the quarterfinals at the 2011 Delray Beach International Tennis Championships after beating Kunitsyn and Sela, before losing to Janko Tipsarević. First-round action in the Davis Cup, a showdown between Croatia and Germany, saw Dodig up against Kohlschreiber, but he succumbed to the German in five sets; the loss proved costly, as Germany went on to prevail 3–2 in the tie to move on to the quarterfinals. At the 2011 Sony Ericsson Open he beat Andrey Golubev in the first round. However, he lost to World No.4 Robin Söderling despite being up 4–2 in the third set. At the 2011 Monte-Carlo Rolex Masters, he bowed out to World No.29 Tommy Robredo in the first round.
Dodig found some good form heading into the 2011 Barcelona Open Banco Sabadell tournament. In the opening round he beat Vincent Millot before beating No.3 seed and last year's finalist Robin Söderling. He went on to claim hard fought scalps over fast-rising Canadian Milos Raonic and home favourite Feliciano López to reach the semifinals of a clay-court tournament for the first time in his career. However, in the semifinals, he was stopped by five-time champion and eventual champion for the 6th time, World No.1 Rafael Nadal, still yet to lose a match on Barcelona soil. Despite breaking twice as he broke once in each set to hang on with Nadal, Dodig fell after giving a decent fight, which added to the Spaniard's current winning streak on clay. In the second round of the Rogers Cup, Dodig stunned world no. 2 Rafael Nadal, 1–6, 7–6, 7–6 after recovering from a 1–6, 1–3 deficit before losing to Janko Tipsarević in the third round. On 30 August 2011, in the US Open first round Dodig lost to Nikolay Davydenko in a fought five sets match.
At the first gram slam of the year, the 2012 Australian Open he retired against Frederico Gil. At the next two slams he lost in the first round to Robin Haase and Lukáš Rosol at the 2012 French Open and Wimbledon respectively. At the 2012 Summer Olympics he lost to Juan Martín del Potro in the first round of the men's singles, he fared better in the men's doubles, where partner Marin Čilić reached the quarter-finals. At the 2012 US Open he beat qualifier Hiroki Moriya in the first round, however lost his second round match against Andy Murray in straight sets. Dodig had his most successful season to date, reaching the third round or better at 3 out of 4 Major tournaments, breaking into the world's top 30 for the first time. At the Australian Open, Dodig reached the third round of a Grand Slam for the first time, beating Di Wu and Jarkko Nieminen in the first two rounds, before losing to number 10 seed Richard Gasquet, he reached his first quarterfinal of the year at the PBZ Zagreb Indoors, losing to 3rd seed Mikhail Youzhny.
At Indian Wells, Dodig defeated 28th seed Julien Benneteau en route to the third round before falling to world number 2 Roger Federer in straight sets. During the clay court season, Dodig reached the semifinals of the BMW Open before falling to eventual champion Tommy Haas; however at the French Open, Dodig lost an tight first round match to Guido Pella, losing 12 games to 10 in the fifth set. He went on to have his best run at a Grand Slam event to date, due in part to some luck and a brace of injuries, reaching the fourth round at Wimbledon despite only completing one match. Philipp Kohlschreiber retired in the first round in the fifth set, he beat Denis Kudla in straight sets, followed by Igor Sijsling retiring in the third set. In the fourth round, he led David Ferrer by a set, but lost in four, he and his partner Marcelo Melo finished as runners-up in the men's doubles to Bob and Mike Bryan. He was the 32nd seed at the 2014 Australian Open where he reached the 2nd round before retiring to Damir Džumhur.
At the 2014 Barcelona Open, Dodig beat world number 30 Feliciano López in second round and lost to Rafael Nadal in round of 16. At the Rome Masters, he defeated Federico Delbonis and Lukas Rosol was beaten in third round by Jérémy Chardy in round of 16. At the Canada Masters, the Croatian took wins over world number 14 John Isner and Andreas Seppi, after which he was defeated by fifth seeded David Ferrer. Dodig had a strong showing in the men's doubles event at the 2015 Australian Open. Dodig an
Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent or between two teams of two players each. Each player uses a tennis racket, strung with cord to strike a hollow rubber ball covered with felt over or around a net and into the opponent's court; the object of the game is to maneuver the ball in such a way that the opponent is not able to play a valid return. The player, unable to return the ball will not gain a point, while the opposite player will. Tennis is played at all levels of society and at all ages; the sport can be played by anyone. The modern game of tennis originated in Birmingham, England, in the late 19th century as lawn tennis, it had close connections both to various field games such as croquet and bowls as well as to the older racket sport today called real tennis. During most of the 19th century, in fact, the term tennis referred to real tennis, not lawn tennis; the rules of modern tennis have changed little since the 1890s. Two exceptions are that from 1908 to 1961 the server had to keep one foot on the ground at all times, the adoption of the tiebreak in the 1970s.
