Liberal Government of New Zealand
The Liberal Government of New Zealand was the first responsible government in New Zealand politics organised along party lines. The government formed following the founding of the Liberal Party and took office on the 24 January 1891, to date, it is the longest serving government in New Zealands history. The government was notable for enacting significant social and economic changes, such as the Old Age Pensions Act. One historian described the policies of the government as a revolution in the relationship between the government and the people, passed the Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act 1894. This established a conciliation and compulsory arbitration system with the aim of providing the unions with the means of protecting their members, the act encouraged the growth of unions by limiting labour representation at the arbitration court to registered unions. Legislation was introduced to protect groups, such as the gumdiggers, shop assistants, shearers. A department of labour was established to ensure improvements in working conditions took place to inspect shearing sheds, factories.
The new department helped to reduce unemployment by transporting labourers to jobs, Factory hours and working conditions were strictly regulated and children were removed from factories. The 1891 Factory Act gave legal definition to a factory, by 1896,4,600 factories with 31,000 workers and a further 7,000 shop assistants were registered with the Department of Labour. The 1892 Shop-Assistants Act dealt with sanitation and inspection and it introduced a compulsory half-holiday for retail workers. The Wages Protection Bill was designed to protect workers’ wage packets from arbitrary deductions by employers, the Shipping and Seamen’s Act specified minimum crews and safety conditions for shipping. The public service was expanded between 1891 and 1911. By 1912, more than 40,000 people were on the state’s payroll, the Coal Mines Act established state mines to compete directly with privately owned mines. The Fires Brigades Act increased subsidies for volunteer fire brigades, Public works schemes such as road construction were encouraged and helped to reduce unemployment. A land and income tax bill was passed which introduced direct taxation as well as a land tax.
The bill repealed the former inequitable property tax, a state fire insurance office and state coal mines with their own sale depots were established. The Truck Act forced all employers to pay in cash instead of goods, the Coal Mines Act authorised the government to purchase two West Coast mines. The Contractors and Workmen’s Liens Bill protected the rights of workers and contractors for payment for work done, forty-eight hours a week was established by law as the normal working time for men in factories
A façade is generally one exterior side of a building, but not always, the front. It is a loan word from the French façade, which means frontage or face. In architecture, the façade of a building is often the most important aspect from a design standpoint, from the engineering perspective of a building, the façade is of great importance due to its impact on energy efficiency. For historical façades, many local zoning regulations or other laws restrict or even forbid their alteration. The word comes from the French foreign loan word façade, which in turn comes from the Italian facciata, from faccia meaning face, the earliest usage recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is 1656. It was quite common in the Georgian period for existing houses in English towns to be given a fashionable new façade, in modern highrise building, the exterior walls are often suspended from the concrete floor slabs. Examples include curtain walls and precast concrete walls, the façade can at times be required to have a fire-resistance rating, for instance, if two buildings are very close together, to lower the likelihood of fire spreading from one building to another.
In general, the systems that are suspended or attached to the precast concrete slabs will be made from aluminium or stainless steel. In recent years more lavish materials such as titanium have sometimes been used, whether rated or not, fire protection is always a design consideration. The melting point of aluminium,660 °C, is reached within minutes of the start of a fire. Firestops for such building joints can be qualified, putting fire sprinkler systems on each floor has a profoundly positive effect on the fire safety of buildings with curtain walls. Some building codes limit the percentage of area in exterior walls. When the exterior wall is not rated, the slab edge becomes a junction where rated slabs are abutting an unrated wall. For rated walls, one may choose rated windows and fire doors, on a film set and within most themed attractions, many of the buildings are only façades, which are far cheaper than actual buildings, and not subject to building codes. In film sets, they are held up with supports from behind.
Within theme parks, they are usually decoration for the interior ride/attraction/restaurant, by Ulrich Knaack, Tillmann Klein, Marcel Bilow and Thomas Auer. ISBN 978-3-7643-7961-2 ISBN 978-3-7643-7962-9 Giving buildings an illusion of grandeur Poole, the article outlines the development of the façade in ecclesiastical architecture from the early Christian period to the Renaissance
New Zealand Parliament
The New Zealand Parliament is the legislative branch of New Zealand, consisting of the Queen of New Zealand and the New Zealand House of Representatives. Before 1951, there was a chamber, the New Zealand Legislative Council. The Parliament was established in 1854 and is one of the oldest continuously functioning parliaments in the world, the House of Representatives is a democratically elected body whose members are known as Members of Parliament. It usually consists of 120 MPs, though sometimes due to overhang seats. 70 MPs are elected directly in electorate seats and the remainder are filled by list MPs based on each partys share of the party vote, Māori were represented in Parliament from 1867, and in 1893 women gained the vote. New Zealand does not allow sentenced prisoners to vote, the Parliament is closely linked to the executive branch. The House of Representatives has met in the Parliament Buildings located in Wellington, Parliament funds the broadcast of its proceedings through Parliament TV, AM Network and Parliament Today.
