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Parliament of Canada

The Parliament of Canada is the federal legislature of Canada, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, the national capital. The body consists of the Canadian monarch, represented by the Governor General; each element has its own officers and organization. By constitutional convention, the House of Commons is dominant, with the Senate and monarch opposing its will; the Senate reviews legislation from a less partisan standpoint and the monarch or viceroy provides royal assent to make bills into law. The Governor General summons and appoints the 105 senators on the advice of the Prime Minister, while the 338 members of the House of Commons—called members of Parliament —each represent an electoral district referred to as a riding, are directly elected by Canadian voters; the Governor General summons Parliament, while either the viceroy or monarch can prorogue or dissolve Parliament, the latter in order to call a general election. Either will read the Throne Speech; the most recent Parliament, summoned by Governor General Julie Payette in 2019, is the 43rd since Confederation.

The Parliament of Canada is composed of three parts: the monarch, the Senate, the House of Commons. Each work in conjunction within the legislative process; this format was inherited from the United Kingdom and is a near-identical copy of the parliament at Westminster, the greatest differences stemming from situations unique to Canada, such as the impermanent nature of the monarch's residency in the country and the lack of a peerage to form the upper chamber. Only those who sit in the House of Commons are called members of Parliament. Though legislatively less powerful, senators take higher positions in the national order of precedence. No individual may serve in more than one chamber at the same time; the sovereign's place in the legislature, formally called the Queen-in-Parliament, is defined by the Constitution Act, 1867, various conventions. Neither she nor her viceroy, participates in the legislative process save for signifying the Queen's approval to a bill passed by both houses of Parliament, known as the granting of Royal Assent, necessary for a bill to be enacted as law.

All federal bills thus begin with the phrase "Now, Her Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate and House of Commons of Canada, enacts as follows..." and, as such, the Crown is immune from acts of Parliament unless expressed otherwise in the act itself. The Governor General will perform the task of granting Royal Assent, though the monarch may do so, at the request of either the Cabinet or the viceroy, who may defer assent to the sovereign as per the constitution; as both the monarch and his or her representatives are traditionally barred from the House of Commons, any parliamentary ceremonies in which they are involved take place in the Senate chamber. The upper and lower houses do, each contain a mace, which indicates the authority of the Queen-in-Parliament and the privilege granted to that body by her, both bearing a crown at their apex; the original mace for the Senate was that used in the Legislative Council of the Province of Canada after 1849, while that of the House of Commons was inherited from the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada, first used in 1845.

Following the burning of the Centre Block on 3 February 1916, the City of London, donated a replacement, still used today. The temporary mace, made of wood, used until the new one arrived from the United Kingdom in 1917, is still carried into the Senate each 3 February; the Senate's 1.6-metre-long mace comprises gold. The Senate may not sit. Members of the two houses of Parliament must express their loyalty to the sovereign and defer to her authority, as the Oath of Allegiance must be sworn by all new parliamentarians before they may take their seats. Further, the official opposition is formally called Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition, to signify that, though they may be opposed to the incumbent Cabinet's policies, they remain dedicated to the apolitical Crown; the upper house of the Parliament of Canada, the Senate, is a group of 105 individuals appointed by the Governor General on the advice of the prime minister. Senators served for life until 1965, when a constitutional amendment imposed a mandatory retirement age of 75.

Senators may, resign their seats prior to that mark, can lose their position should they fail to attend two consecutive sessions of Parliament. The principle underlying the Senate's composition is equality amongst Canada's geographic regions: 24 for Ontario, 24 for Quebec, 24 for the Maritimes, 24 for the Western provinces. Additionally, Senators are appointed from two geographic areas not part of any senatorial division. Newfoundland and Labrador (since 1949 the "newest" province, although "oldest" English settlem

Rob Baxley

Robert R. Baxley is a former American football offensive tackle who played one season with the Phoenix Cardinals of the National Football League, he was drafted by the Phoenix Cardinals in the eleventh round of the 1992 NFL Draft. He played college football at the University of Iowa and attended Oswego High School in Oswego, Illinois. Baxley was a member of the Amsterdam Admirals and Tampa Bay Buccaneers. Baxley played college football for the Iowa Hawkeyes, he earned honorable mention All-American honors his senior year. Baxley was selected by the Phoenix Cardinals with the 286th pick in the 1992 NFL Draft, he was a member of the Cardinals from 1992 to 1993, playing in six games for the team in 1992. He spent the 1993 season on the injured reserve list. Baxley was selected by the Amsterdam Admirals of the World League of American Football in the twelfth round of the 1995 WLAF Draft and played for them during the 1995 season. Baxley signed with the Tampa Bay Buccaneers on June 23, 1995, he was released by the Buccaneers on August 21, 1995.

