Paris Observatory

The Paris Observatory, a research institution of PSL University, is the foremost astronomical observatory of France, one of the largest astronomical centres in the world. Its historic building is on the Left Bank of the Seine in central Paris, but most of the staff work on a satellite campus in Meudon, a suburb southwest of Paris; the Paris Observatory was founded in 1667. Construction was completed by the early 1670s and coincided with a major push for increased science, the founding of Royal Academy of Sciences. King Louis XIV's minister of finance organized a "scientific powerhouse" to increase understanding of astronomy, maritime navigation, science in general. Through the centuries the Paris Observatory has continued in support of astronomical activities, in the 21st century connects multiple sites and organizations, supporting astronomy and science and present. Administratively, it is a grand établissement of the French Ministry of National Education, with a status close to that of a public university.

Its missions astrophysics. It maintains a radio astronomy observatory at Nançay, it was the home to the International Time Bureau until its dissolution in 1987. The Paris Observatory Library, founded in 1785, provides the researchers with documentation and preserves the ancient books and heritage collections of the institution. Many collections are available online; the Paris observatory was proposed in 1665-1666 by the French Academy of Sciences, a group that had just been organized by Minister of Finance Jean-Baptiste Colbert. In 1666, Louis XIV of France authorized the building of the Observatory. On Midsummer's Day 1667, members of the Academy of Sciences traced the future building's outline on a plot outside town near the Port Royal abbey, with Paris meridian bisecting the site north–south; the meridian line was used as a basis for navigation and would be used by French cartographers as their prime meridian for more than 200 years. It predates by a few years the Royal Greenwich Observatory in England, founded in 1675.

The architect of the Paris Observatory was Claude Perrault whose brother, was secretary to Jean-Baptiste Colbert and superintendent of public works. Optical instruments were supplied by Giuseppe Campani, they completed construction of the observatory in 1671. The buildings were extended in 1730, 1810, 1834, 1850, 1951; the last extension incorporates the spectacular Meridian Room designed by Jean Prouvé. In 1671 Saturn's Moon Iaptus was Rhea in 1672 from Paris Observatory. In 1684 Dione and Tethys were discovered also. In 1676 the staff concluded that light; the world's first national almanac, the Connaissance des temps, was published by the observatory in 1679, using eclipses in Jupiter's satellites to aid sea-farers in establishing longitude. In 1863, the observatory published the first modern weather maps. In 1882, a 33 cm astrographic lens was constructed, an instrument that catalysed what proved to be the over-ambitious international Carte du Ciel project. In November 1913, the Paris Observatory, using the Eiffel Tower as an antenna, exchanged sustained wireless signals with the United States Naval Observatory to determine the exact difference of longitude between the two institutions.

The Paris Observatory library preserves a great number of original works and letters of the Observatory and well known astronomers. The entire collection - archives, iconography - has been inventoried in an online archive called Alidade - Accès en Ligne aux Instruments, Documents et Archives De l’astronomiE; some of the work is now digitized on the digital library such as those of Johannes Hevelius, Jérôme Lalande and Joseph-Nicolas Delisle. The title of Director of the Observatory was given for the first time to César-François Cassini de Thury by a Royal brevet dated November 12, 1771. However, the important role played by his grandfather and father in this institution during its first century gives them somewhat the role of director; the observatory did not have a director until 1771, before that each member could do as they pleased. Sometimes Giovanni Cassini and Jacques Cassini are listed as "directors" retroactively; the same goes for Francois Arago, not a director although he did have a de-fact position of leadership and is credited as such.

The first site was the Paris established in 1667 by King Louis XIV of France. This facility had various work done on it over the centuries, in 1927 Meudon observatory was added which included a new site and facilities, it was built in 1891. In addition to these sites, the Marseilles Observatory became a branch of Paris Observatory in 1863. In 1873 Marseilles Observatory detached from Paris Observatory. King Louis XIV purchased the land for his new observatory March 1667; this provided a site for activities of the Academy of Science nearby to the city of Paris. The original buildings was designed by Claude Perrault. A dome and terrace was added in 1847; the Meudon site was constructed in the late 19th century by Jules Janssen, one of the discoverers of helium. With a million francs and permission to build on the old royal palace ruins, he constructed one the grandest observatories of its day, with focus on astronomy and solar physics. After World War 1, the observatory was integrated with the nearby Paris Observatory and it became an important campus for that observa

Marc Edwards (American football)

Marc Alexander Edwards is a former professional American football player who last played in the NFL in 2005 for the Chicago Bears. Edwards attended Norwood High School in Norwood and played starting middle linebacker on the school's football team alongside Robert Bales, whom he replaced as the team's starting middle linebacker as a freshman star. Edwards was named Ohio's Mr. Football in 1992 as the state's top player, he played college football at Notre Dame. Following his team's upset win over the #5-ranked University of Southern California Trojans on October 21, 1995, Edwards became the second Fighting Irish player to be carried off the field by his teammates. Edwards's senior year he was picked as a team captain at Notre Dame. Edwards was selected by the San Francisco 49ers in the second round of the 1997 NFL Draft. After two years in San Francisco, Edwards played the following two years for the Cleveland Browns from 1999 to 2000, he has played for the New England Patriots from 2001 to 2002 and the Jacksonville Jaguars from 2003 to 2004.

Edwards's high school retired his #44 Jersey on September 11, 2009. In October 2010, a book by Aaron M. Smith about Edwards's life, Odyssey: From Blue Collar, Ohio To Super Bowl Champion, was published

List of accolades received by Phantom Thread

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The National Board of Review listed Phantom Thread as one of the top ten films of the year, awarded Anderson the award for Best Original Screenplay. Awards and nominations for Phantom Thread at the Internet Movie Database