It was based on the Westminster model and had a house, called the House of Representatives. The members of the House of Representatives were elected under the first-past-the-post voting system, originally Councillors were appointed for life, but their terms were fixed at seven years. In 1951, the Council was abolished altogether, making the New Zealand legislature unicameral, under the Constitution Act, legislative power was conferred on New Zealands provinces, each of which had its own elected Legislative Council. These provincial legislatures were able to legislate for their provinces on most subjects, over a twenty-year period, political power was progressively centralised, and the provinces were abolished altogether in 1876. Four Māori electorates were created in 1867 during the term of the 4th Parliament, originally the New Zealand Parliament remained subordinate to the British Parliament, the supreme legislative authority for the entire British Empire. One historical speciality of the New Zealand Parliament was the country quota, from 1889 on, districts were weighted according to their urban/rural split.
The country quota was in effect until it was abolished in 1945 by a mostly urban-elected Labour government, the New Zealand Parliament is sovereign with no institution able to over-ride its decisions. The ability of Parliament to act is, unimpeded, for example, the New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990 is a normal piece of legislation, it is not superior law as codified constitutions are in some other countries. The only thing Parliament is limited in its power are on some entrenched issues relating to elections and these issues require either 75% of all MPs to support the bill or a referendum on the issue. The Queen of New Zealand is one of the components of Parliament—formally called the Queen-in-Parliament and this results from the role of the monarch to sign into law the bills that have been passed by the House of Representatives. The House of Representatives was established as a house and has been the Parliaments sole chamber since 1951
Edwardian architecture is an architectural style popular during the reign of King Edward VII of the United Kingdom. Architecture from up to the year 1914 may be included in this style, Edwardian architecture is generally less ornate than high or late Victorian architecture, apart from a subset - used for major buildings - known as Edwardian Baroque architecture. The Victorian Society campaigns to preserve Edwardian Architecture, Decorative patterns were less complex, both wallpaper and curtain designs were more plain. Clutter, There was less clutter than in the Victorian era, ornaments were perhaps grouped rather than everywhere. And Victorian Art Nouveau Georgian Arts and Crafts Edwardian era Edwardian Baroque architecture Federation architecture Gray, A. S. Edwardian Architecture, the Edwardian House, the Middle-Class Home in Britain 1880-1914
Richard John Seddon PC is to date the longest-serving Prime Minister of New Zealand. He is regarded as one of New Zealands greatest political leaders, sometimes derisively known as King Dick for his autocratic style, Seddon dominated the Liberal government for thirteen years, achieving many social and economic changes. Seddon was born in Eccleston near St Helens, England in 1845 and his father Thomas Seddon was a school headmaster, and his mother Jane Lindsay was a teacher. They married on 8 February 1842 at Christ Church and their children were, Thomas born 1842, who died 1849 Phoebe Ellen born 1843 died 1925 in New Zealand. Despite this background, Seddon did not perform well at school, despite his parents attempt to give him a classical education, Seddon developed an interest in engineering, but was removed from school at age 12. After working on his grandfather Richards farm at Barrow Nook Hall for two years, Seddon was an apprentice at Daglishs Foundry in St Helens and he worked at Vauxhall foundry in Liverpool, where he attained a Board of Trade Certificate as a mechanical engineer.
On 15 June 1862, at the age of 16, Seddon decided to emigrate to Australia and he provided his reasoning, A restlessness to get away to see new, broad lands seized me, My work was irksome. He entered the workshops at Melbourne, Victoria. He was caught by the fever and went to Bendigo. He did not meet with any great success, in either 1865 or 1866, he became engaged to Louisa Jane Spotswood, but her family would not permit marriage until Seddon was more financially secure. In 1866, Seddon moved to New Zealands West Coast, initially, he worked the goldfields in Waimea. He is believed to have prospered here, and he returned briefly to Melbourne to marry Louisa and he established a store, and expanded his business to include the sale of alcohol, becoming a publican. He was followed to the West Coast by his older sister Phoebe, younger brothers Edward and Jim, Phoebe married William Cunliffe on 9 May 1863 at Holy Trinity Church Eccleston. Their son Bill was Labour MP David Cunliffes grandfather, making Richard Seddon David Cunliffes great-great-uncle, Seddons first real involvement with politics was with various local bodies, such as the Arahura Road Board.
