Narendra Damodardas Modi is an Indian politician serving as the 14th and current Prime Minister of India since 2014. He was the Chief Minister of Gujarat from 2001 to 2014, is the Member of Parliament for Varanasi. Modi is a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party, of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, a Hindu nationalist volunteer organisation. Born to a Gujarati family in Vadnagar, Modi helped his father sell tea as a child, has said he ran his own stall, he was introduced to the RSS at the age of eight, beginning a long association with the organisation. Modi left home after finishing high-school in part due to an arranged marriage to Jashodaben Chimanlal, which he abandoned, publicly acknowledged only many decades later. Modi travelled around India for two years and visited a number of religious centres before returning to Gujarat. In 1971 he became a full-time worker for the RSS. During the state of emergency imposed across the country in 1975, Modi was forced to go into hiding; the RSS assigned him to the BJP in 1985, he held several positions within the party hierarchy until 2001, rising to the rank of General Secretary.
Modi was appointed Chief Minister of Gujarat in 2001, due to Keshubhai Patel's failing health and poor public image following the earthquake in Bhuj. Modi was elected to the legislative assembly soon after, his administration has been considered complicit in the 2002 Gujarat riots, or otherwise criticised for its handling of it. A Supreme Court-appointed Special Investigation Team found no evidence to initiate prosecution proceedings against Modi personally, his policies as chief minister, credited with encouraging economic growth, have received praise. His administration has been criticised for failing to improve health and education indices in the state. Modi led the BJP in the 2014 general election, which gave the party a majority in the Indian lower house of parliament, the Lok Sabha, the first time for any single party since 1984. Modi's administration has tried to raise foreign direct investment in the Indian economy, reduced spending on healthcare and social welfare programmes. Modi has attempted to improve efficiency in the bureaucracy.
He began a high-profile sanitation campaign, weakened or abolished environmental and labour laws. He initiated a controversial demonetisation of high-denomination banknotes. Described as engineering a political realignment towards right-wing politics, Modi remains a figure of controversy domestically and internationally over his Hindu nationalist beliefs and his role during the 2002 Gujarat riots, cited as evidence of an exclusionary social agenda. Narendra Modi was born on 17 September 1950 to a family of grocers in Vadnagar, Mehsana district, Bombay State, he was the third of six children born to Damodardas Mulchand Hiraben Modi. Modi's family belonged to the Modh-Ghanchi-Teli community, categorised as an Other Backward Class by the Indian government; as a child, Modi helped his father sell tea at the Vadnagar railway station, said that he ran a tea stall with his brother near a bus terminus. Modi completed his higher secondary education in Vadnagar in 1967, where a teacher described him as an average student and a keen debater, with interest in theatre.
Modi had an early gift for rhetoric in debates, his teachers and students noted this. Modi preferred playing larger-than-life characters in theatrical productions, which has influenced his political image; when eight years old, Modi discovered the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and began attending its local shakhas. There, Modi met Lakshmanrao Inamdar, popularly known as Vakil Saheb, who inducted him as a balswayamsevak in the RSS and became his political mentor. While Modi was training with the RSS, he met Vasant Gajendragadkar and Nathalal Jaghda, Bharatiya Jana Sangh leaders who were founding members of the BJP's Gujarat unit in 1980. In Narendra Modi's childhood, in a custom traditional to his caste, his family arranged a betrothal to a girl, Jashodaben Chimanlal, leading to their marriage when they were teenagers. Sometime thereafter, he abandoned the further marital obligations implicit in the custom, left home, the couple going on to lead separate lives, neither marrying again, the marriage itself remaining unmentioned in Modi's public pronouncements for many decades.
In April 2014, shortly before the national elections that swept him to power, Modi publicly affirmed that he was married and his spouse was Ms Chimanlal. Modi spent the ensuing two years travelling across Northern and North-eastern India, though few details of where he went have emerged. In interviews, Modi has described visiting Hindu ashrams founded by Swami Vivekananda: the Belur Math near Kolkata, followed by the Advaita Ashrama in Almora and the Ramakrishna Mission in Rajkot. Modi remained only a short time at each. Vivekananda has been described as a large influence in Modi's life. In the early summer of 1968, Modi reached the Belur Math but was turned away, after which Modi wandered through Calcutta, West Bengal and Assam, stopping in Siliguri and Guwahati. Modi went to the Ramakrishna Ashram in Almora, where he was again rejected, before travelling back to Gujarat via Delhi and Rajasthan in 1968–69. Sometime in late 1969 or early 1970, Modi returned to Vadnagar for a brief visit before leaving again for Ahmedabad.
