Parliament House is the meeting place of the Parliament of Australia, located in Canberra, the capital of Australia. The building was designed by Mitchell/Giurgola & Thorp Architects and built by a Concrete Constructions and John Holland joint venture, it was opened on 9 May 1988 by Queen of Australia. It cost more than A$1.1 billion to build. Federal Parliament meetings were held in Melbourne until 1927. Between 1927 and 1988, the Parliament of Australia met in the Provisional Parliament House, now known as "Old Parliament House". Construction of Australia's permanent Parliament House was delayed. Construction of the new building began in 1981; the principal design of the structure is based on the shape of two boomerangs and is topped by an 81-metre flagpole. Parliament House contains 4,700 rooms, many areas are open to the public; the main foyer contains a marble staircase and leads to the Great Hall, which has a large tapestry on display. The House of Representatives chamber is decorated green, while the Senate chamber has a red colour scheme.
Between the two chambers is the Members' Hall, which has a water feature and is not open to the public. The Ministerial Wing houses other ministerial offices. In 1901, when the six British colonies in Australia federated to form the Commonwealth of Australia and Sydney were the two largest cities in the country, but the long history of rivalry between them meant that neither could become the national capital. Section 125 of the Constitution of Australia therefore provided that: The seat of Government of the Commonwealth shall be determined by the Parliament, shall be within territory which shall have been granted to or acquired by the Commonwealth, shall be vested in and belong to the Commonwealth, shall be in the State of New South Wales, be distant not less than one hundred miles from Sydney; such territory shall contain an area of not less than one hundred square miles, such portion thereof as shall consist of Crown lands shall be granted to the Commonwealth without any payment therefor.
The Parliament shall sit at Melbourne. In 1909, after much argument, the Parliament decided that the new capital would be in the southern part of New South Wales, on the site, now Canberra; the Commonwealth acquired control over the land in 1911, but World War I intervened, nothing was done for some years to build the city. Federal Parliament did not leave Melbourne until 1927. In the meantime the Australian Parliament met in the 19th-century edifice of Parliament House, while the Victorian State Parliament met in the nearby Royal Exhibition Building for 26 years. After World War I the Federal Capital Advisory Committee was established to prepare Canberra to be the seat of government, including the construction of a Parliament House; the committee decided that it would be best to erect a "provisional" building, to serve for a predicted 50 years until a new, "permanent" House could be built. In the end, Old Parliament House was Parliament's home for 61 years. In the last decade of its use as a parliament the building had a chronic shortage of available space.
In 1978 the Fraser government decided to proceed with a new building on Capital Hill, the Parliament House Construction Authority was created. A two-stage competition was announced, for which the Authority consulted the Royal Australian Institute of Architects and, together with the National Capital Development Commission, made available to competitors a brief and competition documents; the design competition drew 329 entries from 29 countries. The competition winner was the Philadelphia-based architectural firm of Mitchell/Giurgola, with the on-site work directed by the Italian-born architect Romaldo Giurgola, with a design which involved burying most of the building under Capital Hill, capping the edifice with an enormous spire topped by a large Australian flag; the facades, included deliberate imitation of some of the patterns of the Old Parliament House, so that there is a slight resemblance despite the massive difference of scale. Giurgola placed an emphasis on the visual aesthetics of the building by using landscape architect Peter G. Rolland to direct civil engineers, a reversal of the traditional roles in Australia.
Rolland played a pivotal role in the design and coordination of all surface elements including pool design, conceptual lighting and artwork locations. Horticultural experts from the Australian National Botanic Gardens and a government nursery were consulted on plant selection. Permanent irrigation has been limited to only the more formal areas. Irwinconsult was commissioned to provide structural engineering, including quality assurance of all structural elements, to deliver a building with a designed life-span of 200 years. Construction began in 1981, the House was intended to be ready by Australia Day, 26 January 1988, the 200th anniversary of European settlement in Australia, it was expected to cost A$220 million. Neither the deadline nor the budget was met; the building was opened by Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia on 9 May 1988, the anniversary of the opening of both the first Federal Parliament in Melbourne on 9 May 1901 by the Duke of Cornwall and York, of the Provisional Parliament House in Canberra on 9 May 1927 by the Duke of York.
The flag flown from the 81 metres flagpole is 12.8 about the size of half a tennis court. The flagpole is made of polished stainless steel from Wollongong, it was designed to be the pinnacle of Parliament House and is an recognisable symbol of national government. It is visible by day from outside and
The 2013–14 Toronto Maple Leafs season was the 97th season for the National Hockey League franchise, established on November 22, 1917. Due to a realignment, approved on March 14, 2013, by the NHL's Board of Governors, the Maple Leafs played this season in the eight-team Atlantic Division of the Eastern Conference. For the first time since the 1997–98 season, they played every team in the league at least once both home and away. In fact, they played the Montreal Canadiens and the Buffalo Sabres five times each, every other team in their own division four times each, teams in the Metropolitan Division of the Eastern Conference three times each, every team from the Western Conference twice; the Maple Leafs played in the NHL Winter Classic against the Detroit Red Wings on January 1, 2014, at Michigan Stadium, the home of the University of Michigan football team. The Leafs won 3–2; the Leafs were in a playoff position for much of the season, but a 2–12 record in the final 14 games of the season caused them to miss the playoffs.
