The Parliament Act 1911 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It is constitutionally important and governs the relationship between the House of Commons and the House of Lords, which make up the two Houses of Parliament; the Parliament Act 1949 provides that the Parliament Act 1911 and the Parliament Act 1949 are to be construed together "as one" in their effects and that the two Acts may be cited together as the Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949. Following the House of Lords' rejection of the 1909 "People's Budget", the House of Commons sought to establish its formal dominance over the House of Lords, which had broken convention in opposing the bill; the budget was passed by the Lords, after the Commons' democratic mandate was confirmed by holding elections in January 1910. The following Parliament Act, which looked to prevent a recurrence of the budget problems, was widely opposed in the House of Lords and cross-party discussion failed because of the proposed Act's applicability to passing an Irish home rule bill.
Following a second general election in December, the Act was passed with the assent of the monarch, George V, who agreed to carry out H. H. Asquith's threat to create enough new Liberal peers to overcome the Conservative majority in the Lords; the Act removed the right of the House of Lords to veto money bills and replaced its right of veto over other public bills with the ability to delay them for a maximum of two years. It reduced the maximum term of a parliament from seven years to five; until the Parliament Act 1911, there was no way to resolve disagreements between the two houses of Parliament except through the creation of additional peers by the monarch. Queen Anne had created twelve Tory peers to vote through the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713; the Reform Act 1832 had been passed when the House of Lords dropped their opposition to it: William IV had threatened to create eighty new peers by request of the prime minister, Earl Grey. This created an informal convention that the Lords would give way when the public was behind the House of Commons.
For example, Irish disestablishment, a major point of contention between the two main parties since the 1830s, was passed by the Lords in 1869 after Queen Victoria intervened and W. E. Gladstone won the 1868 election on the issue. However, in practice, this gave the Lords a right to demand that such public support be present and to decide the timing of a general election, it was the prevailing wisdom that the House of Lords could not amend money bills, since only the House of Commons had the right to decide upon the resources the monarch could call upon. This did not, prevent it from rejecting such bills outright. In 1860, with the repeal of the paper duties, all money bills were consolidated into a single budget; this denied the Lords the ability to reject individual components, the prospect of voting down the entire budget was unpalatable. It was only in 1909. Prior to the Act, the Lords had had rights equal to those of the Commons over legislation but, by convention, did not utilise its right of veto over financial measures.
There had been an overwhelming Conservative-Liberal Unionist majority in the Lords since the Liberal split in 1886. With the Liberal Party attempting to push through significant welfare reforms with considerable popular support, problems seemed certain to arise in the relationship between the houses. Between 1906 and 1909, several important measures were watered down or rejected outright: for example, Augustine Birrell introduced the Education Bill 1906, intended to address nonconformist grievances arising from the Education Act 1902, but it was amended by the Lords to such an extent that it became a different bill, whereupon the Commons dropped it; this led to a resolution in the House of Commons on 26 June 1907, put forward by Liberal Prime Minister Henry Campbell-Bannerman, declaring that the Lords' power ought to be curtailed. In 1909, hoping to force an election, the Lords rejected the financial bill based on the government budget put forward by David Lloyd George, by 350 votes to 75.
This action, according to the Commons, was "a breach of the constitution and a usurpation of the rights of the Commons". The Lords suggested that the Commons demonstrate at the polls the veracity of its claim that the bill represented the will of the people; the Liberal government sought to do so through the January 1910 general election. Their representation in parliament dropped but they retained a majority with the help of a significant number of Irish Parliamentary Party and Labour MPs; the IPP saw the continued power of the Lords as detrimental to securing Irish Home Rule. Following the election, the Lords relented on the budget, it passed the Lords on 28 April, a day after the Commons vote; the Lords was now faced with the prospect of a Parliament Act, which had considerable support from the Irish Nationalists. A series of meetings between the Liberal government and Unionist opposition members was agreed. Twenty-one such meetings were held between 10 November; the discussions considered a wide range of proposals, with initial agreement on finance bills and on a joint sitting of the Commons and the Lords as a means by which to enforce Commons superiority in controversial areas.
However, the issue of home rule for Ireland was the main contention, with Unionists looking to exempt such a law from the Parliament Act procedu
Alaska Air Group is an airline holding company based in SeaTac, Washington. It owns two certificated airlines operating in the United States: Horizon Air; the Alaska Air Group oversees an aircraft ground handling company, McGee Air Services, wholly owned by Alaska Airlines. It acquired Horizon Air and Jet America Airlines the next year. Jet America Airlines was merged into Alaska Airlines in 1987. Between 2007 and 2010, the number of employees under Alaska Air Group's subsidiaries dropped from 13,618 to 12,039. By 2011, the number of employees had risen to 12,806. In 2011, Alaska Air Group replaced the AMR Corporation in the Dow Jones Transportation Average following AMR's filing for bankruptcy. On March 29, 2016 Alaska Airlines announced that it would form a wholly owned subsidiary called McGee Air Services, a dedicated airline services company. McGee competes with other, similar companies to provide ground handling, aircraft cleaning and wheelchair services to Alaska Airlines. On April 4, 2016, Alaska Air Group announced plans to acquire Virgin America, pending approval from US government regulators and Virgin America shareholders, before the acquisition was completed on December 14, 2016.
