A head coach, senior coach, or manager is a professional at training and developing athletes. They hold a more public profile and are paid more than other coaches. In some sports, the head coach is instead called the "manager", as in association football and professional baseball. In other sports such as Australian rules football, the head coach is termed a senior coach. Other coaches are subordinate to the head coach in offensive positions or defensive positions, proceeding down into individualized position coaches. Head coaches in American football have different responsibilities depending on what level of the sport they are coaching; the head coach has a much more complete hold on the intricacies of the team. He may have to perform the duties of a offensive coordinator. High school head coaches have to do more work off the field than on, it is important that head coaches in high school hire a competent and proactive coaching staff because when the head coach is pulled away from practice he must be confident that his team is in good hands with his other coaches and staff.
One of the most difficult issues that head coaches must deal with off of the field is the parent, although many coaches do not allow parental interactions in many cases. He must be able to handle any issues that parents may have with the way that the head coach is running the program, all along while staying professional and not being demeaning. Furthermore, a high school's head football coach serves as his school's Athletic Coordinator or Director, which adds further responsibilities to his job. In some jurisdictions, a high school head coach must have a paying job within the school always as a teacher. One of the major features of head coaching in college football is the high turnover rate for jobs. With few exceptions college coaches routinely change jobs staying at a school for more than a decade; some coaches have been known to leave a school and return to the program after a period of time. Many head coaches at the college level have a paid staff and as such are more free to concentrate on the overall aspect of the team rather than dealing with the nuances of training regimens and such.
Unlike head coaches at other levels, college coaching staffs are responsible for the composition and development of players on the team. The ability to recruit and develop top players plays a major role in success at this level. A college coach acts as the face of a team, at an age when many young players do not wish to be hounded by media, they are called upon to discuss off-the-field incidents such as rule infractions or player antics. Sometimes, the coach becomes a celebrity in e.g. Lou Holtz. At the end of the year there are numerous college football coach of the year awards given out; the awards all go to the same coach but there are some discrepancies. Major annual coaching honors include the Home Depot Coach of the Year, The Liberty Mutual Coach of the Year Award, the Associated Press College Football Coach of the Year Award, The Paul'Bear' Bryant Award. At the professional level, coaches may work for millions of dollars a year. Since he or she does not have to travel the country recruiting high school players, the head coach at the pro level has much more time to devote to tactics and playbooks, which are coordinated with staff paid more than at the college level.
They report to the General Manager. Head coaching, due to the lack of job security and long hours, is a stressful job. Since the money is good at high levels and firings are common, many coaches retire in their early fifties. Many factors are part of National Football League coaches' contracts; these involve the NFL's $11 billion as the highest revenue sport, topping the Major League Baseball's $7 billion. The NFL's coaches are the highest-paid professional coaches with professional football topping the list in Forbes' highest-paid sports coaches. Bill Belichick is in the number one spot for the second year in a row with no MLB or National Hockey League coaches making the list. Another major element of NFL coaches' contracts, negotiated between individual coaches and NFL "teams"/owners, are NFL demanded provisions in the coaches employment contracts, that authorize the employing NFL teams to withhold part of a coach's salary when league operations are suspended, such as lockouts or television contract negotiations.
The average salary for a head coach in the National Football League is $6.45 million a year. In association football, a head coach has the same responsibilities as in any other sport. A head coach has an option to pick his own coaching staff. In some countries there is a position of senior coach who acts as the first assistant of the head coach or runs a junior squad in the club. In the absence of a head coach, a senior coach temporarily fulfills his role as interim. There is the UEFA Convention on the Mutual Recognition of Coaching Qualifications that has three levels: Pro, A, B. In Australian rules football the head coach or senior coach is responsible for development and implementing an appropriate training program to the players so that they ensure they perform on game day; the senior coach in AFL has to be responsible for the rotations and team line up for the games. A senior coach in AFL is not the only coach involved in making the team operate, in AFL teams there are up to five different coaches that all have different responsibilities, for example, there is a forward and defence coach, these coaches focus on the particular positions on the grou
Public Ledger (Philadelphia)
The Public Ledger was a daily newspaper in Philadelphia, published from March 25, 1836 to January 1942. Its motto was "Virtue Liberty and Independence". For a time, it was Philadelphia's most popular newspaper, it operated a syndicate, the Ledger Syndicate, from 1915 until 1946. Founded by William Moseley Swain, Arunah S. Abell, Azariah H. Simmons, edited by Swain, the Public Ledger was the first penny paper in Philadelphia. At that time most papers sold for five cents or more, a high price which limited their appeal to only the reasonably well-off. Swain and Abell drew on the success of the New York Herald, one of the first penny papers and decided to use a one cent cover price to appeal to a broad audience, they mimicked the Herald's use of bold headlines to draw sales. The formula was a success and the Ledger posted a circulation of 15,000 in 1840, growing to 40,000 a decade later. To put this into perspective, the entire circulation of all newspapers in Philadelphia was estimated at only 8,000 when the Ledger was founded.
