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National Indian Youth Council

With the belief that we can serve a realistic need, the National Indian Youth Council dedicated its activities and projects to attaining a greater future for our Indian People. The National Indian Youth Council is the second oldest American Indian organization in the United States with a membership of more than 15,000, it was the first independent native student organization, one of the first native organizations to use direct action protests as a means to pursue its goals. During the 1960s, NIYC acted as a civil rights organization, it was active in the movement to preserve tribal fishing rights in the Northwest. In the 1970s NIYC focused on environmental concerns and aided tribes suffering from the adverse effects of contamination from coal strip mining and uranium mining; the NIYC seeks to improve public education and job training for Native Americans, educate the general public about their issues, promote religious freedom, increase political participation. The Preamble to the NIYC's Constitution and Statement of Purpose reads: Now therefore be it resolved, that the National Indian Youth Council endeavors to carry forward the policy of making their inherent sovereign rights known to all people, opposing termination of federal responsibility at all levels, seeking full participation and consent on jurisdiction matters involving Indians, staunchly supporting the exercise of those basic rights guaranteed American Indians by the statutes of the United States of America.

The National Indian Youth Council was established in 1961 by young American Indians who were either in college or had graduated. The NIYC is a result of youths dissenting from tribal leaders, which began during the American Indian Chicago Conference in 1961, where several young American Indians, a handful of who had become acquainted while participating in the Southwest Regional Indian Youth Council, became disillusioned with the tribal leaders.:53-54. After listening to the ideas presented by the conservative faction of the conference, the youth began to express dissenting opinions; this group, including Clyde Warrior and Mel Thom, temporarily called themselves the Chicago Conference Youth Council.:57. In the year, after that summer's Workshop on American Indian Affairs had ended, the group that had joined together as the Chicago Conference Youth Council met in Gallup, New Mexico, it was there. The NIYC is the second oldest national Indian organization and was influenced and aligned with the Civil Rights Movement.

The goal of NIYC is to protect Indian treaty and fishing rights. Mel Thom developed the following creed from which many ideas were drawn and used in the preamble of the NIYC's constitution: At this time in the history of the American Indian, we, the younger generation, find it expedient to band together on a national scale in meeting the challenges facing our Indian people. In banding together for mutual assistance we recognize that the future of the Indian people will rest in the hands of the younger people, that Indian youth need be concerned with the position of the American Indian. We further recognize the inherent strength of the American Indian heritage that will be enhanced by a national Indian organization; the needs of the American Indians to be served are numerous and varied. Besides needs there are contributions made and more to be made to America by its original inhabitants. We believe in a greater Indian America.:60 After the founding of the NIYC, the group decided to take the fight for Native American rights in a new direction and use direct action to solve problems.

Direct actions included fish-ins and protest marches. This inspired other organizations to do the same, such as the American Indian Movement.:2 In 1963, NIYC began publishing a monthly newsletter titled ABC: Americans Before Columbus. This was the first publication of the Red Power movement; the newsletter was one of the leading expressions of radical Indian thought. By 1962, over 180 tribal councils had subscribed. \ As soon as settlers began arriving to the Columbia River area, they began to challenge Indian tribes over fishing. During the 1800s, numerous regional tribes ceded quantities of land to the federal government and moved to reservations, but their treaties protected traditional fishing and hunting, both in terms of access to territories and in the means used; the Muckleshoot, Puyallup and other tribes of the Pacific Northwest signed the Treaty of Point Elliot and the Treaty of Medicine Creek related to these issues. But, after WWII, residents of the area began to realize that pollution and the increasing population were negatively affecting the salmon runs.

Conservation measures soon began, but the tribes wanted to maintain their fishing habits, which had not changed for generations. Sports and commercial fishermen thought the tribes should have to follow the same state laws and regulations as they did; the Washington State Sportsman's Council sided with the white fishers and supported the conservation effort. The first arrest occurred in 1954. Robert Satiacum was arrested for gillnetting without a out of season; the case continued up to Washington's Supreme Court. It was dropped, but had a lasting effect; the decision by lower courts suggested that the State had the jurisdiction to regulate Indian fishing. The conflict continued for the next few years and began to gather more publicity in 1964. In February, tribal leaders met with members of the NCAI and the NIYC, they decided to take action to protect treaty rights. How to protest became a topic of contention, because many feared their cause would become linked with the American Indian civil rights movement, occurring at the same tim

Winston Churchill (novelist)