Final stats †Denotes player spent time with another team before joining the Maple Leafs. Stats reflect time with the Maple Leafs only. ‡Denotes player was traded mid-season. Stats reflect time with the Maple Leafs only. Bold/italics denotes franchise record. Updated as of February 9, 2014 As of the end of the season; the Maple Leafs have been involved in the following transactions during the 2013–14 season
And the Ass Saw the Angel is the first novel by the Australian musician and singer Nick Cave published in 1989 by Black Spring Press in the United Kingdom and Harper Collins in the United States. It was re-published in 2003 by 2.13.61. A luxury "collector's edition" was released, by Black Spring Press; the title is a biblical quotation from the Book of Numbers, Chapter 22, Verses 23-31: "And the ass saw the angel of the Lord standing in the way...". With its Southern Gothic setting, critics have compared it favorably with novels by American authors William Faulkner and Flannery O'Connor. Cave's second novel, The Death of Bunny Munro, was published in September, 2009. In 2009, "Nick Cave: The Exhibition" toured nationally in Australia; the exhibition - which displayed original lyrics, artwork and books, as well as objects from Cave's own library and office - included Cave's original manuscript of And the Ass Saw the Angel. The origin of And the Ass Saw the Angel was an unfilmed screenplay by Cave and Evan English titled Swampland.
When the film project fell through, Cave expanded the script into a novel. Cave's essay The Flesh Made Word - written for a radio broadcast by BBC Radio 3 in 1996 and reprinted in King Ink II in 1997 - includes Cave's recollection of writing And the Ass Saw the Angel: And the Ass Saw the Angel tells the story of Euchrid Eucrow, a mute born to an abusive drunken mother and a father obsessed with animal torture and the building of dangerous traps; the family live in a valley of fanatically religious Ukulites. Euchrid's mental breakdown includes horrific angelic visions, the story builds towards Euchrid exacting terrible vengeance on the people who have made him suffer; the lyrics of some of the songs from the first few albums of Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds, are extensions of the ideas represented in the novel. The title comes from the Bible, the Book of Numbers 22:23, where Balaam does not see the angel of the Lord but his donkey does; the Bible is referenced throughout the novel. In an interview with BOMB magazine, Cave noted, “There are a number of voices in the book: first person narrative by Euchrid, third person authorial voice, quotations from the Bible, either real or ersatz, constant changes in tone or approach to language, depending on, talking.
When I first started the book there were certain elements I wasn’t interested in reading about. When you read a novel, you have to wade through the setting up of the scene. So I wrote a long prologue, it has no action. It includes documentary, poetry and charts, in short chapters. Once this is done, the actual story begins; the voice changes between the narrator’s truth and Euchrid’s delusionary truth. The final book is Euchrid’s monologue which runs to the climax” The book is narrated in the protagonist's silent Southern drawl, which Cave writes in eye dialect. One present theme is Man's inhumanity to man and their innate ability to fear what they do not understand. Euchrid is under siege from those who perceive difference as a threat; the only other character to see Euchrid as something more than a dumb beast is Beth. Though Beth is taken into the fold by the Ukulites, she too is different from the rest. There is a strange transference of thought throughout the novel. Another theme presented in the novel is the beauty of things perceived as ugly.
In an interview with director Lindzee Smith, Cave revealed, “The things that are ugly are supposed to be ugly. I'd hate to think. It’s about innocence as well ––the beauty in that. There’s a cartoon image to many of the characters––Beth, who I see as the idealized young girl and innocent, seen through the obsessive eyes of Euchrid.” 1990 Time Out Magazine: Book Of The Year 1989, UK, Black Spring Press, ISBN 0-948238-03-8, 24 Aug 1989, hardcover, 272 pp 1989, USA, HarperCollins, ISBN 0-06-016491-3, September 1990, hardcover 1992, USA, HarperPaperbacks, ISBN 0-06-109091-3, July 1992, paperback, 400 pp 2001, UK, Penguin, ISBN 0-14-029455-4, 22 Feb 2001, paperback, 320 pp 2003, USA, 2.13.61, ISBN 1-880985-72-1, March 26, 2003, paperback, 320 pp 2009, AUS, Penguin, ISBN 978-0-14-104561-0, 29 June 2009, paperback, 324 pp Cave did many public readings before and after the publication of the book, sometimes accompanied by various musicians. A selection of readings was released as a bonus 12" with the original release of the Tender Prey album: "Mah Sanctum", "Lamentation", "One Autumn" and "Animal Static".
In 1998, Mute records released these same four chapters, together with music by Mick Harvey and Ed Clayton-Jones on CD as "And The Ass Saw The Angel". Black Spring Press: Publishers of the English edition and the Collector's edition