Parliament of Ireland

The Parliament of Ireland was the legislature of the Lordship of Ireland, the Kingdom of Ireland, from 1297 until 1800. It was modelled on the Parliament of England and from 1537 comprised two chambers: the House of Commons and the House of Lords; the Lords were members of bishops. The Commons was directly elected, albeit on a restricted franchise. Parliaments met at various places in Leinster and Munster, but latterly always in Dublin: in Christchurch Cathedral, Dublin Castle, Chichester House, the Blue Coat School, a purpose-built Parliament House on College Green; the main purpose of parliament was to approve taxes that were levied by and for the Dublin Castle administration. Those who would pay the bulk of taxation, the clergy and landowners comprised the members. Only the "English of Ireland" were represented until the first Gaelic lords were summoned during the 16th-century Tudor reconquest. Under Poynings' Law of 1495, all Acts of Parliament had to be pre-approved by the Irish Privy Council and English Privy Council.

Parliament supported the Irish Reformation and Catholics were excluded from membership and voting in penal times. The Constitution of 1782 amended Poynings' Law to allow the Irish Parliament to initiate legislation. In 1793 Catholics were re-enfranchised; the Acts of Union 1800 merged the Kingdom of Ireland and Kingdom of Great Britain into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The parliament was merged with that of Great Britain. After the 12th-century Norman invasion of Ireland, administration of the Anglo-Norman Lordship of Ireland was modelled on that of the Kingdom of England. Magna Carta was extended in 1217 in the Charter of Ireland]]; as in England, parliament evolved out of the Magnum Concilium "great council" summoned by the king's viceroy, attended by the council and prelates. Membership was based on fealty to the king, the preservation of the king's peace, so the fluctuating number of autonomous Irish Gaelic kings were outside of the system; the earliest known parliament met at Kilkea Castle near Castledermot, County Kildare on 18 June 1264, with only prelates and magnates attending.

Elected representatives are first attested in 1297 and continually from the 14th century. In 1297, counties were first represented by elected knights of the shire. In 1299, towns were represented. From the 14th century a distinction from the English parliament was that deliberations on church funding were held in Parliament rather than in Convocation; the separation of the individually summoned lords from the elected commons had developed by the fifteenth century. The clerical proctors elected by the lower clergy of each diocese formed a separate house or estate in until 1537, when they were expelled for their opposition to the Irish Reformation; the 14th and 15th centuries saw shrinking numbers of those loyal to the crown, the growing power of landed families, the increasing inability to carry out judicial rulings, that all reduced the crown's presence in Ireland. Alongside this reduced control grew a "Gaelic resurgence", political as well as cultural. In turn this resulted in considerable numbers of the Hiberno-Norman Old English nobility joining the independent Gaelic nobles in asserting their feudal independence.

The crown's power shrank to a small fortified enclave around Dublin known as the Pale. The Parliament thereafter became the forum for the Pale community until the 16th century. Unable to implement and exercise the authority of the Parliament or the Crown's rule outside of this environ, under the attack of raids by the Gaelic Irish and independent Hiberno-Norman nobles, the Palesmen themselves encouraged the Kings of England to take a more direct role in the affairs of Ireland. Geographic distance, the lack of attention by the Crown because of the Hundred Years' War and the Wars of the Roses, the larger power of the Gaelic clans, all reduced the effectiveness of the Irish Parliament, thus worried that the Irish Parliament was being overawed by powerful landed families in Ireland like the Earl of Kildare into passing laws that pursued the agendas of the different dynastic factions in the country, in 1494, the Parliament encouraged the passing of Poynings' Law which subordinated Irish Parliament to the English one.

The role of the Parliament changed after 1541, when Henry VIII declared the Kingdom of Ireland and embarked on the Tudor conquest of Ireland. Despite an era which featured royal concentration of power and decreasing feudal power throughout the rest of Europe, King Henry VIII over-ruled earlier court rulings putting families and lands under attainder and recognised the privileges of the Gaelic nobles, thereby expanding the crown's de jure authority. In return for recognising the crown's authority under the new Kingdom of Ireland, the Gaelic-Anglo-Irish lords had their position legalised and were entitled to attend the Irish Parliament as equals under the policy of surrender and regrant; the Reformation in Ireland introduced in stages by the Tudor monarchs did not take hold in most of the country, did not affect the operation of parliament until after the papal bull Regnans in Excelsis of 1570. In 1537, the Irish Parliament approved both the Act of Supremacy, acknowledging Henry VIII as head of the Church and the dissolution of the monasteries.