There, Modi lived with his uncle, working in the latter's canteen at the Gujarat State Road Transport Corporation. In Ahmedabad, Modi r
Constitution of India
The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India. The document lays down the framework demarcating fundamental political code, procedures and duties of government institutions and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles, the duties of citizens, it is the longest written constitution of any country on earth. B. R. Ambedkar, chairman of the drafting committee, is considered to be its chief architect, it imparts constitutional supremacy and was adopted by its people with a declaration in its preamble. Parliament cannot override the constitution, it was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on 26 November 1949 and became effective on 26 January 1950. The constitution replaced the Government of India Act, 1935 as the country's fundamental governing document, the Dominion of India became the Republic of India. To ensure constitutional autochthony, its framers repealed prior acts of the British parliament in Article 395. India celebrates its constitution on 26 January as Republic Day.
The constitution declares India a sovereign, secular, democratic republic, assuring its citizens justice and liberty, endeavours to promote fraternity. The original 1950 constitution is preserved in a helium-filled case at the Parliament House in New Delhi; the words "secular" and "socialist" were added to the preamble in 1976 during the emergency. Most of the Indian subcontinent was under British rule from 1857 to 1947. From 1947 to 1950, the same legislation continued to be implemented as India was a dominion of Britain for these three years, as each princely state was convinced by Sardar Patel and V. P. Menon to sign the articles of integration with India, the British government continued to be responsible for the external security of the country. Thus, the constitution of India repealed the Indian Independence Act 1947 and Government of India Act, 1935 when it became effective on 26 January 1950. India ceased to be a dominion of the British Crown and became a sovereign democratic republic with the constitution.
Articles 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 60, 324, 366, 367, 379, 380, 388, 391, 392, 393, 394 of the constitution came into force on 26 November 1949, the remaining articles became effective on 26 January 1950. The constitution was drawn from a number of sources. Mindful of India's needs and conditions, its framers borrowed features of previous legislation such as the Government of India Act 1858, the Indian Councils Acts of 1861, 1892 and 1909, the Government of India Acts of 1919 and 1935, the Indian Independence Act 1947; the latter, which led to the creation of India and Pakistan, divided the former Constituent Assembly in two. Each new assembly had sovereign power to enact a new constitution for the separate states; the constitution was drafted by the Constituent Assembly, elected by elected members of the provincial assemblies. The 389-member assembly took three years to draft the constitution holding eleven sessions over a 165-day period. B. R. Ambedkar was a wise constitutional expert, he had studied the constitutions of about 60 countries.
Ambedkar is recognised as the "Father of the Constitution of India". In the constitution assembly, a member of the drafting committee, T. T. Krishnamachari said: "Mr. President, Sir, I am one of those in the House who have listened to Dr. Ambedkar carefully. I am aware of the amount of work and enthusiasm that he has brought to bear on the work of drafting this Constitution. At the same time, I do realise that that amount of attention, necessary for the purpose of drafting a constitution so important to us at this moment has not been given to it by the Drafting Committee; the House is aware that of the seven members nominated by you, one had resigned from the House and was replaced. One was not replaced. One was away in America and his place was not filled up and another person was engaged in State affairs, there was a void to that extent. One or two people were far away from Delhi and reasons of health did not permit them to attend. So it happened that the burden of drafting this constitution fell on Dr. Ambedkar and I have no doubt that we are grateful to him for having achieved this task in a manner, undoubtedly commendable."
