Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. It is surrounded on the north and southwest by the Canadian province of Ontario, on the south and east by the American state of New York, whose water boundaries meet in the middle of the lake. Ontario, Canada's most populous province, was named for the lake. Many of Ontario's most populous cities, including Toronto, Canada's most populous city, Hamilton, are on the lake's northern or western shores. In the Huron language, the name Ontarí'io means "Lake of Shining Waters", its primary inlet is the Niagara River from Lake Erie. The last in the Great Lakes chain, Lake Ontario serves as the outlet to the Atlantic Ocean via the Saint Lawrence River, it is the only Great Lake not to border the state of Michigan. Lake Ontario is the easternmost of the Great Lakes and the smallest in surface area, although it exceeds Lake Erie in volume, it is the 13th largest lake in the world. When its islands are included, the lake's shoreline is 712 miles long.
As the last lake in the Great Lakes' hydrologic chain, Lake Ontario has the lowest mean surface elevation of the lakes at 243 feet above sea level. Its maximum length is 193 statute miles and its maximum width is 53 statute miles; the lake's average depth is 47 fathoms 1 foot, with a maximum depth of 133 fathoms 4 feet. The lake's primary source is the Niagara River, draining Lake Erie, with the St. Lawrence River serving as the outlet; the drainage basin covers 24,720 square miles. As with all the Great Lakes, water levels change both among years; these water level fluctuations are an integral part of lake ecology, produce and maintain extensive wetlands. The lake has an important freshwater fishery, although it has been negatively affected by factors including over-fishing, water pollution and invasive species. Baymouth bars built by prevailing winds and currents have created a significant number of lagoons and sheltered harbors near Prince Edward County and the easternmost shores; the best-known example is Toronto Bay, chosen as the site of the Upper Canada capital for its strategic harbour.
Other prominent examples include Hamilton Harbour, Irondequoit Bay, Presqu'ile Bay, Sodus Bay. The bars themselves are the sites of long beaches, such as Sandbanks Provincial Park and Sandy Island Beach State Park; these sand bars are associated with large wetlands, which support large numbers of plant and animal species, as well as providing important rest areas for migratory birds. Presqu'ile, on the north shore of Lake Ontario, is significant in this regard. One unique feature of the lake is the Z-shaped Bay of Quinte which separates Prince Edward County from the Ontario mainland, save for a 2-mile isthmus near Trenton. Major rivers draining into Lake Ontario include the Niagara River, Don River, Humber River, Trent River, Cataraqui River, Genesee River, Oswego River, Black River, Little Salmon River, the Salmon River; the lake basin was carved out of soft, weak Silurian-age rocks by the Wisconsin ice sheet during the last ice age. The action of the ice occurred along the pre-glacial Ontarian River valley which had the same orientation as today's basin.
Material, pushed southward by the ice sheet left landforms such as drumlins and moraines, both on the modern land surface and the lake bottom, reorganizing the region's entire drainage system. As the ice sheet retreated toward the north, it still dammed the St. Lawrence valley outlet, so the lake surface was at a higher level; this stage is known as Lake Iroquois. During that time the lake drained through present-day Syracuse, New York into the Mohawk River, thence to the Hudson River and the Atlantic; the shoreline created during this stage can be recognized by the beaches and wave-cut hills 10 to 25 miles from the present shoreline. When the ice receded from the St. Lawrence valley, the outlet was below sea level, for a short time the lake became a bay of the Atlantic Ocean, in association with the Champlain Sea; the land rebounded from the release of the weight of about 6,500 feet of ice, stacked on it. It is still rebounding about 12 inches per century in the St. Lawrence area. Since the ice receded from the area last, the most rapid rebound still occurs there.