In 1874 elected to the council of Westland Province, representing Arahura and he lost this position with the abolition of the provinces in 1876. Gradually, Seddon became known along the West Coast as an advocate for rights and interests. In 1877, Seddon was elected as the first Mayor of Kumara and he had staked a claim in Kumara the previous year, and had shortly afterwards moved his business there. Despite occasional financial troubles, his career prospered
Base isolation, known as seismic base isolation or base isolation system, is one of the most popular means of protecting a structure against earthquake forces. Base isolation is one of the most powerful tools of earthquake engineering pertaining to the passive structural vibration control technologies and it is meant to enable a building or non-building structure to survive a potentially devastating seismic impact through a proper initial design or subsequent modifications. In some cases, application of base isolation can raise both a structures seismic performance and its seismic sustainability considerably, contrary to popular belief base isolation does not make a building earthquake proof. Isolation components are the connections between units and their parts having no decoupling effect of their own. Isolation units could consist of shear or sliding units and this technology can be used for both new structural design and seismic retrofit. It required creating rigidity diaphragms and moats around the buildings, as well as making provisions against overturning, base isolation is used on a smaller scale—sometimes down to a single room in a building.
Isolated raised-floor systems are used to safeguard essential equipment against earthquakes, the technique has been incorporated to protect statues and other works of art—see, for instance, Rodins Gates of Hell at the National Museum of Western Art in Tokyos Ueno Park. Through the George E. Brown, Jr, network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation, researchers are studying the performance of base isolation systems. These tests will include a full-scale, three-dimensional test of an isolated 5-story steel building on the E-Defense shake table in Miki, Hyogo, an adaptive base isolation system includes a tunable isolator that can adjust its properties based on the input to minimize the transferred vibration. Magnetorheological fluid dampers and isolators with Magnetorheological elastomer have been suggested as adaptive base isolators, Earthquake engineering structures Geotechnical engineering Seismic retrofit Shock absorber Shock mount Vibration isolation
New Zealand House of Representatives
The New Zealand House of Representatives is the sole chamber of the legislature of New Zealand. The House and the Queen of New Zealand together constitute the New Zealand Parliament, the House of Representatives passes all laws, provides ministers to form a cabinet, and supervises the work of the Government. It is responsible for adopting the states budgets and approving the states accounts, the House of Representatives is a wholly democratically elected body, usually consisting of 120 members known as Members of Parliament. Members are elected for limited terms, holding office until Parliament is dissolved, a government is formed from the party or coalition with the majority of MPs. If no majority is a minority government can be formed with a confidence. The chamber was created by the British New Zealand Constitution Act 1852, which established a legislature, however the upper chamber. Parliament received full control over all New Zealand affairs in 1947 with the passage of the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act, the seat of the House of Representatives is Parliament House in Wellington, the capital city.
The House of Representatives takes the House of Commons of the United Kingdom as its model, the New Zealand Parliament is based on the Westminster system. As a democratic institution, the role of the House of Representatives is to provide representation for the people. The executive branch of the New Zealand government draws its membership exclusively from the House of Representatives, although it does not elect the Prime Minister, the position of the parties in the House of Representatives is of overriding importance. By convention, a minister is answerable to, and must maintain the support of. Thus, whenever the office of prime minister falls vacant, the governor-general appoints the person most likely to command the support of the House—normally the leader of the largest party and this support is immediately tested through a motion of confidence. The House of Representatives normally consists of 120 members, known as Members of Parliament, the Speaker of the New Zealand House of Representatives has overall charge of the administration of the House, and presides over sittings.
Seating in the chamber is arranged in a horseshoe pattern. The Speaker of the House sits in a chair at the open end of the horseshoe. Following the example of the British House of Commons, members of Government are seated on the hand of the Speaker. MPs are assigned seating on the basis of the seniority in a party caucus, for example, the prime minister sits on the front row, in the fourth seat along from the Speaker. The 51st New Zealand Parliament is the current sitting of the House and its membership was elected at the 2014 general election and, so far, one subsequent by-election
Beehive (New Zealand)
The Beehive is the common name for the Executive Wing of the New Zealand Parliament Buildings, located at the corner of Molesworth Street and Lambton Quay, Wellington. It is so-called because of its shape is reminiscent of that of a traditional form of beehive known as a skep. It is registered as a Category I heritage building by Heritage New Zealand, scottish architect Sir Basil Spence provided the original conceptual design of the Beehive in 1964. The detailed architectural design was undertaken by the New Zealand government architect Fergus Sheppard, the Beehive was built in stages between 1969 and 1979. Bellamys restaurant moved into the building in the summer of 1975–76 and Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of New Zealand, the Prime Minister, Robert Muldoon, formally opened the building in May 1977. The government moved into the floors in 1979. The annex facing Museum Street was completed in 1981, renovations were carried out and the interior was modernised between 1998 and 2006 to plans by Christchurch architecture firm Warren and Mahoney.