B. R. Ambedkar, Sanjay Phakey, Jawaharlal Nehru, C. Rajagopalachari, Rajendra Prasad, Vallabhbhai Patel, Kanaiyalal Maneklal Munshi, Ganesh Vasudev Mavalankar, Sandipkumar Patel, Abul Kalam Azad, Shyama Prasad Mukherjee, Nalini Ranjan Ghosh, Balwantrai Mehta were key figures in the assembly, which had over 30 representatives of the scheduled classes. Frank Anthony represented the Anglo-Indian community, the Parsis were represented by H. P. Modi. Harendra Coomar Mookerjee, a Christian assembly vice-president, chaired the minorities committee and represented non-Anglo-Indian Christians. Ari Bahadur Gurung represented the Gorkha community. Judges, such as Alladi Krishnaswamy Iyer, Benegal Narsing Rau, K. M. Munshi and Ganesh Mavlankar were members of the assembly. Female members included Sarojini Naidu, Hansa Mehta, Durgabai Deshmukh, Amrit Kaur and Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit; the first, two-day president of the assembly was Sachchidananda Sinha. It met for the first time on 9 December 1946. Benegal Narsing Rau, a civil servant who became the first Indian judge in the International Court of Justice and was president of the United Nations Security Council, was appointed as the assembly's constitutional adviser in 1946.
Responsible for the constitution's general structure, Rau prepared its initial draft in February 1948. At 14 August 1947 meeting of the assemb
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses. Bicameralism is distinguished from unicameralism, in which all members deliberate and vote as a single group, from some legislatures that have three or more separate assemblies, chambers, or houses; as of 2015, fewer than half the world's national legislatures. The members of the two chambers are elected or selected by different methods, which vary from country to country; this can lead to the two chambers having different compositions of members. Enactment of primary legislation requires a concurrent majority – the approval of a majority of members in each of the chambers of the legislature; when this is the case, the legislature may be called an example of perfect bicameralism. However, in many Westminster system parliaments, the house to which the executive is responsible can overrule the other house and may be regarded as an example of imperfect bicameralism; some legislatures lie in between these two positions, with one house only able to overrule the other under certain circumstances.
The Founding Fathers of the United States favoured a bicameral legislature. The idea was to have the Senate be wiser. Benjamin Rush saw this though, noted that "this type of dominion is always connected with opulence"; the Senate was created to be a stabilising force, elected not by mass electors, but selected by the State legislators. Senators would be more knowledgeable and more deliberate—a sort of republican nobility—and a counter to what Madison saw as the "fickleness and passion" that could absorb the House, he noted further that "The use of the Senate is to consist in its proceeding with more coolness, with more system and with more wisdom, than the popular branch." Madison's argument led the Framers to grant the Senate prerogatives in foreign policy, an area where steadiness and caution were deemed important. State legislators chose the Senate, senators had to possess significant property to be deemed worthy and sensible enough for the position. In 1913, the 17th Amendment passed, which mandated choosing Senators by popular vote rather than State legislatures.
As part of the Great Compromise, the Founding Fathers invented a new rationale for bicameralism in which the Senate had states represented and the House had them represented by population. The British Parliament is referred to as the Mother of Parliaments because the British Parliament has been the model for most other parliamentary systems, its Acts have created many other parliaments. Many nations with parliaments have to some degree emulated the British "three-tier" model. Most countries in Europe and the Commonwealth have organised parliaments with a ceremonial head of state who formally opens and closes parliament, a large elected lower house, a smaller upper house. A formidable sinister interest may always obtain the complete command of a dominant assembly by some chance and for a moment, it is therefore of great use to have a second chamber of an opposite sort, differently composed, in which that interest in all likelihood will not rule. There have been a number of rationales put forward in favour of bicameralism, federal states have adopted it, the solution remains popular when regional differences or sensitivities require more explicit representation, with the second chamber representing the constituent states.
The older justification for second chambers—providing opportunities for second thoughts about legislation—has survived. Growing awareness of the complexity of the notion of representation and the multifunctional nature of modern legislatures may be affording incipient new rationales for second chambers, though these do remain contested institutions in ways that first chambers are not. An example of political controversy regarding a second chamber has been the debate over the powers of the Senate of Canada or the election of the Senate of France; the relationship between the two chambers varies. The first tends to be those with presidential governments; the latter tends to be the case in unitary states with parliamentary systems. There are two streams of thought: Critics believe bicameralism makes meaningful political reforms more difficult to achieve and increases the risk of gridlock—particularly in cases where both chambers have similar powers—while proponents argue the merits of the "checks and balances" provided by the bicameral model, which they believe help prevent the passage into law of ill-considered legislation.