This means the lake bed is tilting southward, inundating the south shore and turning river valleys into bays. Both north and south shores experience shoreline erosion, but the tilting amplifies this effect on the south shore, causing loss to property owners; the name Ontario is derived from the Huron word Ontarí'io, which means "great lake". The lake was a border between the Huron people and the Iroquois Confederacy in the pre-Columbian era. In the 1600s, the Iroquois drove out the Huron from southern Ontario and settled the northern shores of Lake Ontario; when the Iroquois withdrew and the Anishnabeg / Ojibwa / Mississaugas moved in from the north to southern Ontario, they retained the Iroquois name. It is believed the first European to reach the lake was Étienne Brûlé in 1615; as was their practice, the French explorers introduced other names for the lake. In 1632 and 1656, the lake was referred to as Lac de St. Louis or Lake St. Louis by Samuel de Champlain and cartographer Nicolas Sanson In
Corktown is a residential neighbourhood in downtown Toronto, Canada. It is just south of Regent Park and north of the Gardiner Expressway, between Parliament Street to the west and the Don River to the east, Queen Street East to Front Street East. Corktown contains many vacated industrial buildings, some in use by movie production, studios, or shops; the West Don Lands, slated to be redeveloped over the next few years, will encompass the south-east corner of this area. The neighbourhood's name is believed to have originated in the early 19th century when the area was an Irish ethnic enclave for Irish emigrants from County Cork. Another possible suggestion is that the presence of a distillery and cork-stopper manufacturers in the vicinity may have secured the nickname. In the 19th century, most Corktown residents found employment at one of the local breweries or brickyards; some of the original workers' cottages can still be seen in the area. Examples of late 19th century British-style row-housing can still be seen lining Corktown side streets such as Bright Street, Trinity Street, Wilkins Avenue, Ashby Place and Gilead Place.
The first Roman Catholic church in Toronto, St. Paul's Basilica, is found in Corktown. St. Paul's was built in 1822; the current St. Paul's dates from 1887. St. Paul's Catholic School is the oldest Catholic elementary school in the city, founded in 1842. Beneath its schoolyard and adjacent to St. Paul's Basilica is an unmarked graveyard which served the Catholic community until 1857. Protestants could not afford the lofty pew rents at nearby St. James Cathedral and this led to the building of their own Little Trinity Anglican Church in 1843 on King Street East. Little Trinity Church is Toronto's oldest surviving church building, its cornerstone laid on July 20, 1843; the Enoch Turner School on Trinity Street, was built in 1848. This was Toronto's first'free school', its benefactor was Enoch Turner, a prominent Corktown brewer and one of Toronto's great philanthropists. The Schoolhouse is now operated as a museum by the Ontario Heritage Trust, offering tours for adults and children and hosting private events.
Corktown is home to Inglenook Community High School on Sackville Street, one of the Toronto District School Board's alternative schools. Its building dates to 1887. In the early 1960s, a significant amount of Corktown was demolished to make way for several elevated roadways, including the Richmond Street off-ramp from the Don Valley Parkway and the re-routed Eastern Avenue overpass. Among the most significant buildings destroyed was the House of Providence, an institution run by the Sisters of St. Joseph to care for orphans and the elderly poor. Tomson Highway - former resident Corktown Common, adjacent to Corktown, the municipal park is located in the West Don Lands Corktown Residents & Business Association St. Paul's Catholic School Corktown - Local News
Toronto General Hospital
The Toronto General Hospital is a major teaching hospital in Toronto, Canada, a part of University Health Network. It is located in the Discovery District of Downtown Toronto along a portion of University Avenue known as "Hospital Row"; the hospital serves as a teaching hospital for the University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine. In 2019, Newsweek ranked TGH as seventh among the top-ten best hospitals in the world. In 2017, the hospital was ranked 1st for research in Canada by Research Infosource; the emergency department now treats 28,065 persons each year, while the hospital houses the major transplantation service for Ontario, performing heart, kidney, liver and small intestine, amongst others, for patients referred from all over Canada. The hospital is the largest organ transplant center in North America, performing 639 transplants in 2017; the hospital is renowned for cardiac and thoracic surgery. The world's first single and double lung transplants were performed at TGH in 1983 and 1986 and the world's first valve-sparing aortic root replacement was done by Tirone David at Toronto General Hospital in 1992.
In 2015, surgeons performed the world's first triple organ transplant in 19 year old Reid Wylie at Toronto General Hospital. TGH teaches resident physicians and technicians. Sophie, Countess of Wessex, as a member of the Canadian Royal Family, is patron of the hospital; the hospital started as a small shed in the old town and was used as a British Army military hospital during the War of 1812, after which it was founded as a permanent institution – York General Hospital – in 1829, at John and King Streets. In 1855 a new home for the hospital was built on the north side of Gerrard Street, east of Parliament, using a design by architect William Hay. In 1913, the hospital moved to College Street, near its current location and upgrading over the ensuing years; the 1913 structure called the College Wing, was sold by the hospital, to become the home of the MaRS Discovery District after a new wing for the TGH was completed and opened in 2002. Toronto General Hospital was the largest organ transplantation center in North America in 2017, performing 639 transplants in total.