A recent addition to professional tennis has been the adoption of electronic review technology coupled with a point-challenge system, which allows a player to contest the line call of a point, a system known as Hawk-Eye. Tennis is played by millions of recreational players and is a popular worldwide spectator sport; the four Grand Slam tournaments are popular: the Australian Open played on hard courts, the French Open played on red clay courts, Wimbledon played on grass courts, the US Open played on hard courts. Historians believe that the game's ancient origin lay in 12th century northern France, where a ball was struck with the palm of the hand. Louis X of France was a keen player of jeu de paume, which evolved into real tennis, became notable as the first person to construct indoor tennis courts in the modern style. Louis was unhappy with playing tennis outdoors and accordingly had indoor, enclosed courts made in Paris "around the end of the 13th century". In due course this design spread across royal palaces all over Europe.
In June 1316 at Vincennes, Val-de-Marne and following a exhausting game, Louis drank a large quantity of cooled wine and subsequently died of either pneumonia or pleurisy, although there was suspicion of poisoning. Because of the contemporary accounts of his death, Louis X is history's first tennis player known by name. Another of the early enthusiasts of the game was King Charles V of France, who had a court set up at the Louvre Palace, it wasn't until the 16th century that rackets came into use, the game began to be called "tennis", from the French term tenez, which can be translated as "hold!", "receive!" or "take!", an interjection used as a call from the server to his opponent. It was popular in England and France, although the game was only played indoors where the ball could be hit off the wall. Henry VIII of England was a big fan of this game, now known as real tennis. During the 18th and early 19th centuries, as real tennis declined, new racket sports emerged in England. Further, the patenting of the first lawn mower in 1830, in Britain, is believed to have been the catalyst, for the preparation of modern-style grass courts, sporting ovals, playing fields, greens, etc.
This in turn led to the codification of modern rules for many sports, including lawn tennis, most football codes, lawn bowls and others. Between 1859 and 1865 Harry Gem, a solicitor and his friend Augurio Perera developed a game that combined elements of racquets and the Basque ball game pelota, which they played on Perera's croquet lawn in Birmingham, United Kingdom. In 1872, along with two local doctors, they founded the world's first tennis club on Avenue Road, Leamington Spa; this is. After Leamington, the second club to take up the game of lawn tennis appears to have been the Edgbaston Archery and Croquet Society in Birmingham. In Tennis: A Cultural History, Heiner Gillmeister reveals that on December 8, 1874, British army officer Walter Clopton Wingfield wrote to Harry Gem, commenting that he had been experimenting with his version of lawn tennis “for a year and a half”. In December 1873, Wingfield designed and patented a game which he called sphairistikè, was soon known as "sticky" – for the amusement of guests at a garden party on his friend's estate of Nantclwyd Hall, in Llanelidan, Wales.
According to R. D. C. Evans, turfgrass agronomist, "Sports historians all agree that deserves much of the credit for the development of modern tennis." According to Honor Godfrey, museum curator at Wimbledon, Wingfield "popularized this game enormously. He produced a boxed set which included a net, rackets, balls for playing the game – and most you had his rules, he was terrific at marketing and he sent his game all over the world. He had good connections with the clergy, the law profession, the aristocracy and he sent thousands of sets out in the first year or so, in 1874." The world's oldest annual tennis tournament took place at Leamington Lawn Tennis Club in Birmingham in 1874. This was three years before the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club would hold its first championships at Wimbledon, in 1877; the first Championships culminated a significant debate on. In the U. S. in 1874 Mary Ewing Outerbridge, a young socialite, returned from Bermuda with a sphairistikè set. She became fascin