A parking lot or car park known as a car lot, is a cleared area, intended for parking vehicles. The term refers to a dedicated area, provided with a durable or semi-durable surface. In most countries where cars are the dominant mode of transportation, parking lots are a feature of every city and suburban area. Shopping malls, sports stadiums and similar venues feature parking lots of immense area. See multistorey car park. Parking lots tend to be sources of water pollution because of their extensive impervious surfaces. Most existing lots have limited or no facilities to control runoff. Many areas today require minimum landscaping in parking lots to provide shade and help mitigate the extent of which their paved surfaces contribute to heat islands. Many municipalities require a minimum number of parking spaces, depending on the floor area in a store or the number of bedrooms in an apartment complex. In the United States, each state's Department of Transportation sets the proper ratio for disabled spaces for private business and public parking lots.
Various forms of technology are used to charge motorists for the use of a parking lot. Modern parking lots use a variety of technologies to help motorists find unoccupied parking spaces, retrieve their vehicles, improve their experience. In North America, parking minimums are requirements, as dictated by a municipality's zoning ordinance, for all new developments to provide a set number off-street parking spots; these minimums look to cover the demand for parking generated by said development at the peak times. Thus different land uses, whether they be commercial, residential or industrial, have different requirements to meet when deriving the number of parking spots needed. U. S. urban planners use Parking Generation Rates, a guidebook of statistical data from the Institution of Transportation Engineers, to source parking minimums. In these reports, the ITE define a type of land use's Parking Generation through an observational study. Parking Generation is statistically found by land use's, average generation rate, the range of generation rates, the subsequent standard deviation, the total number of studies.
To determine the parking generation rate of a building the ITE divides the peak parking observed by the floor area per 1000 square feet. This process is done by various studies to find the range. In the case of ITE studies, the observation of a single site multiple times is considered a stand-alone study; the average of the range is used to determine the average parking generation rate of a land use. This handbook is updated every 5 years to determine the demand for parking for specific land uses. Parking Generation Rates provided by the ITE doesn’t explicitly state what parking minimums should be, but rather is just a collection of statistical data for urban planners to interpret and use for at their own volition. Regardless, ITE's Parking Generation has been an influential factor In most North American cities in the adoption parking ratios, according to land use, to determine the minimum spots required by new developments. Parking Generation, regardless of its widespread use in North American cities, is disputed as a tool to determine parking minimums due to its questionable statistical validity.
Statistical significance is a major qualm with Parking Generations due to the oversimplification of how the parking generation rate is derived. Peak parking observed by ITE doesn’t take into account the price of parking in relation to the number of parked cars, thus the demand at any given time for parking is always high because it is oversupplied and underpriced. Thus the calculation for the parking generation rate of a land use. Adoption of parking minimums by municipalities, base on ratios from Parking Generation had a substantial effect on urban form; this can be seen in the lack of density characterized by the suburbanization of North America post-World War II. The growth of the car industry and car culture, in general, has much to do with the mass movement of the middle-class away from urban centers and exterior of the city in single family detached homes; as populations grew and density dissipated automobiles became the main mode of transportation. Thus insuring that new developments insured off-street park became a necessity.
Parking minimums are set for parallel, pull-in, or diagonal parking, depending on what types of vehicles are allowed to park in the lot or a particular section of it. Parking minimums took hold in the middle of the last century, as a way to ensure that traffic to new developments wouldn't use up existing spaces. Big cars may not fit properly in assigned parking spaces, creating issues with entering or leaving the car or blocking adjacent parking spaces. In Europe, parking maximums are more common; as a condition of planning permission for a new development, the development must be designed so that a minimum percentage of visitors arrive by public transport. The number of parking places in the development is limited to a number less than the expected number of visitors; the effect of large scale parking in-city has long been contentious. Elimination of historic structures in favor of garages or lots led to historical preservation movements in many cities; the acreage devoted to parking is seen as disrupting a walkable urban fabric, maximizing convenience to each individual building, but eliminating foot traffic among them.
Large paved areas have been called "parking craters", "parking deserts", similar terms, emphasizing their "depopulated" nature and the barriers they can create to walking movement. The largest parking lot in the world is West Edmonton Mall."Guinness World Records". Due to a recent trend towards more livable and walkable communities
"When I Close My Eyes" is a song by Shanice, released as the first single from her fourth album, Shanice. It was her first single in over four years. On April 3, 1999, the single made chart history when it made the biggest jump in the history of the Billboard Hot 100, moving 75 positions from number 91 to number 16, a record held by the single until 2006, it became her first top 20 hit since "Saving Forever for You," and her last one to date. The music video begins with Shanice's love interest walking a white horse along a foggy road; the video switches between scenes with Shanice and her backup dancers, a pink room with Shanice in a white dress, her sitting at the end of a long black pool with water. There is a scene where Shanice and her love interest kiss and they ride the horse. In the end, in her car, meets him in front of a store. U. S. CD/cassette single"When I Close My Eyes" - 3:23 Snippets - 4:54 "When I Close My Eyes" - 3:23 Music Video on YouTube Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
James Michael Slaton is a former pitcher with a 16-year career from 1971-1986. He played in the American League with the Milwaukee Brewers from 1971–1977 and 1979–1983, the Detroit Tigers in 1978 and 1986, the California Angels from 1984-1986. Slaton played high school baseball at Antelope Valley High School and played college baseball at Antelope Valley College, he is the Brewers all-time leader in Wins, Innings Pitched, Games Started, Shutouts, he is third in Strikeouts, trailing Teddy Higuera and Ben Sheets, Complete Games, trailing Mike Caldwell. He represented the Brewers and the American League in the 1977 All-Star game and was the winning pitcher for the Brewers in the 4th game of the 1982 World Series against St. Louis. After his playing career ended, he started coaching in the minor leagues, he coached in the Oakland Athletics organization from 1992–1994 and became the pitching coach for the Class A Daytona Cubs, Lancaster JetHawks and the Tacoma Rainiers. In 2004, he was a special assignment coach for the Seattle Mariners and from 2005-2007 he was the Mariners bullpen coach.
Before coaching in the minor or major leagues, Jim coached an all-star team for the Monte Vista Little League, while pitching for the Angels. He was the pitching coach for the Las Vegas 51s in 2008 serving as the bullpen coach for the Los Angeles Dodgers when Ken Howell temporarily left the team for medical reasons. After the season, the Dodgers announced that Slaton would be the pitching coach in 2009 for their new Triple-A affiliate, the Albuquerque Isotopes, a position he held through 2010. In 2011, he was named the pitching coach at Camelback Ranch. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Baseball-Reference, or Retrosheet Jim Slaton at Baseball Library