Formal communication between houses is by various methods, including: Sending messages Formal notices, such as of resolutions or the passing of bills done in writing, via the clerk and speaker of each house Transmission of bills or amendment to bills requiring agreement from the other house Joint session a plenary session of both houses at the same time and place. Joint committees which may be formed by committees of each house agreeing to join, or by joint resolution of each house Conferences Conferences of the Houses of the English Parliament met in the Painted Chamber of the Palace of Westminster. There were a distinction between an "ordinary conference" and a "free conference". A "free conference" meets in private to resolve a dispute; the last fr
State Emblem of India
The State Emblem of India, as the national emblem of India is called, is an adaptation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath, preserved in the Sarnath Museum near Varanasi, India. A representation of Lion Capital of Ashoka was adopted as the emblem of the Dominion of India in December 1947; the current version of the emblem was adopted on 26 January 1950, the day that India became a republic. In 1947, as the date of independence for India and Pakistan approached, Jawaharlal Nehru gave charge of finding a suitable national emblem to Badruddin Tyabji, a civil servant, freedom fighter and member of the Constituent Assembly. Art schools all over the country were approached for designs, but none of them were found suitable as most were similar to the emblem of British Raj. Along with the Flag Committee headed by Dr. Rajendra Prasad and his wife suggested to use the Ashoka Capital, with four lions on top and the Ashoka Chakra flanked by a bull and horse below. Tyabji's wife Surayya Tyabji drew it and sent it to the printing press at Viceregal lodge for printing.
This design was selected and has remained the emblem of the Indian government since. The emblem forms a part of the official letterhead of the Government of India and appears on all Indian currency as well, it functions as the national emblem of India in many places and appears prominently on Indian passports. The Ashoka Chakra on its base features in the centre of the national flag of India; the usage of the emblem is regulated and restricted under State Emblem of India Act, 2005. No individual or private organisation is permitted to use the emblem for official correspondence; the actual Sarnath capital features four Asiatic lions standing back to back, symbolizing power, courage and pride, mounted on a circular base. At the bottom is a horse and a bull, at its center is a wheel; the abacus is girded with a frieze of sculptures in high relief of The Lion of the North, The Horse of the West, The Bull of the South and The Elephant of the East, separated by intervening wheels, over a lotus in full bloom, exemplifying the fountainhead of life and creative inspiration.
Carved from a single block of sandstone, the polished capital is crowned by the Wheel of the Law. In the emblem adopted, only three lions are visible, the fourth being hidden from view; the wheel appears in relief in the centre of the abacus, with a bull on the right and a galloping horse on the left, outlines of Dharma Chakras on the extreme right and left. The two animals and bull, represented right below the abacus hold a great significance; the bull represents hard work and steadfastness, while the horse represents loyalty and energy. The bell-shaped lotus beneath the abacus has been omitted. Forming an integral part of the emblem is the motto inscribed below the abacus in Devanagari script: Satyameva Jayate सत्यमेव जयते; this is a quote from the concluding part of the sacred Hindu Vedas. List of Indian state emblems National symbols of India List of symbols of Indian states and territories
2018 Indian Rajya Sabha elections
Rajya Sabha elections are held in 2018 to elect the retiring members of the Rajya Sabha, Indian Parliament's upper chamber. The elections were held on January 16 to elect 3 members from 1 member from Sikkim; the elections were held on March 23 to elect 58 members from 16 States and a by-election was held to elect 1 member from Kerala. The elections were held on June 21 to elect 3 members from Kerala; the elections were held to elect 3 members from National Capital Territory of Delhi and 1 member from Sikkim. 3 members from the National Capital Territory of Delhi retired on 27 January 2018 and 1 member from Sikkim retired on 23 February 2018. Elections for 58 seats and a by-election for 1 seat were held on 23 March 2018; the election was held for 3 seats of Kerala on 21 June 2018. Delhi had an election for 3 Rajya Sabha seats on 16 January 2018 to replace members retiring on 27 January 2018. Sikkim had an election for 1 Rajya Sabha seat on 16 January 2018 to replace member retiring on 23 February 2018.
