Geneva Motor Show
The Geneva International Motor Show is an annual auto show held in March in the Swiss city of Geneva. The show is hosted at the Palexpo, a convention centre located next to the Geneva Cointrin International Airport; the Salon is organised by the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles, is considered an important major international auto show. First held in 1905, the Salon has hosted all major internal combustion engined models in the history of the automobile, along with benzene- and steam-powered cars from the beginning of the century. Exotic supercars steal the spotlight during their debuts at the show. Prototypes, new equipment, technical breakthroughs, international partnerships, as well as political and social debates, have been announced at the exhibition; the show is regarded as a level playing field for the world's automakers, aided by the fact Switzerland lacks an auto industry of its own. Areas of the show: Motor cars 3 or 4 or more wheels. Electric cars and alternative powered cars.
Special bodywork for motor cars, car design, engineering. Converted cars. Accessories and parts for motor cars OEM: original equipment manufacturers Workshop installations for the repair and maintenance of motor cars Miscellaneous products and services related to the car industry Animation / Attractions; the International Advanced Mobility Forum is the Geneva Motor Show forum on the mobility of the future. The 89th Geneva Motor Show was held between 7 and 17 March 2019; the 88th Geneva Motor Show was held on 8 to 18 March 2018. The 87th Geneva Motor Show was held from 9 to 19 March 2017; the 86th Geneva Motor Show was held from 3 to 13 March 2016. The 85th Geneva Motor Show was held from 5 to 15 March 2015; the 84th Geneva Motor Show was held from 6 to 16 March 2014. The 83rd Geneva Motor Show was held from 5 to 17 March 2013; the 82nd edition was held from 8 to 18 March 2012. The 2011 edition was held from 3 to 13 March 2011; the 80th edition of the Geneva Motor Show was held from 4–14 March 2010.
Over 80 introductions were expected for the show. Press days for the show started on 2 March 2010; the 2009 Geneva Motor Show was held from 5–15 March 2009. The following vehicles were introduced: The 2008 Geneva Motor Show was held from 6–16 March 2008; the following vehicles were introduced: The following were scheduled to be introduced at the 2007 Geneva Auto Show: In addition, Subaru introduced its new boxer diesel engine, Honda showed its next generation clean diesel engine. Bolloré Bluecar Fiat Panda, hybrid petrol -natural gas. Ford Focus Turnier 2.0 Honda FCX Clarity Opel Corsa D, with optimized 100HP 1.6l natural gas engine. Serial production will be evaluated. Reva Greeny AC1 and AC1 Z Subaru R1e, small electric city car, with a battery that can be 80% recharged in just 15 minutes; the following introductions were featured at the 2006 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 2005 Geneva show: The following introductions were made from 4 to 14 March 2004 at the Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 2003 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 2002 Geneva show: The following major introductions were made at the 2001 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 2000 Geneva show: The following concepts and major launches featured at the 1999 Geneva show: The following concepts and major launches featured at the 1998 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1997 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1996 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1995 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1994 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1993 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1992 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1991 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1990 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1989 Geneva show: Alfa Romeo SZ Alpina B10 Bi-Turbo Chevrolet Corvette ZR-1 Daihatsu Applause Ford Fiesta Urba Ford Via concept Lancia Delta Integrale 16v Lotus Carlton Mercedes-Benz 500SL Peugeot Agades concept Sbarro Osmos concept The following introductions were made at the 1988 Geneva show: Ford Saguaro concept Maserati Karif Sbarro Robur concept The following introductions were made at the 1987 Geneva show: Aston Martin Lagonda Sbarro Monster G concept The following introductions