The Ledger was a technological innovator as well. It was the first daily to make use of a pony express, among the first papers to use the electromagnetic telegraph. From 1846, it was printed on the first rotary printing press. By the early 1860s, The Ledger was a money-losing operation, squeezed by rising paper and printing costs, it had lost circulation by supporting the Copperhead Policy of opposing the American Civil War and advocating an immediate peace settlement with the Confederate States of America. Most readers in Philadelphia at the time supported the Union, although there was a strong contingent of Southern sympathizers and families with ties to the South, as Southerners had long had second homes in Philadelphia and sent their daughters to finishing schools there. In the face of declining circulation, publishers were reluctant to increase the one-cent subscription cost, although it was needed to cover the costs of production. In December 1864, the paper was sold to George William Childs and Anthony J. Drexel for a reported $20,000.
Upon buying the paper, Childs changed its policy and methods. He changed the editorial policy to the Loyalist line, raised advertising rates, doubled the cover price to two cents. After an initial drop, circulation rebounded and the paper resumed profitability. Childs was involved in all operations of the paper, from the press room to the composing room, he intentionally upgraded the quality of advertisements appearing in the publication to suit a higher-end readership. Childs's efforts bore fruit and the Ledger became one of the most influential journals in the country. Circulation growth led the firm to outgrow its facilities. Designed by architect John McArthur, Jr. the building had at its corner a larger-than-life-sized statue of Benjamin Franklin by Joseph A. Bailly, which Childs had commissioned; the quality and profitability of the Ledger improved dramatically. By 1894, The New York Times described it as "...the finest newspaper office in the country." Toward the end of Child's leadership, the Ledger was estimated to generate profits of $500,000 per year.
In 1870, Mark Twain mocked the Ledger for its rhyming obituaries, in a piece entitled "Post-Mortem Poetry", in his column for The Galaxy: There is an element about some poetry, able to make physical suffering and death cheerful things to contemplate and consummations to be desired. In 1902, Adolph Ochs, owner of The New York Times, bought the paper from Drexel's estate for a reported $2.25 million. He merged it with the Philadelphia Times, installed his brother George as editor. Oakes served as editor until 1914. In 1913, Cyrus H. K. Curtis purchased the paper from Ochs for $2 million and hired his step son-in-law John Charles Martin as editor. Curtis was owner of Ladies' Home Journal and The Saturday Evening Post, his intention was to establish the Ledger as Philadelphia's premier newspaper, which he achieved by buying and closing several competing papers: the Philadelphia Evening Telegraph, the Philadelphia North American, The Philadelphia Press among them. Philadelphia went from a peak of 13 papers in 1900 to seven in 1920, a time when the newspaper industry in the United States was consolidating in general.
Under Curtis' ownership, the conservative appearance of the Ledger was increased: it avoided bold headlines and printed photographs on the front page. Its conservative format has been compared by scholars to the Wall Street Journal or New York Times of the twentieth century. Curtis built the Ledger's foreign news service and syndicated it to other papers via his Ledger Syndicate. From 1918 to 1921, former President William Howard Taft was on staff as an editorial contributor. To broaden the market, compete against The Evening Bulletin, in 1914 Curtis began publishing the Evening Public Ledger, a bolder paper designed to appeal to a broader public; the Ledger suffered by competition from an ascendant The Evening Bulletin, which under publisher William L. McLean grew in size from 12 pages in 1900 to 28 pages in 1920, from circulation of 6,000 to a leadership position of over 500,000 readers in the same time; the Bulletin's bolder and more commercial approach attracted additional advertising, which in turn drew more readers.
