In road vehicles, the parking brake known as a hand brake or emergency brake, is a mechanism used to keep the vehicle securely motionless when parked. It was used to help perform an emergency stop should the main hydraulic brakes fail. Parking brakes consist of a cable connected to two wheel brakes, connected to a pulling mechanism. In most vehicles, the parking brake operates only on the rear wheels, which have reduced traction while braking; the mechanism may be a hand-operated lever, a straight pull handle located near the steering column or a foot-operated pedal located with the other pedals. In vehicles with automatic transmissions, the parking brake was intended for emergency stopping; as safety regulations became stringent in the 1980s, modern brake systems became more reliable, modern brakes no longer cause emergencies in normal contexts. It is no longer as necessary for a driver to use this brake for emergencies, although if it were to be used, the parking brake lever should be engaged to help reduce speed.
While most automatic transmission vehicles have parking brakes, it is not engaged by drivers when parking. However, it is recommended to use it, as the parking pawl in the gearbox could fail due to stress or another vehicle striking the car, causing the car to roll. Regular use of the parking brake reduces the chance of corrosion by keeping the cables in-motion. In manual transmission vehicles, the parking brake must always be engaged to keep the vehicle stationary; when parking on an uphill gradient, it is recommended. This would prevent the car from rolling into the roadway. On a downhill gradient, the front wheels should face the curb for the same reason. In a manual transmission, leaving the car in first gear is advised, as the engine will prevent the car from rolling if the parking brake fails; the parking brake in most vehicles is still mechanical. Traditionally engaged by pulling a lever, the cables manually engage part of the car's braking system the rear disk or drum brakes; the mechanical nature allows the driver to apply the brake if the main hydraulic brake system fails.
In manual and automatic transmission vehicles, the parking brake can be used for various driving situations which require the vehicle to be momentarily stopped. For example, the brake can be engaged when moving off an uphill slope, as this allows the driver to hold the accelerator and clutch pedals steady without the vehicle rolling backwards. Other common situations is when the vehicle is stopped at a traffic light, a pedestrian crossing, or waiting to turn in front of oncoming traffic; the parking brake would ensure the car is secure, should another vehicle come into physical contact from behind, causing the car to jolt forward. It is not recommended to use the parking brake when the vehicle is in-motion, unless there is a problem with the main brakes, as this can lock the back wheels and cause a skid; this is known as a handbrake turn, performed in street racing and off-road rally racing to initiate rear wheel drift. The position of the parking brake differs between vehicle manufacturers.
However, a universal feature is either one or two of the warning lights which appear on the dashboard when the parking brake is engaged. The most common placement of the parking brake is in the center console of the vehicle, in between the driver and front passenger seats. Operating the brake is performed by pulling the lever up. To disengage the brake, the button is held while pulling the lever up to disengage the ratchet and pushed all the way down with the button still held. In older vehicle models, a stick lever may be used instead, located under the instrument panel; some vehicles have the parking brake operated by a small foot pedal, located by the other pedals. Depressing the foot pedal would engage the brake and pressing it again will release it. A pull handle variation exists. Many vehicles have a combination of the two. A recent development is the electric parking brake. Introduced to the mainstream market in 2001, it was first used in the 2001 BMW 7 Series. Two variations are available: In the more-traditional "cable-pulling" type, an electric motor pulls the parking brake cable on the push or pull of a button rather than a mechanical lever or pedal in the cabin.
A more complex unit uses a computer-controlled motor attached to each of the two rear brake calipers referred to as the Motor on Caliper system. Many car manufacturers such as Jaguar, Land Rover, BMW, Renault and Volkswagen sell models whereby the parking brake automatically engages when the vehicle is stopped and is released when the gas pedal is pressed, eliminating the need for the driver to operate a button. An extension of this system, known as hill-hold or hill-assist, prevents the vehicle from rolling back when moving-off on an uphill gradient. In vehicles with rear disc brakes, the parking brake either actuates the disc calipers or a small drum brake housed within the hub assembly. Hudson automobiles used an unusual hybri
The Blindman River is a river in south-central Alberta. It forms south of Winfield and flows southeastward before joining the Red Deer River near Red Deer; the Blindman is bridged by Alberta Highway 20 a number of times in its upper reaches, before passing near the town of Rimbey. The river takes on the outflow of Gull Lake, it is bridged by Alberta Highway 2 at Red Deer before flowing into the Red Deer River. There are two competing theories regarding the name of the river. One theory suggests a Cree hunting party became snowblind while traveling and had to rest on the river banks until their eyes healed; the hunting party applied the name pas-ka-poo to the river. The second theory argues that Blindman is a descriptive term, applied to the river because of its numerous meanders and curves; the Paskapoo Formation, first described in its banks, takes its name from the Cree name for the Blindman. Anderson Creek Lloyd Creek Boyd Creek Potter Creek Gull Lake List of Alberta rivers
Jean Mann JP was a Scottish Labour Party politician and a campaigner for better housing and planning. She was the third female Labour MP in Scotland. Mann became an accountant. Married with five children, she was a councillor on Glasgow Corporation from 1931 to 1938, where she served as Housing convenor, she became Vice President of the Scottish Branch of the Housing and Town Planning Association, was a senior magistrate in Glasgow. In September 1941, the Scottish Branch of the Housing and Town Planning Association organised a conference in Largs to draw attention to the Scottish evidence to the Barlow Commission on the Distribution of the Industrial Population; the conference papers and proceedings were afterwards published in a book titled Replanning Scotland, edited by Jean Mann. She unsuccessfully contested the Renfrewshire West constituency at the 1931 general election and again in 1935. In the Labour landslide at the 1945 general election, Mann was elected as Member of Parliament for Coatbridge.
After she had taken the oath, it was realised that her position on the Rent Tribunals under the Rent of Furnished Houses Control Act 1943 was remunerated and that she therefore might hold an'office of profit under the Crown' which would disqualify her from election. A Select Committee was established; when the Coatbridge constituency was abolished for the 1950 general election, she was returned for the new Coatbridge and Airdrie constituency, holding the seat until she retired at the 1959 general election. Mann was a member of the Labour Party's National Executive Committee from 1953 to 1958, her memoir, Woman in Parliament, recalled the difficulties facing women MPs and their efforts to improve legislation for women and families. Mann, Replanning Scotland and Country Planning Association. Mann, Jean. Woman in Parliament. London: Oldhams Press. Centre for the Advancement of Women in Politics: Jean Mann Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "C" Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Jean Mann