were made at the 1986 Geneva show: Aston Martin V8 Zagato coupe BMW 524d Citroën Eole concept Rover CCV concept Sbarro Challenge 2+2 concept Volvo 480 Zender Vision 3C concept The following introductions were made at the 1985 Geneva show: Ferrari 412 Lamborghini Countach LP5000 S Quattrovalvole Michelotti PAC Peugeot Griffe 4 concept Sbarro Challenge concept Sbarro Super Five Volvo 780 The following introductions were made at the 1984 Geneva show: Alfa Romeo 33 1.5 Giardinetta Alfa Romeo Tempo Libero concept Ferrari 288 GTO Ford APV concept Lamborghini Jalpa P350 Sbarro Super Eight concept Sbarro Mercedes Benz Biturbo Zagato Z33 "Free Time" The following introductions were made at the 1983 Geneva show: Alfa Romeo Delfino concept Alfa Romeo Zeta Sei concept Fiat Ritmo Coupe concept Ford Trio concept Lincoln Quicksilver concept Renault Gabbiano concept The following introductions were made at the 1982 Geneva show: Bentley Mulsanne Turbo Lamborghini LMA002 Michelotti CVT 58 concept Opel Corsa Spider concept Sbarro Super Twelve concept Volkswagen Golf GTD The followin
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
New York International Auto Show
The New York International Auto Show is an annual auto show, held in Manhattan in late March or early April. It is held at the Jacob Javits Convention Center, it opens on or just before Easter weekend and closes on the first Sunday after Easter. In 2018, the NYIAS took place from March 30 through April 8; the show has been held annually since 1900. It was the first automotive exhibition in North America; the show was held at the New York Coliseum from 1956 to 1987 when the show moved to the Javits Center. Before the show opens every year, several auto companies debut new production and concept vehicles for the press. In addition, the Greater New York Auto Dealers Association and the International Motor Press Association host corporate meetings and events. In addition to individual programs during the show, there are automobile related conferences, forums and other gatherings; the ten day event contribution to economy of the City and State is estimated to be in the hundreds of millions of dollars.
The 2019 show will be held from April 19 through April 28, with press preview days on April 17 and 18 Genesis EV Concept Kia Habaniro Volkswagen Atlas Basecamp Concept Volkswagen ID Buggy The 2018 show was held from March 30 through April 8, with press preview days on March 28 and 29. The 2017 show was held from April 14 through April 23, with press preview days on April 12 and 13; the 2016 show was held from March 25 through April 3, with press preview days on March 23 and 24. Acura NSX GT3 Honda Civic Coupe GRC The 2015 show was held from April 3 through April 12, with press preview days on April 1 and 2. Honda Civic Concept Lincoln Continental Concept Subaru BRZ STi Performance Concept Infiniti QX30 Concept Acura ILX Endurance Racer Subaru WRX STi Rallycross car The 2014 show was held from April 18 through April 27, with press preview days on April 16 and 17; the 2013 show was held from March 29 through April 7, with press preview days on March 27 and 28. Subaru WRX Concept Audi A3 Sportback E-Tron concept BMW Concept Active Tourer The 2012 show was held from April 6 through April 15, with press preview days on April 4 and 5.
2012 New York International Auto Show Highlights Nissan introduced the 2014 Nissan NV200 Taxi, the New York City "Taxi of Tomorrow", on the evening before show press days began. It was on display at the show as well; the 2011 show was held from April 22 through May 1, with press preview days on April 20 and April 21. Infiniti announced production of the JX mid-size crossover, to be revealed as a concept at the Pebble Beach Concours d'Elegance in August, in production form at the LA Auto Show in November. Mazda announced production of the 2013 CX-5 compact crossover, to be revealed at the Frankfurt Motor Show in September; the 2010 show was held from April 2 through April 11, with press preview days on March 31 and April 1. The 2009 show was held from April 10 until April 19, with press preview days on April 8 and April 9. Acura ZDX Concept Ford Transit Connect Family One Concept Mercedes-Benz E250 BlueTec Concept Mitsubishi Outlander GT Prototype Hyundai Nuvis Scion iQ Concept General Motors/Segway PUMA The 2008 show was held from March 21 until March 30, with press preview days on March 19 and March 20.