Lung - TGH performed 167 lung transplants, making it the largest lung transplant program in the world. Liver - TGH performed 195 liver Transplants with 39 of those living donor transplants in 2017 making the program the largest in North America. Kidney - TGH performed 202 kidney transplants, 65 of those were living donor transplants, making the program the largest in Canada Heart - TGH performed 34 heart transplants in 2017 Pancreas - TGH performed 21 pancreas transplants in 2017 Kidney-Pancreas - TGH performed 19 kidney-pancreas transplants in 2017 Small Bowel - TGH performed 1 small bowel transplant in 2017 Toronto General Hospital is the home of the Peter Munk Cardiac Centre, one of the largest open heart centers in Canada and is ranked first in Canada and in the top ten in North America for academic productivity. Many clinical firsts in cardiovascular care were performed at TGH; the center is named after Peter Munk, the founder and chairman of Barrick Gold corporation, who donated $100 million in 2017, the largest donation to a hospital in Canadian history.
He donated a total of $175 million since 1993 to the hospital. Toronto General Hospital has had many research achievements including: The development and first clinical use of insulin in the treatment of diabetes - 1922 World's first clinical use of the anticoagulant heparin - 1935 World's first external heart pacemaker used in open heart resuscitation - 1950 World's first successful valve transplant - 1955 World's first coronary care unit - 1965 World's first successful single lung transplant - 1983 World's first successful double lung transplant - 1986 World's first aortic valve transplant using the Toronto Heart Valve - 1987 Canada's first and largest HIV/AIDS clinic - the Immunodeficiency Clinic - 1994 World's first successful triple organ transplant - 2015 List of Canadian organizations with royal patronage William Rawlins Beaumont List of hospitals in Toronto Hospital website Research Health Innovation MaRS Discovery District's "History of the MaRS Heritage Building" touches on the TGH's early history and design
Toronto Harbour or Toronto Bay is a bay on the north shore of Lake Ontario, in Toronto, Canada. It is a natural harbour, protected from Lake Ontario waves by the Toronto Islands. Today, the harbour is used for recreational boating, including personal vessels and pleasure boats providing scenic or party cruises. Ferries travel from docks on the mainland to the Islands, cargo ships deliver aggregates and raw sugar to industries located in the harbour; the harbour has been used for military vessels, passenger traffic and cargo traffic. Waterfront uses include residential, cultural and industrial sites. There are two harbours: the original natural harbour, today named the "Inner Harbour", the "Outer Harbour". Access into the Inner Harbour is made via either Eastern Gap; the Don River drains through the Keating Channel. The makeup of the soil between the mainland and the island varies depending on the area of the harbour. Near the Western Gap, the sediment is made up of stone, whereas sand makes up the sediment near Billy Bishop Island Airport, the western parts of the Toronto Islands' north shore.
Clay is more prominent in near the centre of the harbour, whereas the soil turns to mud near the north shore, towards the mouth of the Don River. The Inner Harbour is used by commercial vessels; the Ports Toronto agency maintains the harbour and operates port facilities and a passenger ship dock on the eastern shore. The north shore has a mixed range of uses including Harbourfront, a conversion from industrial land to recreational and cultural uses. Harbourfront has parks, hotels, an amphitheatre, many other facilities; the north shore retains one port-related industrial use, the Redpath Sugar Refinery, while most of the lands have been converted to other uses. The Jack Layton Ferry Terminal is located at the foot of Bay Street and pleasure and party cruise boats dock along the shore to the west of York Street; the Toronto Islands are a chain of small islands located just offshore from Downtown Toronto, providing shelder for the Inner Harbour. Most of the Islands is parkland, although it is the site of several boat clubs, an amusement park, an airport, a small residential area.