Doña Montserrat Lopez Memorial High School

Doña Montserrat Lopez Memorial High School referred to by the acronym DMLMHS, is a public national high school in Silay City, Negros Occidental, Philippines. It is one of the leading secondary schools in the Philippines; the school has one extension, Doña Montserrat Lopez Memorial High School - Capitan Ramon, which it is the rural version of the school. Doña Montserrat Lopez Memorial High School began as a city high school during the incumbency of then-Mayor Natalio G. Velez. At that time, the school was located near the Silay South Elementary School, it was envisioned to accommodate poor but deserving elementary school graduates and offered free tuition. The school became known as the Silay City National High School. After the donation of a parcel of land was made by the affluent Lopez family for the new school edifice, the school was renamed in honor of Doña Montserrat Lopez. In November 11, 2018, a fire razed the school destroying eight classrooms; the said fire erupted at 5 p.m. and lasted 25 minutes, which spread to nearby classrooms.

According to the Bureau of Fire Protection, the fire induced by defective electrical wiring, left approximated destruction of P500,000. No casualties were reported. Special Program in the Arts Strengthening Technical Vocational Educational Program Information and Communication Technology Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics Technical Vocational Livelihood Shielded Metal Arc Welding Electrical Installation and Maintenance Electric Power Assisted Steering Dressmaking Cookery Food and Beverages Services Bread and Pastry Computer System Servicing Arts and Design Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics Silay Institute St. Theresita's Academy Silay South Elementary School La Purisima Concepcion Elementary School DMLMHS on Google+

Priit Pius

Priit Pius is an Estonian stage and film actor whose career began in the 2010s. Priit Pius was born in Tallinn to Nelli Pius, his twin brother is actor Märt Pius. He has one older brother, as well as two half-siblings from his father's previous marriage, he grew up in and attended schools in Tallinn before the family moved to the small village of Mällikvere in Jõgeva County, where he graduated from secondary school in 2008. Afterward, both he and his twin brother Märt enrolled in the Performing Arts Department of the Estonian Academy of Music and Theatre to study acting, graduating in 2012. Pius' diploma production roles were as Tuomas in Aleksis Kivi's Seven Brothers, Gerry Evans in Brian Friel's Dancing at Lughnasa, as Tom Canty in Mark Twain's The Prince and the Pauper. Following his graduation from the Estonian Academy of Music and Theatre, both Pius brothers began engagements at the Tallinn City Theatre in 2012 and are both still engaged at the theatre as actors. Among his more memorable roles in theater were in works by such varied authors and playwrights as: Florian Zeller, Eduard Bornhöhe, Anton Chekhov, Duncan Macmillan, Otfried Preußler, Marina Carr, Ferenc Molnár, Richard Greenberg, Anton Hansen Tammsaare, Molière, Neil Simon, Peter Barnes.

He has performed on several other theatre stages throughout Estonia. Pius' began appearing in student films and short films in 2010. In 2014, he was cast, along with his brother Märt, as the Käär brothers in the Elmo Nüganen-directed war drama 1944, selected as the 2015 Estonian entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 88th Academy Awards but it was not nominated. In 2015, Pius had a starring role as Eero in the Urmas Eero Liiv-directed thriller Must alpinist for Kopli Kinokompanii; the film is loosely based on the events of the Dyatlov Pass incident of 2 February 1959, where nine ski hikers mysteriously died in the northern Ural Mountains after establishing a camp on the slopes of Kholat Syakhl. However, the film differs in many key ways from the original incident. In 2017, he appeared in two films. In 2018, he appeared in the Anu Aun directed family-Christmas film Eia jõulud Tondikakul. Priit Pius has appeared as television actor, most notably in the role of Oliver in the 2015 Kanal 2 drama series Restart.

In 2018, he began playing the role of Ricky Bamberg in the Kanal 2 television comedy series Alo featuring his brother Märt, playing the role of Martin Bamberg. Priit Pius is in a long-term relationship with actress Maiken Schmidt; the couple have a son, born on 22 March 2018, reside in Tallinn. Both Priit and Märt Pius have been diagnosed with Diabetes mellitus type 1 and speak about living with the condition in order to raise awareness of the illness. Priit Pius on IMDb