Advertising, which comprised only 1/3 of the Bulletin in 1900, grew to nearly 3/4 of its pages in 1920. At the same time, the circulation at the Ledger stagnated. Curtis built a new Public Ledger
Amherst College is a private liberal arts college in Amherst, Massachusetts. Founded in 1821 as an attempt to relocate Williams College by its then-president Zephaniah Swift Moore, Amherst is the third oldest institution of higher education in Massachusetts; the institution was named after the town, which in turn had been named after Lord Amherst. Established as a men's college, Amherst became coeducational in 1975. Amherst is an undergraduate four-year institution. Students choose courses from 38 major programs in an open curriculum and are not required to study a core curriculum or fulfill any distribution requirements. For the class of 2023, Amherst received 10,567 applications and accepted 1,144, yielding a 10.8% acceptance rate. Amherst was ranked as the best liberal arts college in the country for 2018–19 by The Wall Street Journal, the second best liberal arts college in the country by U. S. News & World Report, 16th out of all U. S. colleges and universities by Forbes in their 2018 rankings.
Amherst competes in the New England Small College Athletic Conference. Amherst has had close relationships and rivalries with Williams College and Wesleyan University, which form the Little Three colleges; the college is a member of the Five College Consortium, which allows its students to attend classes at four other Pioneer Valley institutions: Mount Holyoke College, Smith College, Hampshire College, the University of Massachusetts Amherst. Founded in 1821, Amherst College developed out of the secondary school Amherst Academy; the college was suggested as an alternative to Williams College, struggling to stay open. Although Williams remained open, Amherst was formed and diverged from its Williams roots into an individual institution. In 1812, funds were raised in Amherst for Amherst Academy; the academy incorporated in 1816. The institution was named after the town, which in turn had been named after Jeffery, Lord Amherst, a veteran from the Seven Years' War and commanding general of the British forces in North America.
On November 18, 1817, a project was adopted at the Academy to raise funds for the free instruction of "indigent young men of promising talents and hopeful piety, who shall manifest a desire to obtain a liberal education with a sole view to the Christian ministry." This required a substantial investment from benefactors. During the fundraising for the project, it became clear that without larger designs, it would be impossible to raise sufficient funds; this led the committee overseeing the project to conclude. On August 18, 1818, the Amherst Academy board of trustees accepted this conclusion and began building a new college. Moore President of Williams College, still believed that Williamstown was an unsuitable location for a college, with the advent of Amherst College was elected its first president on May 8, 1821. At its opening, Amherst had forty-seven students. Fifteen of these had followed Moore from Williams College; those fifteen represented about one-third of the whole number at Amherst, about one-fifth of the whole number in the three classes to which they belonged in Williams College.
President Moore died on June 29, 1823, was replaced with a Williams College trustee, Heman Humphrey. Williams alumni are fond of an apocryphal story ascribing the removal of books from the Williams College library to Amherst College. In 1995, Williams president Harry C. Payne declared the story false, but many still nurture the legend. Amherst grew and for two years in the mid-1830s it was the second largest college in the United States, second only to Yale. In 1835, Amherst attempted to create a course of study parallel to the classical liberal arts education; this parallel course focused less on Greek and Latin, instead focusing on English, Spanish, economics, etc. The parallel course did not take hold, until the next century. Amherst was founded as a non-sectarian institution "for the classical education of indigent young men of piety and talents for the Christian ministry,". One of the hallmarks of the new college was its Charity Fund, an early form of financial aid that paid the tuition of poorer students.
Although non-denominational, the initial Amherst was considered a religiously conservative institution with a strong connection to Calvinism, as a result, there was considerable debate in the Massachusetts government over whether the new college should receive an official charter from the state, a charter was not granted until February 21, 1825. As a result of the official charter being granted four years after the official founding of the college, the Amherst seal lists a date of 1825. Religious conservatism persisted at Amherst until the mid-nineteenth century: students who consumed alcohol or played cards were subject to expulsion, there were a number of religious revivals at Amherst where mobs of righteous students would herd less religious students into the chapel and berate them for lack of piety. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, the college began a transition towards secularism, culminating in the demolishing of the college church in 1949. Academic hoods in the United States are traditionally lined with the official colors of the school, in theory so watchers can tell where the hood wearer earned his or her degree.
