Park Avenue is a wide New York City boulevard which carries north and southbound traffic in the borough of Manhattan. For most of the road's length in Manhattan, it runs parallel to Madison Avenue to the west and Lexington Avenue to the east. Park Avenue's entire length was called Fourth Avenue; the avenue is called Union Square East between 14th and 17th Streets, Park Avenue South between 17th and 32nd Streets. Park Avenue was known as Fourth Avenue and carried the tracks of the New York and Harlem Railroad starting in the 1830s; the railroad ran through an open cut through Murray Hill, covered with grates and grass between 34th and 40th Street in the early 1850s. A section of this "park" was renamed Park Avenue in 1860, the name was applied to the segment between Union Square and 42nd Street; the Harlem Railroad was incorporated into the New York Central Railroad, a terminal for the New York Central at 42nd Street, the Grand Central Depot, opened in 1871. But the tracks laid to the new terminal proved problematic.
There were no grade-separated crossings of the railroads between 42nd and 59th Streets. As such, they required railroad crossings along Fourth Avenue. In 1872, shortly after the opening of Grand Central Depot, New York Central owner Cornelius Vanderbilt proposed the Fourth Avenue Improvement Project; the tracks between 48th and 56th Streets were to be moved into a shallow open cut, while the segment between 56th and 97th Streets, in a rock cut, would be covered over. After the improvements were completed in 1874, the railroads, approaching Grand Central Depot from the north, descended into the Park Avenue Tunnel at 96th Street and continued underground into the new depot; as part of the project, Fourth Avenue was transformed into a boulevard with a median strip that covered the railroad's ventilation grates. Eight footbridges crossed the tracks between 45th and 56th Streets, there were vehicular overpasses at 45th and 48th Streets; the boulevard north of Grand Central was renamed Park Avenue in 1888.
A fatal collision between two trains occurred under Park Avenue in 1902, in part because the smoke coming from the steam trains obscured the signals. The New York state legislature subsequently passed a law to ban all steam trains in Manhattan. By December 1902, as part of an agreement with the city, New York Central agreed to put the approach to Grand Central Station from 46th to 59th Streets in an open cut under Park Avenue, to upgrade the tracks to accommodate electric trains. Overpasses would be built across the open cut at most of the cross-streets; the new electric-train terminal, Grand Central Terminal, was opened in 1913. After the electric trains were buried underground, the area around Park Avenue in the vicinity of Grand Central was developed into several blocks worth of prime real estate called Terminal City. Stretching from 42nd to 51st Streets between Madison and Lexington Avenues, it came to include the Chrysler Building and other prestigious office buildings. In 1929, New York Central built its headquarters in a 34-story building, straddling Park Avenue north of the terminal.
The Park Avenue Viaduct reroutes Park Avenue around Grand Central Terminal between 40th and 46th Streets, allowing Park Avenue traffic to traverse around the building and over 42nd Street without encumbering nearby streets. The western leg of the viaduct was completed in 1919, but congestion developed soon after the viaduct's opening, so an eastern leg for northbound traffic was added in 1928. In 1927, the medians on Park Avenue north of Grand Central were trimmed to add one lane of traffic in each direction; this project eliminated the pedestrian path on the medians. The median was extended by one block from 96th Street to 97th Street in 1941, creating the only median on Park Avenue with a pedestrian path and seating. In the 1920s the portion of Park Avenue from Grand Central to 96th Street saw extensive apartment building construction; this long stretch of the avenue contains some of the most expensive real estate in the world. Real estate at 740 Park Avenue, for example, sells for several thousand dollars per square foot.
In October 1937, a part of the Murray Hill Tunnel was reopened for road traffic. Efforts to promote a Grand Park Avenue Expressway to Grand Concourse in the Bronx were unsuccessful. A tradition was introduced in 1945 as a memorial to American soldiers killed in action, whereby Christmas trees are placed in the median and lit up on the first Sunday in December at Brick Presbyterian Church. On May 5, 1959, the New York City Council voted 20–1 to change the name of Fourth Avenue between 17th and 32nd Streets to Park Avenue South; the renaming, along with a ban on overhanging signs along the newly renamed Park Avenue South, was intended to improve the character of the avenue. The Pan Am Building, in between the Park Avenue Viaduct's legs north of Grand Central Terminal, was opened in 1963. On March 12, 2014, two apartment buildings near 116th Street, 1644 and 1646 Park Avenue, were destroyed in a gas explosion. Eight people were killed and many others were injured; the road that becomes Park Avenue originates at the Bowery.
From Cooper Square at 8th Street to Union Square at 14th Street, it is known as Fourth Avenue, a 70-foot-wide road carrying northbound traffic. At 14th Street, it turns northeast to align with other avenues draw
Basigin known as extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer or cluster of differentiation 147 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BSG gene. This protein is a determinant for the Ok blood group system. Basigin has been shown to be an essential receptor on red blood cells for the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Basigin is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, with a structure related to the putative primordial form of the family; as members of the immunoglobulin superfamily play fundamental roles in intercellular recognition involved in various immunologic phenomena and development, basigin is thought to play a role in intercellular recognition. It has a variety of functions. In addition to its metalloproteinase-inducing ability, basigin regulates several distinct functions, such as spermatogenesis, expression of the monocarboxylate transporter and the responsiveness of lymphocytes. Basigin is a type I integral membrane receptor that has many ligands, including the cyclophilin proteins Cyp-A and CyP-B and certain integrins.