The Western Gap is a 120 metres wide channel allowing western access to the Inner Harbour. The gap is deep enough to allow large ships to exit into the Inner Harbour; the Billy Bishop Toronto City Airport is located on the south side of the channel and is accessed by ferry and tunnel. Before the island airport was built, the waterway was wide with a shallow sandy shoal surrounding what became Hanlan's Point; the channel was dredged and the sands deposited to form the airport lands. The Eastern Gap is an 200 metres wide passage between Ward's Island and the western edge of the Port Lands and used by most freighters to enter into the inner harbour and port facilities; the gap was first formed from 1852 to 1858 when storms caused a break in the sandy spit that connected the area with the mainland. Prior to the 1800s, small boat users had to use a portage on the western end of the sandy spit peninsula from Lake Ontario to the inner harbour. After 1858, the Harbour Trust made the temporary channel into a permanent waterway.
Today, port facilities are limited to the eastern shore of the harbour, in an area known as the Port Lands, with the exception of the Redpath Sugar Refinery at the foot of Jarvis Street. The tonnage of cargo passing through the port is made up of sugar to Redpath and aggregate materials, salt delivered to facilities on the eastern shore of the harbour; the port is managed by PortsToronto. In 2007, the port handled 1.6 million tonnes of traffic, a 0.3% share of national port traffic, 16th out of 19 Canada Port Authority ports by traffic. In 2006, Transport Canada ranked Toronto 39th out of 313 ports in all of Canada in total tonnage shipped. Statistics Canada ranks the port 15th in shipping activity in Ontario. Toronto has a second harbour, called the Outer Harbour; the City of Toronto's Cherry Beach Clarke Beach Park, located on the north side of the Outer Harbour, is popular in summer. It meets high water quality and safety standards. A proposed 37 kilometer Lake Ontario Park by Waterfront Toronto would pass through the Outer Harbour.
The City of Toronto operates a marina in east end of the Harbour. Eight community water-sport clubs, forming the independent Outer Harbour Sailing Federation, share a small strip east of Cherry Beach Clarke Beach Park; the clubs are: Hanlan's Boat Club, Mooredale Sailing Club, Outer Harbour Centreboard Club, Saint James Town Sailing Club, Toronto Multihull Cruising Club, Toronto Windsurfing Club, Water Rats Sailing Club, Westwood Sailing Club. The harbour was developed in the 1950s and 1960s by the Toronto Harbour Commission through the construction of a new breakwater called the Outer Harbour East Headland. At that time, it was expected that there would be a great upswing in the number of ships calling at Toronto once the Saint Lawrence Seaway opened. However, the need for an extra harbour never materialised, private boats are the only traffic found there now. Gaasyendietha is Toronto's legendary Loch Ness Monster and it is sometimes spotted in Lake Ontario and within the Toronto Harbour; the story of Gaasyendietha is a Native Canadian myth from the Seneca tribe.
The original shoreline of the northern shore were low sandy bluffs, just south of today's Front Street. The mouth of the harbour pointed
Gentrification is a process of renovating deteriorated urban neighborhoods by means of the influx of more affluent residents. This is a common and controversial topic in urban planning. Gentrification can improve the material quality of a neighborhood, while potentially forcing relocation of current, established residents and businesses, causing them to move from a gentrified area, seeking lower cost housing and stores. Gentrification shifts a neighborhood's racial/ethnic composition and average household income by developing new, more expensive housing and improved resources. Conversations about gentrification have evolved, as many in the social-scientific community have questioned the negative connotations associated with the word gentrification. One example is that gentrification can lead to community displacement for lower-income families in gentrifying neighborhoods, as property values and rental costs rise; the gentrification process is the result of increasing attraction to an area by people with higher incomes spilling over from neighboring cities, towns, or neighborhoods.
Further steps are increased investments in a community and the related infrastructure by real estate development businesses, local government, or community activists and resulting economic development, increased attraction of business, lower crime rates. In addition to these potential benefits, gentrification can lead to population migration and displacement. However, some view the fear of displacement, dominating the debate about gentrification, as hindering discussion about genuine progressive approaches to distribute the benefits of urban redevelopment strategies; the term gentrification has come to refer to a multi-faceted phenomenon that can be defined in different ways. Gentrification is "a complex process involving physical improvement of the housing stock, housing tenure change from renting to owning, price rises and the displacement or replacement of the working-class population by the new middle class. Historians say that gentrification took place in ancient Rome and in Roman Britain, where large villas were replacing small shops by the 3rd century, AD.