In 2013 and 2014, the roof was repaired and windows replaced, in July 2015, Heritage New Zealand declared the Beehive of outstanding heritage significance for its central role in the governance of New Zealand. Blyss Wagstaff of Heritage New Zealand called it one of the most recognisable buildings in the country, Heritage New Zealand assigned the highest rating for a historic place, Category I, to the building. The original application for the designation was made by Lockwood Smith. The heritage registration with the list number 9629 became effective on 24 July 2015, the tunnel to Bowen House is specifically excluded from the heritage registration. The building is ten storeys high and has four floors below ground, the entrance foyers core is decorated with marble floors, stainless steel mesh wall panels, and a translucent glass ceiling. The Beehives brown roof is constructed from 20 tonnes of hand-welted and seamed copper and it has developed a naturally weathered appearance. A tunnel leads from the building under Bowen Street, linking the Beehive with parliamentary offices in Bowen House, the Beehive is extensively decorated with New Zealand art.
On the inner wall of the Banquet Hall is a large mural by John Drawbridge portraying the atmosphere. The Beehives circular footprint is generally considered an elegant and distinctive design feature, however it is quite impractical, as many of its rooms are wedge-shaped, curved or asymmetrical. An extension has been out the front to allow for a new security entrance. A new, bomb-proof mail delivery room has already built at the rear of the building
John Campbell (architect)
John Campbell was a Scottish architect, responsible for many government buildings in New Zealand. Born in Scotland, he travelled to New Zealand in 1882 after training in Glasgow under John Gordon, from 1883 to his retirement in 1922 he worked for the government, holding the title of Government Architect from 1909 onwards. He is most widely known for post offices, including those of Auckland and Wellington, in New Zealand he first lived and worked in Dunedin. He died in Wellington in 1942, media related to John Campbell at Wikimedia Commons
Wellington is the capital and second most populous urban area of New Zealand, with 405,000 residents. It is at the tip of the North Island, between Cook Strait and the Rimutaka Range. Wellington is the population centre of the southern North Island and is the administrative centre of the Wellington Region. It is the worlds windiest city, with a wind speed of over 26 km/h. Situated near the centre of the country, Wellington was well placed for trade. In 1839 it was chosen as the first major planned settlement for British immigrants coming to New Zealand, the settlement was named in honour of the Arthur Wellesley, the first Duke of Wellington and victor of the Battle of Waterloo. As the nations capital since 1865, the New Zealand Government and Parliament, Supreme Court, despite being much smaller than Auckland, Wellington is referred to as New Zealands cultural capital. The city is home to the National Archives, the National Library, architectural sights include the Government Building—one of the largest wooden buildings in the world—as well as the iconic Beehive.
Wellington plays host to artistic and cultural organisations, including the New Zealand Symphony Orchestra. It has an urban culture, with many cafés, restaurants. One of the worlds most liveable cities, the 2014 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranked Wellington 12th in the world, Wellingtons economy is primarily service-based, with an emphasis on finance, business services, and government. It is the centre of New Zealands film and special effects industries, Wellington ranks as one of New Zealands chief seaports and serves both domestic and international shipping. The city is served by Wellington International Airport, the third busiest airport in the country, Wellingtons transport network includes train and bus lines which reach as far as the Kapiti Coast and Wairarapa, and ferries connect the city to the South Island. Wellington takes its name from Arthur Wellesley, the first Duke of Wellington and victor of the Battle of Waterloo, his title comes from the town of Wellington in the English county of Somerset.
One of the founders of the settlement, Edward Jerningham Wakefield, reported that the settlers took up the views of the directors with great cordiality, in Māori, Wellington has three names. In New Zealand Sign Language, the name is signed by raising the index and ring fingers of one hand, palm forward, to form a W, and shaking it slightly from side to side twice. The citys location close to the mouth of the narrow Cook Strait leads to its vulnerability to strong gales, legends recount that Kupe discovered and explored the district in about the 10th century. The earliest date with hard evidence for Maori living in New Zealand is about 1280, European settlement began with the arrival of an advance party of the New Zealand Company on the ship Tory on 20 September 1839, followed by 150 settlers on the Aurora on 22 January 1840
World War I
World War I, known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world.
On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors.
During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary and Germany
Takaka Hill is a range of hills located in the northwest of the South Island of New Zealand. Made of marble which has weathered into many forms and with numerous sink holes. There is only one road winding over and around the flanks of Takaka Hill, State Highway 60, following the valleys of the Takaka River to the northwest and the Riuwaka River to the southeast. Takaka Hill is notable for its quarry and for many limestone caves and sinkholes, including Ngarua Caves which are open to the public. Harwoods Hole, at one time the deepest cave in New Zealand, is to be found on Takaka Hill, many of the caves drain into The Resurgence a spring at the foot of the hill. Takaka Hill, as other areas in and around the Golden Bay, has been the location for many scenes filmed for The Lord of the Rings film trilogy. Caving areas in New Zealand RoughGuides. com