From Andhra Pradesh State, 3 members are elected unopposed for the Rajya Sabha seats on 15 March 2018, to replace members retiring on 2 April 2018. From Bihar State, 6 members are elected unopposed for the Rajya Sabha seats on 15 March 2018, to replace members retiring on 2 April 2018. From Chhattisgarh State, 1 member is elected for the Rajya Sabha seat on 23 March 2018, to replace member retiring on 2 April 2018. From Gujarat State, 4 members are elected unopposed for the Rajya Sabha seats on 15 March 2018, to replace members retiring on 2 April 2018. From Haryana State, 1 member is elected unopposed for the Rajya Sabha seats on 15 March 2018, to replace member retiring on 2 April 2018. From Himachal Pradesh State, 1 member is elected unopposed for the Rajya Sabha seats on 15 March 2018, to replace member retiring on 2 April 2018. From Jharkhand State, 2 members are elected for the Rajya Sabha seats on 23 March 2018, to replace members retiring on 3 May 2018. From Karnataka State, 4 members are elected for the Rajya Sabha seats on 23 March 2018, to replace members retiring on 2 April 2018.
From Madhya Pradesh State, 5 members are elected unopposed for the Rajya Sabha seats on 15 March 2018, to replace members retiring on 2 April 2018. From Maharashtra State, 6 members are elected unopposed for the Rajya Sabha seats on 15 March 2018, to replace members retiring on 2 April 2018. From Odisha State, 3 members are elected unopposed for the Rajya Sabha seats on 15 March 2018, to replace members retiring on 3 April 2018. From Rajasthan State, 3 members are elected unopposed for the Rajya Sabha seats on 15 March 2018, to replace members retiring on 3 April 2018. From Telangana State, 3 members are elected for the Rajya Sabha seats on 23 March 2018, to replace members retiring on 2 April 2018. From Uttarakhand State, 1 member is elected unopposed for the Rajya Sabha seats on 15 March 2018, to replace member retiring on 2 April 2018. From Uttar Pradesh State, 10 members are elected for the Rajya Sabha seats on 23 March 2018, to replace members retiring on 2 April 2018. From West Bengal State, 5 members are elected for the Rajya Sabha seats on 23 March 2018, to replace members retiring on 2 April 2018.
From Kerala State, 3 members are elected unopposed for the Rajya Sabha seats on 14 June 2018, to replace members retiring on 1 July 2018. In addition to scheduled elections, unforeseen vacancies, caused by members' resignation, death or disqualification, may be filled via By-elections. On 2 September 2017, Manohar Parrikar resigned from membership of the Rajya Sabha from Uttar Pradesh, due to his election as the member of Goa Legislative Assembly on 23 August by-poll. On 20 December 2017, M. P. Veerendra Kumar resigned from Rajya Sabha due to disqualification of Sharad Yadav
Parliament House (India)
The Sansad Bhavan is the house of the Parliament of India, which contains the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha located in New Delhi. Called the House of Parliament, it was designed by the British architects Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker in 1912-1913 as part of their wider mandate to construct a new administrative capital city for British India. Construction of Parliament House began in 1921 and it was completed in 1927; the opening ceremony of the Parliament House, which housed the Central Legislative Assembly, was performed on 18 January 1927 by His Excellency Lord Irwin, Viceroy of India. The third session of Central Legislative Assembly was held in this house on 19 January 1927; the Parliament Museum, opened in 2006, stands next to the Parliament House. The shape of the building is circular, based on the Ashoka Chakra. At the centre of the building is the Central Chamber, surrounding this are the semicircular halls that were constructed for the sessions of the Chamber of Princes, the State Council, the Central Legislative Assembly.
The building is surrounded by large gardens and the perimeter is fenced off by sandstone railings. A new Parliament building may replace the existing complex; the new building is being considered on account of the stability concerns regarding the current complex. A committee to suggest few alternatives to the current building has been set up by the ex-Speaker, Meira Kumar; the present building, an 85-year-old structure suffers from inadequacy of space to house members and their staff and is thought to suffer from structural issues. The building needs to be protected because of its heritage tag. On 13 December 2001, the building of the Parliament was attacked by five Lashkar-e-Toiba and Jaish-e-Mohammed terrorists. In addition to all the attackers, six military personnel and one civilian were killed. Statue of B. R. Ambedkar Chausath Yogini Temple, Morena Media related to Sansad Bhavan at Wikimedia Commons The Parliament Estate, Parliament of India webpage^ Lessons, My Online. "Parliament of India | Indian Polity".