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Primacy of Ireland

The Primacy of Ireland was disputed between the Archbishop of Armagh and the Archbishop of Dublin until settled by Pope Innocent VI. Primate is a title of honour denoting ceremonial precedence in the Church, in the Middle Ages there was an intense rivalry between the two archbishoprics as to seniority. Since 1353 the Archbishop of Armagh has been titled Primate of All Ireland and the Archbishop of Dublin Primate of Ireland, signifying that they are the senior churchmen in the island of Ireland, the Primate of All Ireland being the more senior; the titles are used by both the Church of Ireland bishops. The distinction mirrors that in the Church of England between the Primate of All England, the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Primate of England, the Archbishop of York; the episcopal see. Its first bishop, Dúnán, was described at his death as "chief bishop of the Foreigners". From the first, Dublin had close ties to the see of Canterbury; the fifth bishop of Dublin, was only a subdeacon when he was elected bishop by what Aubrey Gwynn called "the Norse party in the city".

He was sent to England where he was consecrated by Archbishop Ralph of Canterbury, but on his return he was prevented from entering his see by those who wanted Dublin integrated with the Irish hierarchy. A compromise was reached by which Gregory was recognised as bishop of Dublin, while he in turn accepted the authority of Cellach, archbishop of Armagh, as primate. In 1152, the Synod of Kells divided Ireland between the four archdioceses of Armagh, Dublin and Tuam. Gregory was appointed archbishop of Dublin; the papal legate, Cardinal John Paparo appointed the archbishop of Armagh "as Primate over the other bishops, as was fitting."Henry de Loundres, archbishop of Dublin from 1213 to 1228, obtained a bull from Pope Honorius III prohibiting any archbishop from having the cross carried before him in the archdiocese of Dublin without the consent of the archbishop of Dublin. A century this bull led to a confrontation between Richard FitzRalph, archbishop of Armagh, Alexander de Bicknor, archbishop of Dublin, when FitzRalph, acting on letters of King Edward III allowing him to do so, entered Dublin in 1349 "with the cross erect before him".

He was opposed by the prior of Kilmainham on the instructions of Bicknor, forced to withdraw to Drogheda. On Bicknor's death, the succession of John de St Paul to the see of Dublin, King Edward revoked his letters to FitzRalph and forbade the primate to exercise his jurisdiction in Dublin. In 1353 the matter was referred to Avignon. There Pope Innocent VI, acting on the advice of the College of Cardinals, ruled that "each of these prelates should be Primate; the Archbishop of Armagh's leading status is based on the belief that his See was founded by St. Patrick, the city of Armagh thus being the ecclesiastical capital of Ireland. On the other hand, Dublin is the political, social and secular centre of Ireland, has been for many centuries, thus making the Archbishop of Dublin someone of considerable influence, with a high national profile. Dispute has "flared up" on a number of occasions, including in 1672 between Catholic archbishops Oliver Plunkett of Armagh and Peter Talbot of Dublin, again in the late 18th century.

Since the 1870s one or other of the Catholic archbishops of Armagh and Dublin has been a member of the College of Cardinals. Due to Ireland's small size, two Irish reigning diocesan cardinals are unlikely to be created. An apparent dominance of Dublin over Armagh was shown in the 1850s when the Archbishop of Armagh, Paul Cullen was transferred from Armagh to the nominally inferior see of Dublin, where he became the most high-profile Catholic prelate in Ireland; some years after the First Vatican Council, in which he played a central role in the proclamation of Papal Infallibility, he was made Ireland's first cardinal, ahead of the nominally superior Archbishop of Armagh. Cullen's successor in Dublin, Archbishop Edward MacCabe was made a cardinal, but after that, the cardinal's red hat went invariably to the Archbishop of Armagh, until Pope John Paul II awarded the red hat not to the low-key pastoral Seán Brady of Armagh, but to the higher-profile, more intellectual, conservative, Desmond Connell of Dublin.

But in 2007 Pope Benedict XVI decided to give the honour again to the See of Patrick, creating Brady a cardinal rather than the reigning Archbishop of Dublin, Diarmuid Martin a high-profile Vatican official. At present the Archbishop of Armagh in the Catholic Church is Eamon Martin. Richard Clarke holds the equivalent office in the Church of Ireland; the current Catholic Archbishop of Dublin is Diarmuid Martin. The current Church of Ireland Archbishop of Dublin is Michael Jackson. Archdiocese of Armagh Archbishop of Armagh Archdiocese of Dublin Archbishop of Dublin New York, 1909: The Catholic Encyclopedia.