Winston Churchill was an American best-selling novelist of the early 20th century. He is nowadays overshadowed as a writer, by the more famous British statesman of the same name, to whom he was not related. Churchill was born in St. Louis, the son of Edward Spalding Churchill by his marriage to Emma Bell Blaine, he attended Smith Academy in Missouri and the United States Naval Academy, where he graduated in 1894. At the Naval Academy, he was conspicuous in scholarship and in general student activities, he became an expert fencer and he organized at Annapolis the first eight-oared crew, which he captained for two years. After graduation he became an editor of the Navy Journal, he resigned from the navy to pursue a writing career. In 1895, he became managing editor of the Cosmopolitan Magazine, but in less than a year he retired from that, to have more time for writing. While he would be most successful as a novelist, he was a published poet and essayist, his first novel to appear in book form was The Celebrity.

However, Mr. Keegan's Elopement had been published in 1896 as a magazine serial and was republished as an illustrated hardback book in 1903. Churchill's next novel—Richard Carvel —was a phenomenal success, selling some two million copies in a nation of only 76 million people, made him rich, his next two novels, The Crisis and The Crossing, were very successful. Churchill's early novels were historical, but his works were set in contemporary America, he sought to include his political ideas into his novels. In 1898, a mansion designed by Charles Platt was built for Churchill in New Hampshire. In 1899, Churchill named it Harlakenden House; the house was used as the summer home of Woodrow Wilson from 1913-1915. He became involved in the Cornish Art Colony and went into politics, being elected to the state legislature in 1903 and 1905. In 1906 he unsuccessfully sought the Republican nomination for governor of New Hampshire. In 1912, he was nominated as the Progressive candidate for governor but did not win the election and did not seek public office again.

In 1917, he toured the battlefields of World War I and wrote about what he saw, his first non-fiction work. Sometime after this move, he became known for his landscapes; some of his works are in the collections of the Hood Museum of Art in Hanover, New Hampshire, the Saint-Gaudens National Historic Site in Cornish, New Hampshire. Churchill's books sold well, according to Alice Hackett's 70 Years of Best Sellers, for example, Richard Carvel was third and eighth, The Crisis, The Crossing, Coniston and Mr. Crewe's Career, The Inside of the Cup all first, in the American fiction best seller rankings. In 1919, Churchill withdrew from public life; as a result of this he was forgotten by the public. In 1923, Harlakenden House burned down; the Churchills moved to an 1838 Federal estate, part of the Cornish Colony called Windfield House at 23 Freeman Road in Plainfield, NH, furnishing it with items saved from the fire. In 1940, The Uncharted Way, his first book in twenty years, was published; the book examined Churchill's thoughts on religion.

He did not seek to publicize the book and it received little attention. Shortly before his death he said, "It is difficult now for me to think of myself as a writer of novels, as all that seems to belong to another life." Churchill died in Florida, in 1947 of a heart attack. He was predeceased in 1945 by his wife of the former Mabel Harlakenden Hall, he is featured on a New Hampshire historical marker along New Hampshire Route 12A in Cornish. Churchill and his wife had three children, including their son Creighton Churchill, a well-known writer on wines, his great-grandson is New York, journalist Chris Churchill. In the 1890s, Churchill's writings first came to be confused with those of the British writer with the same name. At that time, the American was the much better known of the two, it was the Englishman who wrote to his American counterpart about the confusion their names were causing among their readers, they agreed that the British Churchill should adopt the pen name "Winston Spencer Churchill", using his full surname, "Spencer-Churchill".

After a few early editions this was abbreviated to "Winston S. Churchill"—which remained the British Churchill's pen name; the two men arranged to meet on two occasions when one of them happened to be in the other's country, but were never acquainted. Their lives had some other coincidental parallels, they both gained their tertiary education at service colleges and served as officers in their respective countries' armed forces. Both Churchills were keen amateur painters, as well as writers. Both were politicians, although here the comparison is far more tenuous, the British Churchill's political career being far more illustrious. Mr. Keegan's Elopement in magazine format The Celebrity Richard Carvel The Crisis Mr. Keegan's Elopement in hardback The Crossing Coniston Mr. Crewe's Career A Modern Chronicle The Inside of the Cup A Far Country The Dwelling-Place of Light Richard Carvel.