It is expressed including epithelial cells, endothelial cells and leukocytes. The human basigin protein contains 269 amino acids that form two glycosylated C2 type immunoglobulin-like domains at the N-terminal extracellular portion. A second form of basigin has been characterized that contains one additional immunoglobulin-like domain in its extracellular portion. Basigin has been shown to interact with Ubiquitin C. Basigin has been shown to form a complex with monocarboxylate transporters in the retina of mice. Basigin appears to be required for proper placement of MCTs in the membrane. In the Basigin null mouse, the failure of MCTs to integrate with the membrane may be directly linked to a failure of nutrient transfer in the retinal pigmented epithelium, resulting in loss of sight in the null animal. Basigin interacts with the fourth C-type lectin domain in the receptor Endo180 to form a molecular epithelial-mesenchymal transition suppressor complex that if disrupted results in the induction of invasive prostate epithelial cell behavior associated with poor prostate cancer survival.
It has been found that basigin is a receptor, essential to erythrocyte invasion by most strains of Plasmodium falciparum, the most virulent species of the plasmodium parasites that cause human malaria. It is hoped that by developing antibodies to the parasite ligand for Basigin, Rh5, a better vaccine for malaria might be found. Basigin is bound by the PfRh5 protein on the surface of the malaria parasite. Human BSG genome BSG gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Ok blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH PDBe-KB provides an overview of all the structure information available in the PDB for Human Basigin
Dr. Charles Limb is a surgeon and musician at the University of California, San Francisco who has carried out research on the neural basis of musical creativity and the impact of cochlear implants on music perception in hearing impaired individuals; as an otologic surgeon and otolaryngologist, he specializes in treatment of ear disorders. In his research, he has focused on imaging the brains of jazz artists as they improvise in the fMRI, he has worked under the assumption that improvisation is important to creativity more and creativity is vital to basic problem-solving and survival. Limb teaches at UCSF, where he is the Francis A. Sooy Professor of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, the Chief of the Division of Otology and Skull Base Surgery at UCSF. In addition, he holds a joint faculty appointment in the Department of Neurological Surgery and is the Director of the Douglas Grant Cochlear Implant Center, he earned his bachelor's degree at Harvard University. He attended the Yale University School of Medicine, where he played jazz in New Haven restaurants.
After graduating from medical school in 1996, he completed a surgical internship in General Surgery, a residency in Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, a subspecialty fellowship in Neurotology at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore. He completed one postdoctoral research fellowship at the Center for Hearing Sciences at Johns Hopkins with Dr. David Ryugo, where he investigated the development of the auditory brainstem, a second at the National Institutes of Health, where he used fMRI devices to image brain activity when jazz musicians improvise music, he joined the faculty of Johns Hopkins Hospital in 2003, where he remained until 2015, as Associate Professor of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery. During this time, he was a Faculty Member at the Peabody Conservatory of Music and the Johns Hopkins University School of Education, as well as Scientific Advisor to the Baltimore Symphony Orchestra. Limb has stated that he wants to know what went on in John Coltrane’s head when he improvised masterpieces on the saxophone.
He has researched creativity with jazz musicians because they can improvise on cue in the laboratory conditions of an fMRI. In several experiments, he has captured moving pictures of their brain activity. In one, he found that improvising musicians showed: 1) deactivation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which among other functions acts as a kind of self-censor, 2) greater activation of the medial prefrontal cortex, which connects to a brain system called the “default network.” The default network is associated with introspective tasks such as retrieving personal memories and daydreaming. It has to do with one’s sense of self. In another experiment, he and his team demonstrated that when two jazz musicians are “trading fours,” that is, having an interactive musical conversation, they utilize brain areas important in linguistic grammar and syntax; the finding suggests that these regions process auditory communication rather than just for spoken language. Limb investigated the relation of emotion to creativity.
He asked jazz musicians in the fMRI to improvise music they felt corresponded to the emotions in photos of a sad and happy woman. He found that when musicians responded to happy photos, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex deactivated much more than in the other conditions; the study asked why we feel pleasure in sad music, found that while musicians showed more frontal deactivation and deeper flow states when responding to the happy photos, the creation of sad music elicited a stronger visceral experience and greater activity in the brain's reward centers. In addition, he has researched music perception in deaf individuals with cochlear implants; as a temporal bone surgeon, he places these devices in patients, the implants let them hear speech well, but they have trouble perceiving elements of music such as harmony and timbre, as well as performing higher integration. He has recommended technological innovation to overcome this deficit. Limb has examined the creativity of composers such as Beethoven and Smetana, who became deaf as adults yet continued to write great music, he has written about the fact that Thomas Edison invented the phonograph despite his loss of hearing.
Limb is the former Editor-in-Chief of Trends in Hearing, the only journal focused on hearing aids and other auditory amplification devices, an Editorial Board Member of the journals Otology & Neurotology and Music and Medicine. He has authored over 75 manuscripts, including magazine articles, he has given two TED talks. In the first, “Your Brain on Improv,” he showed how during jazz improvisation the brain deactivates the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and activates the medial prefrontal cortex. In the second, “Building the Musical Muscle,” he described restoring music perception in the deaf and focused on the challenges faced by cochlear implant users when trying to process music, he has been a featured panelist at the Sundance Film Festival, he has spoken about his work internationally in Europe, Asia and Canada. Among the media outlets and organizations that have featured his work are the New York Times, CNN, PBS, National Geographic, Scientific American, the BBC, the Smithsonian Institution, National Public Radio, the Library of Congress, the American Museum of Natural History, the Kennedy Center, the Baltimore Symphony Orchestra, the Canadian Broadcasting Company.