Amherst's hoods are purple with a white stripe or chevron, said to signify that Amherst was born of Williams. Amherst records one of the first uses of Latin honors of any American college, dating back to 1881
Easton is a city in and the county seat of Northampton County, United States. The city's population was 26,800 as of the 2010 census. Easton is located at the confluence of the Delaware River and the Lehigh River 55 miles north of Philadelphia and 70 miles west of New York City. Easton is the easternmost city in the Lehigh Valley, a region of 731 square miles, home to more than 800,000 people. Together with Allentown and Bethlehem, the Valley embraces the Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton metropolitan area, including Lehigh and Carbon counties within Pennsylvania, Warren County in the adjacent state of New Jersey. Easton is the smallest of the three Lehigh Valley cities, with one-fourth of the population of the largest Lehigh Valley city, Allentown. In turn, this metropolitan area comprises Pennsylvania's third-largest metropolitan area and the state's largest and most populous contribution to the greater New York City metropolitan area; the city is split up into four sections: Historic Downtown, which lies directly to the north of the Lehigh River, to the west of the Delaware River, continuing west to Sixth Street.
The boroughs of Wilson, West Easton, Glendon are directly adjacent to the city. The greater Easton area consists of the city, three townships, three boroughs. Centre Square, the town square of the city's Downtown neighborhood, is home to the Soldiers' & Sailors' Monument, a memorial for Easton area veterans killed during the American Civil War; the Peace Candle, a candle-like structure, is assembled and disassembled every year atop the Civil War monument for the Christmas season. The Norfolk Southern Railway's Lehigh Line, runs through Easton on its way to Bethlehem and Allentown heading west and to Phillipsburg, New Jersey just across the Delaware River; the Lenape Native Americans referred to the area as "Lechauwitank", or "The Place at the Forks". The site of the future city was part of the land obtained from the Delawares by the Walking Purchase. Thomas Penn set aside a 1,000 acres tract of land at the confluence of the Lehigh and Delaware rivers for a town. Easton was settled by Europeans in 1739 and founded in 1752, was so named at the request of Penn.
As Northampton County was being formed at this time, Easton was selected as its county seat. During the French and Indian War, the Treaty of Easton was signed here by the British colonial government of the Province of Pennsylvania and the Native American tribes in the Ohio Country, including the Shawnee and Lenape. Easton was an important military center during the American Revolutionary War. During the Revolutionary War, Easton had a military hospital. On 18 June 1779, General John Sullivan led 2,500 Continentals from Easton to engage British Indian allies on the frontier. Easton was one of the first three places, it is claimed that the Easton flag was flown during that reading, making it one of the first "Stars and Stripes" to fly over the colonies. This flag was used by a militia company during the War of 1812, serves as Easton's municipal flag. Sited at the confluence of the flowing Lehigh River's waters with the more stately waters of the deeper wider Delaware, Easton became a major commercial center during the canal and railroad periods of the 19th century, when it would become a transportation hub for the eastern steel industry.
The Delaware Canal, was built soon after the lower Lehigh Canal became effective in and reliably delivering much needed anthracite coal, into more settled lands along the rivers. And the Morris would serve to connect the developing Coal Regions to the north and west, to the fuel starved iron works to the west, the commercial port of Philadelphia to the south, to the many home owners seeking fuel for heat within Pennsylvania, New Jersey and New York. Seeing other ways of exploiting the new fuel source, other entrepreneurs moved to connect across the Delaware River reaching into the New York City area to the east via a connection with the Morris Canal in Phillipsburg, New Jersey, so the town became a canal nexus or hub from which the Coal from Mauch Chunk reached the world; the early railroads were built to parallel and speed shipping along transportation corridors, by the late 1860s the Lehigh and Susquehanna Railroad and Lehigh Valley Railroad were built to augment the bulk traffic through the canals and provide lucrative passenger travel services.
The LVRR, known as'the Black Diamond Line' would boast the twice daily "Black Diamond Express" daily passenger trains to and from New York City and Buffalo, New York via Easton. The Central Railroad of New Jersey, would lease and operate the LH&S tracks from the 1870s until the Conrail consolidations absorbed both the Central Railroad of New Jersey and Lehigh Valley Railroad in 1966. Today, the Lehigh Valley Railroad's main line is the only major rail line that goes through Easton and is now known as the Lehigh Line.