Myonlinelessons.in. Archived from the original on 2 April 2019. Retrieved 2 April 2019
Constituent Assembly of India
The Constituent Assembly of India was elected to write the Constitution of India. Following India's independence from Great Britain in 1947, its members served as the nation's first Parliament. An idea for a Constituent Assembly was proposed in 1934 by M. N. Roy, a pioneer of the Communist movement in India and an advocate of radical democracy, it became an official demand of the Indian National Congress in 1935, C. Rajagopalachari voiced the demand for a Constituent Assembly on 15 November 1939 based on adult franchise, was accepted by the British in August 1940. On 8 August 1940, a statement was made by Viceroy Lord Linlithgow about the expansion of the Governor-General's Executive Council and the establishment of a War Advisory Council; this offer, known as the August Offer, included giving full weight to minority opinions and allowing Indians to draft their own constitution. Under the Cabinet Mission Plan of 1946, elections were held for the first time for the Constituent Assembly; the Constitution of India was drafted by the Constituent Assembly, it was implemented under the Cabinet Mission Plan on 16 May 1946.
The members of the Constituent Assembly were elected by the provincial assemblies by a single, transferable-vote system of proportional representation. The total membership of the Constituent Assembly was 389: 292 were representatives of the states, 93 represented the princely states and four were from the chief commissioner provinces of Delhi, Ajmer-Merwara and British Baluchistan; the elections for the 296 seats assigned to the British Indian provinces were completed by August 1946. Congress won 208 seats, the Muslim League 73. After this election, the Muslim League refused to cooperate with the Congress, the political situation deteriorated. Hindu-Muslim riots began, the Muslim League demanded a separate constituent assembly for Muslims in India. On 3 June 1947 Lord Mountbatten, the last British Governor-General of India, announced his intention to scrap the Cabinet Mission Plan; the Indian Independence Act was passed on 18 July 1947 and, although it was earlier declared that India would become independent in June 1948, this event led to independence on 15 August 1947.
The Constituent Assembly met for the first time on 9 December 1946, reassembling on 14 August 1947 as a sovereign body and successor to the British parliament's authority in India. As a result of the partition, under the Mountbatten plan, a separate Constituent Assembly of Pakistan was established on 3 June 1947; the representatives of the areas incorporated into Pakistan ceased to be members of the Constituent Assembly of India. New elections were held for the West East Bengal; the Constituent Assembly, consisting of indirectly elected representatives, was established to draft a constitution for India. It existed for three years, the first parliament of India after independence in 1947; the Assembly was not elected on the basis of universal adult suffrage, Muslims and Sikhs received special representation as minorities. The Muslim League boycotted the Assembly after failing to prevent its creation. Although a large part of the Constituent Assembly was drawn from the Congress Party in a one-party environment, the Congress Party included a wide diversity of opinions—from conservative industrialists to radical Marxists, to Hindu revivalists.
The Assembly met for the first time in New Delhi on 9 December 1946, its last session was held on 24 January 1950. The hope of the Assembly was expressed by Jawaharlal Nehru: The first task of this Assembly is to free India through a new constitution, to feed the starving people, to clothe the naked masses, to give every Indian the fullest opportunity to develop himself according to his capacity; this is a great task. Look at India today. We, are sitting here and there in despair in many places, unrest in many cities; the atmosphere is surcharged with these quarrels and feuds which are called communal disturbances, we sometimes cannot avoid them. But at present the greatest and most important question in India is how to solve the problem of the poor and the starving. Wherever we turn, we are confronted with this problem. If we cannot solve this problem soon, all our paper constitutions will become useless and purposeless. Keeping this aspect in view, who could suggest to us to postpone and wait?
India was still under British rule when the Constituent Assembly was established following negotiations between Indian leaders and members of the 1946 Cabinet Mission to India from the United Kingdom. Provincial assembly elections were held early in 1946. Constituent Assembly members were elected indirectly by members of the newly elected provincial assemblies, included representatives for those provinces that formed part of Pakistan; the Constituent Assembly had 299 representatives, including fifteen women. The Interim Government of India was formed on 2 September 1946 from the newly elected Constituent Assembly; the Congress Party held a large majority in the Assembly, the Muslim League held nearly all the seats reserved in the Assembly for Muslims. There were members of smaller parties, such as the Scheduled Caste Federation, the Communist Party of India and the Unionist Party. In June 1947 delegations from Sindh, East Bengal, West Punjab and the North West Frontier Province w