The total price for the acquisition was $2.6 billion. Until 2018, Alaska Air Group continued to operate Alaska Airlines and Virgin America as separate airlines and continued to honor both Alaska's Mileage Plan and Virgin America's Elevate loyalty programs. By the end of 2016, following Virgin America's acquisition the number of Alaska Air Group employees rose to 19,112. On March 22, 2017 the company announced that Alaska Air Group would merge Virgin America and Alaska Airlines, with the combined airline to operate under the Alaska Airlines brand; the merger was completed on April 25, 2018 and the Virgin America brand was retired by June 2, 2019. Alaska Air Group operates a mix of Airbus, Boeing and Embraer aircraft through its subsidiaries Alaska Airlines and Horizon Air; as of October 2017, Alaska Airlines' fleet consisted of 248 jet aircraft, Horizon Air's fleet consisted of 41 turboprop and 16 jet aircraft, with the combined fleet under Alaska Air Group's management numbering 298 aircraft.
Alaska Air Group has created a new branding identity for its Horizon Air subsidiary and other independently owned and separately directed affiliate regional airlines it chooses to contract to do regional flying business into markets too limited to be flown only on Alaska Airlines mainline equipment. Among the other airlines now sub-contracted to do additional flying for the Alaska Air Group is SkyWest, Inc.'s SkyWest Airlines, whose Bombardier CRJ700 and Embraer E175 aircraft dedicated to providing service for the Alaska Air Group are painted in a similar manner to Alaska Horizon's. SkyWest's fleet however, is branded Alaska SkyWest to differentiate that airline's aircraft from those of Horizon Air. Through Alaska Airlines and Horizon Air, Alaska Air Group services the passenger and cargo markets of the Pacific Northwest with its extensive route network hub through Seattle/Tacoma and Portland International Airports, the state of Alaska through Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport. After the demise of Aloha Airlines and ATA Airlines in 2008, Alaska Air Group expanded centering on Hawaii and other non-airline hub secondary mainland cities and airports, including San Diego International Airport and San Jose International Airport.
After the acquisition of Virgin America in 2016, Alaska Air Group further expanded into California through Virgin America's hubs at San Francisco and Los Angeles International Airports, focus city at Dallas Love Field in Texas. Business data for Alaska Air Group
Jean Biès was a French philosopher and author. He is the recipient of the High Prize of the Society of French Poets, Chevalier of the French Legion of Honor, a prolific modern proponent of the Traditionalist School, his works deal with the union of Western philosophy. Born in Bordeaux, France in 1933, much of his childhood and adolescence was spent in Algiers. Jean Biès studied Classics at the University of Algiers before continuing his studies at the Sorbonne, his doctoral dissertation, which studied the relationship between French literature and Hindu thought, was awarded the Prix d’Asie by the Académie des Sciences d’Outre-mer. Coming across the writings of René Guénon in 1951, Biès discovered the existence of initiatory teachings; this had a large influence on his beliefs and writings and he went on to meet several prominent members of the Traditionalist School including Frithjof Schuon. He was awarded the Chevalier of the French Legion of Honor in 1997. Biès has written extensively on the subject of traditional wisdom and his works take many forms including essays, travel accounts, personal testimonies, scholarly articles.
He retired in 1993 so he could focus his time on his writing. In 2004 World Wisdom published the first English-language collection of his writings, entitled Returning to the Essential: The Selected Writings of Jean Bies; the Catholic philosopher Jean Borella referred to Biès as “one of the great and most authentic poets of our time.” Traditionalist School René Guénon English Sophia Volume 12 Number 1 ISBN 978-0-9629984-9-2 Ye Shall Know the Truth ISBN 978-0-941532-69-3 Returning to the Essential: The Selected Writings of Jean Bies ISBN 978-0-941532-63-1French John Tavener, l'enchanteur: Une introduction à la musique du silence ISBN 978-2-86681-146-4 Les alchimistes ISBN 978-2-84898-085-0 Petit dictionnaire d'impertinences spirituelles ISBN 978-2-908606-33-1 Voies de Sages: Douze maîtres spirituels témoignent de leur vérité ISBN 978-2-84898-065-2 Les grands initiés du XXe siècle: Trente voies pratiques de réalisation ISBN 978-2-84898-055-3 Retour à l'essentiel: Quelle spiritualité pour l'homme d'aujourd'hui?
ISBN 978-2-8251-1842-9 Vivre et transmettre la tradition ISBN 978-2-84454-248-9 Par les chemins de vie et d'oeuvre: Entretiens avec Mireya de Alson ISBN 978-2-86681-099-3 Littérature française et pensée hindoue, des origines à 1950 ISBN 978-2-252-01619-0 Les Alchimistes ISBN 978-2-86645-358-9 Athos: La montagne transfigurée ISBN 978-2-86681-068-9 La Porte de l'appartement des femmes ISBN 978-2-907963-15-2 L'initiatrice ISBN 978-2-907963-11-4 Voies de sages ISBN 978-2-86645-243-8 Paroles d'urgence ISBN 978-2-908933-11-6 Les chemins de la ferveur: Voyage en Inde ISBN 978-2-908933-08-6 Arts, gnose et alchimie. Trois sources de régénérescence ISBN 978-2-7029-0177-9 Jean Biès’s life and work The Notebooks of Jean Biès