College Football Hall of Fame
The College Football Hall of Fame is a hall of fame and interactive attraction devoted to college football. The National Football Foundation founded the Hall in 1951 to immortalize the players and coaches of college football. From 1995 to 2012, the Hall was located in Indiana. In August 2014, the Chick-fil-A College Football Hall of Fame opened in downtown Georgia; the facility is a 94,256 square feet attraction located in the heart of Atlanta's sports and tourism district, is adjacent to the Georgia World Congress Center and Centennial Olympic Park. Original plans in 1967 called for the Hall of Fame to be located at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey, the location of the first contest under rules now considered to be those of modern football, between teams from Rutgers and the College of New Jersey, now Princeton University. Rutgers donated land near its football stadium, office space, administrative support. After years of collecting donations for the construction of the building with ground not having been broken and no plans to do so, the New Jersey Attorney General began an investigation of the finances of the Hall of Fame's foundation, the National Football Foundation.
In response, the Foundation moved its operations to New York City, where it continued to collect donations for several years. When the New York Attorney General's office began its own investigation, the foundation moved to Kings Mills, Ohio in suburban Cincinnati, where a building was constructed adjacent to Kings Island in 1978; the Hall opened with good attendance figures early on, but visitation dwindled as time went on, the facility closed in 1992. Nearby Galbreath Field remained open as the home of Moeller High School football until 2003. A new building was opened in South Bend, Indiana, on August 25, 1995. Despite estimates that the South Bend location would attract more than 150,000 visitors a year, the Hall of Fame drew about 115,000 people the first year, about 80,000 annually after that, it closed in 2012. In 2009, the National Football Foundation decided to move the College Football Hall of Fame to Atlanta, Georgia; the possibility of moving the museum has been brought up in other cities, including Dallas, which had the financial backing of billionaire T. Boone Pickens.
However, the National Football Foundation decided on Atlanta for the next site. The new $68.5 million museum opened on August 23, 2014. It is located next to Centennial Olympic Park, near other attractions such as the Georgia Aquarium, the World of Coca-Cola, CNN Center, the National Center for Civil and Human Rights; the Hall of Fame is located near the Georgia Institute of Technology of the ACC and 70 miles from the University of Georgia of the SEC. The new building broke ground on January 28, 2013. Sections of the architecture are reminiscent of a football in shape; the facility is 94,256 square feet and contains 50,000 square feet of exhibit and event space, interactive displays and a 45-yard indoor football field. Atlanta Hall Management operates the College Football Hall of Fame; as of 2018, there are 997 players and 217 coaches enshrined in the College Football Hall of Fame, representing 308 schools. Thirteen players, two coaches and one inanimate object are slated for induction in 2019.
The National Football Foundation outlines specific criteria that may be used for evaluating a possible candidate for induction into the Hall of Fame. A player must have received major first team All-America recognition. A player becomes eligible for consideration 10 years after his last year of intercollegiate football played. Football achievements are considered first, but the post-football record as a citizen is weighed. Players must have played their last year of intercollegiate football within the last 50 years; the nominee must have ended his professional athletic career prior to the time of the nomination. Coaches must have at least 10 years of head coaching experience, coached 100 games, had at least a.600 winning percentage. The eligibility criteria have changed over time, have led to criticism. Dennis Dodd of CBSSports.com has said, The NFF election process is confusing. Based on current rules, Notre Dame's Joe Montana will never be in the College Football Hall of Fame, he was never an All-American on a team recognized by the NCAA.
If that sounds outrageous, consider that at one time hall of famers had to graduate. Official website
Wisconsin Badgers football
The Wisconsin Badgers football team is a division I college football program. The Badgers have competed in the Big Ten Conference since its formation in 1896, they play their home games at the fourth-oldest stadium in college football. Wisconsin is one of 26 College football programs to win 700 or more games. Wisconsin has had two Heisman Trophy winners, Alan Ameche and Ron Dayne, have had Eleven former players inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame; as of December 27, 2018, the Badgers have an all-time record of 705–495–53. The team's nickname originates in the early history of Wisconsin. In the 1820s and 1830s, prospectors came to the state looking for minerals lead. Without shelter in the winter, the miners had to "live like badgers" in tunnels burrowed into hillsides; the first Badger football team took the field in 1889, losing the only two games it played that season. In 1890, Wisconsin earned its first victory with a 106–0 drubbing of Whitewater Normal School, still the most lopsided win in school history.