The word gentrification derives from gentry—which comes from the Old French word genterise, "of gentle birth" and "people of gentle birth". In England, Landed gentry denoted the social class. Although the term was used in English in the 1950s - for instance by Sidney Perutz and by William Xenophon Weed and Oscar Le Roy Warren, British sociologist Ruth Glass coined the term "gentrification" in 1964 to describe the influx of middle-class people displacing lower-class worker residents in urban neighborhoods. Shabby, modest mews and cottages—two rooms up and two down—have been taken over, when their leases have expired, have become elegant, expensive residences... Once this process of'gentrification' starts in a district it goes on until all or most of the original working-class occupiers are displaced and the whole social character of the district is changed. In the US, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report Health Effects of Gentrification defines the real estate concept of gentrification as "the transformation of neighborhoods from low value to high value.
This change has the potential to cause displacement of long-time residents and businesses... when long-time or original neighborhood residents move from a gentrified area because of higher rents and property taxes. Gentrification is a housing and health issue that affects a community's history and culture and reduces social capital, it shifts a neighborhood's characteristics, e.g. racial-ethnic composition and household income, by adding new stores and resources in run-down neighborhoods."Scholars and pundits have applied a variety of definitions to gentrification since 1964, some oriented around gentrifiers, others oriented around the displaced, some a combination of both. The first category include Hackworth's definition "the production of space for progressively more affluent users"; the second category include Kasman's definition "the reduction of residential and retail space affordable to low-income residents". The final category includes Rose, who describes gentrification as a process "in which members of the'new middle class' move into and physically and culturally reshape working-class inner city neighbourhoods".
In the Brookings Institution report Dealing with Neighborhood Change: A Primer on Gentrification and Policy Choices, Maureen Kennedy and Paul Leonard say that "the term'gentrification' is both imprecise and quite politically charged", suggesting its redefinition as "the process by which higher income households displace lower income residents of a neighborhood, changing the essential character and flavour of that neighborhood", so distinguishing it from the different socio-economic process of "neighborhood revitalization", although the terms are sometimes used interchangeably. German geographers have a more distanced view on gentrification. Actual gentrification is seen as a mere symbolic issue happening in a low number of places and blocks, the symbolic value and visibility in public discourse being higher than actual migration trends. E.g. Gerhard Hard assumes that urban flight is still more im
Downtown Toronto is the city centre and main central business district of Toronto, Canada. Located within the district of Old Toronto, it is 14 square kilometers in area, bounded by Bloor Street to the north, Lake Ontario to the south, the Don Valley to the east, Bathurst Street to the west, it is the governmental centre of the City of Toronto and the Province of Ontario. The area is made up of the Canada’s largest concentration of skyscrapers and businesses that form Toronto's skyline. Downtown Toronto has the third most skyscrapers in North America exceeding 200 metres in height, behind New York City and Chicago; the retail core of the downtown is located along Yonge Street from Queen Street to College Street. There is a large cluster of retail centres and shops in the area, including the Toronto Eaton Centre indoor mall. There are an estimated 600 retail stores, 150 bars and restaurants, 7 hotels. In recent years the area has been experiencing a renaissance as the Business Improvement Area has brought in new retail and improved the cleanliness.
The area has seen the opening of the Dundas Square public square, a public space for holding performances and art displays. The area includes several live theatres, a movie complex at Dundas Square and the historic Massey Hall. Historical sites and landmarks include the Arts & Letter Club, the Church of the Holy Trinity, Mackenzie House, Maple Leaf Gardens, Old City Hall, the Toronto Police Museum and Discovery Centre; the Financial District, centred on the intersection of Bay Street and King Street is the centre of Canada's financial industry. It contains the Toronto Stock Exchange, the largest in Canada and seventh in the world by market capitalization; the construction of skyscrapers in downtown Toronto had started to increase during the 1960s. The area of St. Lawrence to the east of the financial district is one of the oldest area of Toronto, it features heritage buildings, music and many pubs. It is a community of distinct downtown neighbourhoods including the site of the original Town of York, Toronto's first neighbourhood, dating back to 1793.