2009 Acura TSX 2009 Dodge Challenger 2009 Honda Fit 2009 Hyundai Genesis Coupe 2009 Kia Optima 2009 Mercedes-Benz M-Class 2009 Nissan Maxima 2009 Pontiac G8 GXP 2010 Pontiac G8 sport truck 2009 Pontiac Solstice Coupe 2008 Porsche Boxster RS60 Spyder 2009 Volvo XC60 Nissan Cube Denki Concept Nissan Cube Quazé Concept Nissan Cube Nielus Concept Scion Hako Coupe Suzuki Kizashi 3 Ford Transit Connect Taxi Concept Kia Koup Concept Saleen S5S Raptor The 2007 show was held from April 6 until April 15, with press preview days on April 4 and April 5. Chevrolet Beat Concept Chevrolet Groove Concept Chevrolet Trax Concept Hyundai Genesis Concept Infiniti EX Lexus LF-A Concept Toyota FT-HS Mazda Nagare The 2006 show was held from April 14 until April 23, with press preview days on April 12 and April 13. Acura MDX Concept Honda Element SC Concept Pontiac G6 GXP Concept Saturn PreVUE Scion Fuse The 2005 show saw the following introductions: Ford Explorer Sport Trac Adrenalin SVC Concept Nissan Sport Concept Scion t2B Suzuki Concept X2 The 2004 show saw the following introductions: The 2003 show saw the following introductions: Mitsubishi Diamante Acura TL 300C Lexus HPX Toyota Prius The 2002 show saw the following introductions: Mazda 6 Estate The 2001 show saw the following introductions: The 2000 show saw the following introductions: Lexus SC430 Chevrolet Venture Chrysler Sebring Convertible Infiniti Q45 Panoz Esperante Kia Rio SV Concept Chevrolet Tracker Mitsubishi SST Spyder Concept Audi A6 Avant Callaway C12 Chevrolet Tracker Convertible Infiniti G20 Infiniti Hot Rod Isuzu Amigo Hardtop Kia Sportage Convertible Lincoln LS6/8 Honda Minivan Concept Hyundai Avatar Concept Mitsubishi Galant Pontiac Grand Am GT Porsche 911 Cabriolet Subaru Impreza 2.5RS Suzuki Grand Vitara Volvo S40 Volvo V40 Lincoln Town Car Audi A4 Avant Chevrolet Prizm Isuzu VehiCROSS Mazda 626 Sedan Mitsubishi Diamante SSC Concept Nissan Frontier Porsche 911 Turbo S Subaru Impreza 2.5 RS Chevrolet Venture Jaguar XK8 Convertible Mazda Miata M Coupe Concept Oldsmobile Silhouette Pontiac Trans Sport Subaru Legacy 2.5 GT Subaru Legacy Outback Limited Subaru Impreza Outback Sport Chevrolet Cavalier Sedan Chevrolet Cavalier Coupe Ford Contour Mercury Mystique Subaru Legacy Subaru Legacy Outback Ford Powerstroke Concept Mitsubishi Eclipse Convertible Concept Lincoln Continental Alfa Romeo 164 LS Infiniti Q45 Mazda AZ-1 Concept Mercury Villag
The Avenue des Champs-Élysées is an avenue in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, France, 1.9 kilometres long and 70 metres wide, running between the Place de la Concorde and the Place Charles de Gaulle, where the Arc de Triomphe is located. It is known for its theatres, cafés, luxury shops, for the annual Bastille Day military parade, as the finish of the Tour de France cycle race; the name is French for the Elysian Fields, the paradise for dead heroes in Greek mythology. Champs-Élysées is regarded to be one of the most recognisable avenues in the world; the avenue runs for 1.91 km through the 8th arrondissement in northwestern Paris, from the Place de la Concorde in the east, with the Obelisk of Luxor, to the Place Charles de Gaulle in the west, location of the Arc de Triomphe. The Champs-Élysées forms part of the Axe historique; the lower part of the Champs-Élysées, from the Place de la Concorde to the Rond-Point, runs through the Jardin des Champs-Élysées, a park which contains the Grand Palais, the Petit Palais, the Théâtre Marigny, several restaurants and monuments.