However, the next week the Badgers suffered what remains their most lopsided defeat, a humiliating 63–0 loss at the hands of the University of Minnesota. Since the Badgers and Gophers have met 127 times, making Wisconsin vs Minnesota the most-played rivalry in the Football Bowl Subdivision. Upon the formation of the Big Ten conference in 1896, Wisconsin became the first-ever conference champion with a 7–1–1 record. Over the next ten years, the Badgers won or shared the conference title three more times, recorded their first undefeated season, going 9–0–0. With the exception of their second undefeated season in 1912, in which they won their fifth Big Ten title; the 1912 season would be their last conference title until 1952. The team posted winning seasons over the next several seasons however. 1942 was an important year for Wisconsin football. On October 24, the #6 ranked Badgers defeated the #1 ranked Ohio State Buckeyes at Camp Randall, catapulting Wisconsin to the #2 spot in the AP poll. For the Badgers, their national championship hopes were dashed in a 6–0 defeat by the Iowa Hawkeyes the following week.
Wisconsin won the remainder of its games, finishing the season 8–1–1 and #3 in the AP, while garnering the Helms Athletic Foundation vote for National Champion, giving the program its only National Championship to date. Afterwards, the Badgers struggled to regain their momentum, with their efforts hampered by many of their star players leaving as a result of World War II. In the late 1940s, fans began insisting that head coach Harry Stuhldreher resign, many times chanting "Goodbye Harry" during 1948, where the Badgers finished 2-7. Stuhldreher stepped down while keeping his duties as athletic director. Stuhldreher named Ivy Williamson as head coach The Badgers experienced great success during the 1950s under Williamson, finishing in the AP Top 25 eight times that decade. In one stretch, from 1950-1954, the Badgers went 26-8-3; the Badgers' success during those seasons was defined by a stout defense, dubbed "The Hard Rocks", which finished in the top 5 of the nation in overall defense, including leading the nation in 1951.
In 1952, the team received its first #1 ranking by the Associated Press. That season, the Badgers again claimed the Big Ten title and earned their first trip to the Rose Bowl. There they were defeated 7–0 by the Southern California, would finish the season ranked #11 in the AP. In 1954 after a 7-2 season, Wisconsin's Alan Ameche became the first Badger to win the Heisman Trophy. Ivy Williamson stepped down as head coach in 1955 to become athletic director, was replaced by his former assistant coach, Milt Bruhn. Bruhn would continue Wisconsin's success, after an initial setback with a 1-5-3 record in 1956. Wisconsin returned to the Rose Bowl as Big Ten Champions in 1959, but fell to the Washington Huskies, 44-8. Continuing under the direction of Bruhn in 1962, the Badgers had another landmark season, spearheaded by the passing combination of Ron Vander Kelen to All-American Pat Richter; the Badgers standout victory was an upset of #1-ranked Northwestern, who were coached by the legendary Ara Parseghian.
The Badgers finished 8-1, earned their eighth Big Ten title, faced the top-ranked USC Trojans in the Rose Bowl. Despite a narrow 42–37 defeat, the Badgers still ended the season ranked #2 in both the AP and Coaches polls. Following the successful 1962 campaign, Wisconsin football scuffled, Milt Bruhn resigned in 1966 after three straight losing seasons. Wisconsin chose former assistant coach John Coatta; the Badgers finished worse under Coatta, going winless for 23 straight games from 1967-1969, winning only 3 games overall during Coatta's short reign, each of the wins occurring during the 1969 season. What stung worse for Badger fans during the three season, was the coach that Wisconsin turned down for the head coaching role, Bo Schembechler, who would become a coaching legend at Michigan. In 1970, new athletic director Elroy Hirsch named John Jardine as head coach. While the Badgers weren't a consistent winner under Jardine, the program regained stability, brought excitement in running backs Rufus "Roadrunner" Ferguson and Billy Marek.
The Badgers went 37-47-3 under Jardine, who stepped down in 1977. After more subpar seasons from 1978-1980, the team had a string of seven-win seasons from 1981–84 under Dave McClain. During that time the Badgers played in the Garden State Bowl, Independence Bowl, Hall of Fame Classic Bo
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a