Input/Output Supervisor

The Input/Output Supervisor is that portion of the control program in the IBM mainframe OS/360 and successors operating systems which issues the privileged I/O instructions and supervises the resulting I/O interruptions for any program which requests I/O device operations until the normal or abnormal conclusion of those operations. IOS has two purposes: To handle I/O requests, which are requests for the execution of channel programs To handle I/O interruptions, which result from the execution of channel programs and from operator intervention To facilitate the handling of the I/O requests and interruptions, IOS is divided into two primary program sections: Execute channel program supervisor Input/output interruption supervisorThese primary sections are resident in main storage and provide control program support for the normal execution of channel programs; the secondary program sections, termed Error Recovery Procedures, with but one exception, located on external storage, are brought into main storage for recovery from the abnormal execution of channel programs.

In the early instances of the OS, these sections were brought into the Input/Output Supervisor's "transient area", not unlike the OS/360 Control Program's Supervisor Call "transient areas". In post-MVT instances of the OS, these sections are located in the pageable linkpack area and are demand-paged; the sole exception is, of course, the ERP for direct access storage devices, which must always remain resident in order to recover from possible I/O errors on the IPL volume and on other volumes which contain datasets which may be concatenated with certain system datasets. IOS is designed around a multi-programming concept whereby operations on different I/O channels, control units and devices may be managed concurrently and simultaneously; this concurrency and apparent simultaneity is present in the most basic version of the OS, PCP, which otherwise supports only one user task, as the underlying hardware architecture has but one set of I/O instructions and but one I/O interruption, for accessing the devices and for accessing the resulting device status available to support all attached I/O devices, hence all I/O device operations must be synchronously multiplexed in to the half-dozen privileged I/O instructions and asynchronously de-multiplexed out from the single I/O interruption by IOS yet this entire process, from start to finish, is made to appear to be synchronous to the application.

IOS is a hypervising operating system built on top of the OS itself, within it, not as a separable function. A specialized hypervisor, to be sure, as the hypervisation is restricted to the several I/O instructions and the one I/O interruption. In MVS/370 and instances of the OS, IOS is designed around a multi-processing concept whereby all available processors, as many as two in MVS/370 and as many as sixteen in instances of the OS, are and efficiently utilized. And, to best utilize this multi-processing capability, IOS's multi-programming implementation was partitioned into smaller executable units, in particular those which may be executed under the control of an SRB. IOS is not invoked directly by the programmer. Rather, IOS is invoked through "branch entries" to start I/O requests and through "interrupt handlers" to complete I/O requests

Remo Anzovino

Remo Anzovino is an Italian composer and criminal lawyer. In the early years of his artistic activity, he composed music for sound design. A strong visual element, the fusion of languages used, the immediacy of the melodies are all peculiarities of his compositions. Anzovino was introduced to music at the age of 10, he soon developed a natural aptitude for writing. In eighth grade he founded The Left Hand Band together with his school friends; the singer of the group was his brother Marco, three-years younger, who became a popular songwriter and rhythm guitarist whom he shares each subsequent experience with. He recorded with the band in 1994. In 1994, while he was still in high school, Anzovino was hired for his first stage music for a theater show from Fabio Scaramucci's Ortoteatro company, finding its way into the instrumental language. In the same year he began to work with some agencies for the music of promotional and commercial films. In 2002 he ventured for the first time with the music for a silent film commissioned by the Cineteca di Bologna.

In the period 2002–2007 he gave a soundtrack to more than thirty silent films true masterpieces of the period, working with major film libraries and participating in festivals in the area, including the "Cinema Ritrovato" in Bologna and "Le giornate del Cinema Muto" in Pordenone. In 2005 he composed a score for symphony orchestra for the film Nanook of the North: A Story of Life and Love in the Actual Arctic premiered in the charming Piazza San Marco in Pordenone, with the simultaneous screening of the film, receiving more than 10 minutes of applause; the following year, the soundtrack won the Special Audience Award at the Bolzano "Rimusicazioni" festival. In 2005 he won second place in the Prix dedicated to Maestro Angelo Francesco Lavagnino. In 2007 he received the "Moret D'Aur" prize by a jury of twenty journalists of Friuli Venezia Giulia, as an Emerging Character in showbiz. In 2011 the same jury, after only four years, rewarded him with the "Moret D'Aur" as the representative showbiz personality of the region.