The Élysée Palace, the official residence of the Presidents of France, borders the park, but is not on the Avenue itself. The Champs-Élysées ends at the Arc de Triomphe, built to honour the victories of Napoleon Bonaparte; until the reign of Louis XIV, the land where the Champs-Élysées runs today was occupied by fields and kitchen gardens. The Champs-Élysées and its gardens were laid out in 1667 by André Le Nôtre as an extension of the Tuileries Garden, the gardens of the Tuileries Palace, built in 1564, which Le Nôtre had rebuilt in his own formal style for Louis XIV in 1664. Le Nôtre planned a wide promenade between the palace and the modern Rond Point, lined with two rows of elm trees on either side, flowerbeds in the symmetrical style of the French formal garden; the new boulevard was called the "Grand Cours", or "Grand Promenade". It did not take the name of Champs-Élysées until 1709. In 1710 the avenue was extended beyond the Rond-Pont as far as the modern Place d'Étoile. In 1765 the garden was remade in the Le Nôtre style by Abel François Poisson, the marquis de Marigny, brother of the Madame de Pompadour and Director-General of the King's Buildings.
Marigny extended the avenue again in 1774 as far as the modern Porte Maillot. By the late 18th century, the Champs-Élysées had become a fashionable avenue; the gardens of the town houses of the nobility built along the Faubourg Saint-Honoré backed onto the formal gardens. The grandest of the private mansions near the Avenue was the Élysée Palace, a private residence of the nobility which during the Third French Republic became the official residence of the Presidents of France. Following the French Revolution, two equestrian statues, made in 1745 by Nicolas and Guillaume Coustou, were transferred from the former royal palace at Marly and placed at the beginning of the boulevard and park. After the downfall of Napoleon and the restoration of the French monarchy, the trees had to be replanted, because the occupation armies of the Russians and Prussians during the Hundred Days had camped in the park and used the trees for firewood; the avenue from the Rond-Point to the Étoile was built up during the Empire.
The Champs-Élysées itself became city property in 1828, footpaths and gas lighting were added. In 1834, under King Louis Philippe, the architect Mariano Ruiz de Chavez was commissioned to redesign the Place de la Concorde and the gardens of the Champs-Élysées, he kept the formal gardens and flowerbeds intact, but turned the garden into a sort of outdoor amusement park, with a summer garden café, the Alcazar d'eté, two restaurants, the Ledoyen and the restaurant de l'Horloge. He placed several ornamental fountains around the park, of which three are still in place; the major monument of the Boulevard, the Arc de Triomphe, had been commissioned by Napoleon after his victory at the Battle of Austerlitz, but it was not finished when he fell from power in 1815. The monument remained unfinished until 1833-36. In 1855 Emperor Napoleon III selected the park at the beginning of the avenue as the site of the first great international exposition to be held in Paris, the Exposition Universelle; the park was the location of the Palace of Industry, a giant exhibit hall which covered thirty thousand square meters, where the Grand Palais is today.
In 1858, following the Exposition, the Emperor's prefect of the Seine, Georges-Eugène Haussmann, had the gardens transformed from a formal French garden into a picturesque English style garden, based on a small town called Southport, with groves of trees and winding paths. The rows of elm trees, which were in poor health, were replaced by rows of chestnut trees; the park served again as an exposition site during the Universal Exposition of 1900. It became the home of a new panorama theater, designed by Gabriel Davioud, the chief architect of Napoleon III, in 1858; the modern theater Marigny was built by Charles Garnier, architect of the Paris Opera, in 1883. Throughout its history, the avenue has been the site of military parades.
North American International Auto Show
The North American International Auto Show is an annual auto show held in Detroit, Michigan, at Cobo Center. The show will be held in June from 2020 onwards, it is among the largest auto shows in North America. UPI says the show is "regarded as the foremost venue for manufacturers to unveil new products". In 1899, William E. Metzger helped organize the Detroit Auto Show, only the second of its kind, after the 1898 Paris Auto Show. An auto show was held in Detroit in 1907 at Beller's Beer Garden at Riverside Park and since annually except 1941–1953. During the show's first decades of existence it portrayed only a regional focus. In 1957 international carmakers exhibited for the first time. In 1987 the Detroit Auto Dealers Association proposed; the members of the DADA went to places such as Europe and Japan in the attempt to convince those unveiling their new brands or vehicles in those countries to bring those unveilings to the North American Auto Show. That attempt proved to be successful. Hosted in Detroit, for over a century, since 1965 the show has been held at Cobo Center, where it occupies nearly 1 million square feet of floor space.