The area boasts one of the largest concentrations of 19th century buildings in Ontario. Of particular note are the St. Lawrence Hall, St. James' Cathedral, St. Michael's Cathedral, St. Paul's Basilica, the Enoch Turner School House, the Bank of Upper Canada, Le Royal Meridien King Edward Hotel, the Gooderham Building. On Saturday there is a farmers market. Other historical districts in downtown Toronto include Cabbagetown, the Distillery District, Old Town. To the west of the financial district is the Entertainment District, it is home to hundreds of restaurants, sporting facilities, hotels and live theatre. The district was an industrial area and was redeveloped for entertainment purposes in the early 1980s, becoming a major centre for entertainment; the redevelopment started with the Mirvish family refurbishing of the Royal Alexandra Theatre and their construction of the Princess of Wales Theatre. The area is now the site of the Canadian Broadcasting Centre; the Yorkville area, to the north, north of Bloor Street and the Mink Mile, has more than 700 designer boutiques, restaurants and world class galleries.
It is a former village in its own right and since the early 1970s has developed into an up-scale shopping district. The intersection of Bloor and Yonge Streets is the intersection of the city's subway lines and is one of the busiest intersections in the city. At the intersection of Avenue Road and Bloor Street is the Royal Ontario Museum, the largest museum of the city, with a diverse anthropological and natural history collection; the Harbourfront area to the south was an industrial and railway lands area. Since the 1970s, it has seen extensive redevelopment, including the building of the Rogers Centre stadium, numerous condominiums and the Harbourfront Centre waterfront revitalization; the area to the east of Yonge Street is still in transition, with conversion of industrial lands to mixed residential and commercial uses planned. Among the important government headquarters in downtown Toronto include the Ontario Legislature, the Toronto City Hall. In the 1970s, Toronto experienced major economic growth and surpassed Montreal to become the largest city in Canada.
Many international and domestic businesses relocated to Toronto and created massive new skyscrapers downtown. All of the Big Five banks constructed skyscrapers beginning in the late 1960s up until the early 1990s. Today downtown Toronto contains dozens of notable skyscrapers; the area's First Canadian Place is the tallest building in Canada at height of 298 metres. The CN Tower, once the tallest free-standing structure in the world, remains the tallest such structure in the Americas, standing at 553.33 metres. Other notable buildings include Scotia Plaza, TD Centre, Commerce Court, the Royal Bank Plaza, The Bay's flagship store, the Fairmont Royal York Hotel. Since 2007, urban consolidation has been centred in downtown Toronto and as a result has been undergoing Manhattanization with the construction of new office towers and condos. Downtown Toronto is home to three public universities, OCAD University, Ryerson University, the University of Toronto. OCAD University is Canada's oldest post secondary institution for art and design.
Ryerson University is a research university. The University of Toronto is a collegiate research university, whose St. George campus is situated downtown. Established in 1827, the University of Toronto is the oldest university in the province of Ontario. In ad
St. James Cemetery (Toronto)
The Anglican St. James Cemetery is the oldest cemetery in Toronto still in operation, being opened in 1844 as the burial ground for St. James Cathedral; the entrance to the cemetery is located at the intersection of Bloor and Parliament Streets, overlooking the Don River ravine. Just to the west is the St. James Town neighbourhood, named after the cemetery; the cemetery opened in July 1844 for the burial of people professing the Anglican faith. At that time most of the city’s population of 18,000 lived south of Queen Street West and the cemetery's present location during that era must have been regarded as being outside city limits; the cemetery was necessary as the burial ground around the cathedral itself, in use since 1797, was out of room. Recognizing the growing trend towards cremation throughout the world, a crematorium was added in 1948. To date over 89,000 interments and 75,000 cremations have taken place at the cemetery; the cemetery itself is home to the Chapel of St. James-the-Less which sites atop a knoll at the highest point in the cemetery.
In its vigorous, harmonious composition, this small funeral chapel is a splendid example of Victorian Gothic design. Its sense of strength and spirituality is derived from the subtle contrast of its stone walls, enveloping roofs, soaring spire. Erected in 1860 and opened in 1861, the chapel was designed by Frederick William Cumberland and Storm, one of Toronto's leading 19th-century architectural firms, it and was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1990. The cemetery contains the war graves of 42 Commonwealth service personnel, 16 from each of the two World Wars. Jones, Donald. "Tombs of Toronto's first families A walk in St. James' Cemetery recalls the pageantry in our past." Toronto Star. Toronto, Ont.: Oct 02, 1993. Sec. C. pg. G.8 Media related to St. James Cemetery at Wikimedia Commons Official site St. James Cemetery on Find A Grave