On 15 June 2006 he released his first album, Dispari (which collects a milonga inspired by Tina Modotti, some of the themes composed for silent movies – here reconceived in a autonomous way. The album reached the #1 position in the Italian jazz chart on iTunes, all subsequent albums would do the same. In March 2007, his composition "L'immagine ritrovata", taken from Dispari, was chosen by Simone Cristicchi as the main theme opening and closing the docu-movie about asylums "Dall'altra parte del cancello", attached to Cristicchi's eponymous album published in coincidence with the San Remo Festival victory: Cristicchi used the composition in his theatrical performance"Centro di igiene mentale – Storie di matti e di manicomi". On 3 September 2007 Anzovino was invited by Ente dello Spettacolo and La rivista del Cinematografo to perform at the 64th Venice Film Festival with a written show, he proposed a new experiment: reversing the usual relationship between music and images accompanying the execution of songs with sequences taken from silent film masterpieces, making each piece match with a different movie.

The music is the real protagonist, images comment her emotional/psychological content serving as a veritable visual track. On 17 January 2008 he participated in the Maurizio Costanzo Show on Canale 5 channel. On 1 October 2008 he released his second album, Tabù, a musical meditation on contemporary transgressions; this album established him as the new revelation of the Italian instrumental music. A disc with a strong rhythmic vitality and ideally dedicated to the movement of the body as a tool of liberation of instincts; the rhythm section was headed by U. T. Gandhi and Danilo Gallo. On 26 April 2010 Anzovino released his third album, Igloo – Piccola sinfonia per orchestra e duetti contemporanei, on which the encoded symphonic movements – entrusted to an orchestra of more than 40 elements – are counterpointed by the duets between Anzovino and some of the greatest Italian musicians on the international scene: with Franz Di Cioccio's drums, with the clarinet of Gabriele Mirabassi, with the bass of Enzo Pietropaoli, with the guitar of Bebo Ferra, with the two Top Jazz 2009 artists Francesco Bearzatti on saxophone and Luca Aquino on trumpet.

It is a record that represents a bridge between classical music and the most contemporary jazz music. The cover was created by Davide Toffolo, one of the most important Italian cartoonists as well as leader of the punk rock band "Tre Allegri Ragazzi Morti". After working for the piano-drums duet of the title track of Igloo and Franz Di Cioccio consolidated their relationship into the project of a live set: Di Cioccio on drums and Anzovino on piano, one against another, to represent the clash between two fires, the meeting of two generations of musicians and two worlds. In December 2010, he featured as a special guest the album Primitivi del dub by "Tre Allegri Ragazzi Morti", produced by Paolo Baldini: he played Fender Rhodes and clavinet on the song "La rivolta dell'avvocato", so titled in his honor. In March 2012 he participated together with


Brontotheriidae called Titanotheriidae, is a family of extinct mammals belonging to the order Perissodactyla, the order that includes horses and tapirs. Superficially, they looked rather like rhinos, although they were more related to horses, they lived around 56–34 million years ago, until the close of the Eocene. Brontotheres retain four three toes on their hind feet, their teeth are adapted to shearing nonabrasive vegetation. Their molars have a characteristic W-shaped ectoloph; the evolutionary history of this group is well known due to an excellent fossil record in North America. The earliest brontotheres, such as Eotitanops, were rather small, no more than a meter in height, hornless. Brontotheres evolved massive bodies, although some small species such as Nanotitanops did persist through the Eocene; some genera, such as Dolichorhinus, evolved elongated skulls. Brontotheres were massive, up to 2.5 m tall with horn-like skull appendages. The North American brontothere Megacerops, for example, evolved large sexually dimorphic paired horns above their noses.

The sexually dimorphic horns suggest that brontotheres were gregarious and males may have performed some sort of head-clashing behavior in competition for mates. Unlike rhinoceros, in which the horns are made of keratin, the horns of brontotheres are composed of bone and were placed side-to-side rather than front-to-back. Brontotheres became extinct because they could not adapt to drier conditions and tougher vegetation that spread during the Oligocene. Two classification systems for Brontotheriidae are presented below; the first contains 43 genera and 8 subfamilies, although it is based on a 1997 publication by McKenna and Bell, it summarizes research, conducted before 1920 and is badly outdated. The second classification is based on 2004 and 2005 research by Mihlbachler et al. which indicates that many of the previous subfamily names are invalid. Several more discovered brontotheres are included in the newer classification. Although Lambdotherium and Xenicohippus were included in Brontotheriidae, they are no longer considered members of this family.

Lambdotherium, though excluded, may be the closest known relative to brontotheres. Xenicohippus is now thought to be an early member of Equidae. Brontotheroidea at Mikko's Phylogeny Archive