Prior to being held at the Cobo Center, the show was held at other well known places in the Metro Detroit area, including the Light Guard Armory, Wayne Gardens pavilion, Michigan State Fairgrounds. Record attendance was with 838,066 attendees. In 2009, attendance had dropped to 650,517. In 2016, there were 815,575 in ticketed attendance, after reaching 803,451 in 2015. Audi, BMW and Mercedes-Benz were not present at the 2019 edition, following recent absences of other luxury manufacturers like Porsche, Land Rover and Volvo. In July 2018, the Detroit Auto Dealers Association announced they would move the show to downtown Detroit in June 2020, adding outdoor displays and on-road vehicle demonstrations with the better weather; the NAIAS is the only auto show in the United States sanctioned by the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles. Over 800,000 attended during the days the show was open to the general public in 2018, it is estimated. The show begins with industry preview days and a charity preview event.
The charity preview raises money for local children's charities. In 2004 and 2005, the charity preview attracted 17,500 people at $400 a ticket and raised $7 million in total. 2006 was the sixth consecutive year. 35,711 tickets were sold for the industry preview representing people from 24 countries in 2005 and 6,897 credentialed press from 63 countries. Two major awards are presented at the auto show: the EyesOn Design Awards for Design Excellence, the Car and Utility of the Year Award, founded in 1994. At the North American Car and Utility Vehicle of the Year awards, awarded in the preview period of the auto show, around 55 automotive journalists serve as judges, they evaluate "value, design, safety and driver satisfaction."EyesOn Design Awards for Design Excellence 2004: Winners were the Mazda Kabura concept for "Aesthetics & Innovation", the Ferrari FXX prototype for "Functionality", the Chevrolet Camaro model for "Concept Implementation".2007: Winners were the 2007 Chrysler Nassau concept for "Aesthetics & Innovation", the Kia Kue concept for "Functionality", the 2008 Cadillac CTS production model for "Concept Implementation", the Jeep Trailhawk concept for "Spirit of Industrial Design".2008: The Cadillac CTS concept and the Chrysler ecoVoyager won the awards for concept car and truck.
The 2009 Cadillac CTS-V and the BMW X6 received the Design Excellence awards for best production car and truck.2009: The Audi Sportback and the Cadillac Converj won the "Excellence in Design Award" for concept vehicles debuted at the Detroit. The Audi R8 V10 and the BMW Z4 received the Design Excellence award for production vehicles.2010: The GMC Granite won the Excellence in Design Award for concept vehicles debuted at the Detroit show and the Audi A8 received the top honor for production vehicles.2011: The Porsche 918 RSR won for concept vehicles debuted at the Detroit show and the 2011 Audi A6 received the award for production vehicles.2012: The Lexus LF-LC won the "Excellence in Design Award" for concept vehicles debuted at the Detroit show and the 2013 Ford Fusion received the top honor for production vehicles.2013: The 2014 Cadillac ELR won the "Production Category" at the Detroit show while the Nissan Resonance concept and the Ford Atlas concept tied for the "Concept Category" award.2014: The 2015 Ford Mustang won "Best Production Vehicle" while the Volvo Concept XC Coupé took awards for both "Best Concept Vehicle" and "Best Use of Color and Materials".2015: The Ford GT won "Best Designed Production Vehicle" award while the Buick Avenir was selected as both "Best Concept Vehicle" and "Best Use of Color and Materials" and the Audi Q7 received Best Designed Interior.
Car and Utility of the Year Award 2007: The Saturn Aura and Chevrolet Silverado received the North American Car and Truck of the Year awards.2008: Won by the 2008 Chevrolet Malibu and Mazda CX-9.2009: Won by the Hyundai Genesis and Ford F-150.2010: Won by the Ford Fusion Hybrid and Ford Transit Connect.2011: Won by the Chevrolet Volt and Ford Explorer.2012: Won by the Hyundai Elantra and Range Rover Evoque.2013: Won by the Cadillac ATS and Ram 1500.2014: Won by the Chevrolet Corvette Stingray and Chevrolet Silverado.2015: Won by the VW Golf
Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000