William Charles Wentworth was an Australian explorer, journalist and author, one of the leading figures of early colonial New South Wales. He was the first native-born Australian to achieve a reputation overseas, a leading advocate for self-government for the Australian colonies. William Charles Wentworth was born on 13 August 1790 to Catherine Crowley. D'Arcy was the impecunious distant offspring of the aristocratic Wentworth family. D'Arcy had left to train as a surgeon in London. To maintain his lifestyle he became a highwayman, but soon found himself in trouble with the law. After being acquitted four times of highway robbery, to avoid a further prosecution D'Arcy took the position of assistant surgeon to the new colony of New South Wales, he boarded the Neptune sometime in December 1789. On board the ship was a seventeen-year-old girl from Ireland, being transported to Sydney following a conviction for stealing some clothing. On board ship, D'Arcy Wentworth and Catherine Crowley became lovers.
The Neptune arrived in Sydney as part of the Second Fleet on 29 June 1790. D'Arcy and Catherine, now pregnant, departed for Norfolk Island on the Surprize. While anchored off Norfolk Island in August the 13th, Catherine gave birth to a son whom she named William. Although born less than nine months after they first met, D'Arcy acknowledged the boy as his. There has always been circumstances of Wentworth's birth; the text of his obituary in the Sydney Morning Herald of 6 May 1872, says about the year 1792. Burke's Colonial Gentry, 1891–1896, Page 96, says he was born in 1793, describes his mother as Catherine Parry, that she was the wife of D'Arcy. In the biography "William Charles Wentworth" by A. C. V. Melbourne. M. A. PhD, Associate Professor of History, University of Queensland, he says that he was born in 1792, his mother is believed to have been a Catherine Williams, a convict on the Neptune, where D'arcy first became acquainted with her. The date 26 October 1793 was celebrated as his birth date for some years.
His coffin had attached to it a plate of pure silver which bore the simple inscription, William Charles Wentworth, born 26 October 1793 died March, 20th, 1872. In 1796 D'Arcy and Catherine Wentworth moved from Norfolk Island with the young William; the family lived at Parramatta. Catherine died at Parramatta in 1800. In 1803 William along with his brother, was sent to England, where he was educated at a school in London. In about 1807, D'Arcy Wentworth sold 450 acres at the Brush Farm to Gregory Blaxland for £1,500. William returned to Sydney in 1810, where he was appointed acting Provost Marshal by Governor Lachlan Macquarie, given a land grant of 1,750 acres on the Nepean River. On 15 October 1810, at Hyde Park, now in the centre of Sydney, Wentworth rode his father's horse Gig to victory in the first official horse races on Australian soil. In 1813 Wentworth, along with Gregory Blaxland and William Lawson, led the expedition which found a route across the Blue Mountains west of Sydney and opened up the grazing lands of inland New South Wales.
Wentworth kept a journal of the exploration which begins by describing the first day of the journey: On the Eleventh of May our party consisting of Mr. Gregory Blaxland, Lieutenant Lawson and Myself with four servants quitted Mr. Gregory Blaxland's farm on the South Creek and on the 29th of the June Month descended from the Mountain into forest land having travelled as nearly as I can compute about 60 Miles from Mr. Chapman's farm on the Nepean River although I do not imagine that we made more than 40 Miles of Westing. In the journal, Wentworth describes the landscapes they were exploring: A country of so singular a description could in my opinion only have been produced by some Mighty convulsion in Nature – Those immense unconnected perpendicular Masses of Mountain which are to be seen towards its Eastern Extremity towering above the Country around, seem to indicate that the whole of this tract has been formed out of the Materials of the primitive mountains of which these masses are the only parts that have withstood the violence of the concussion.'
The town of Wentworth Falls in the Blue Mountains commemorates his role in the expedition. As a reward he was granted another 1,000 acres, he combined farming with sandalwood trading in the South Pacific, where the captain of the ship died at Rarotonga and Wentworth safely brought the ship back to Sydney. Wentworth returned to England in 1816. There he was admitted to the bar, travelled in Europe, studied at Cambridge University. In 1819 Wentworth published the first book written by an Australian: A Statistical and Political Description of the Colony of New South Wales and Its Dependent Settlements in Van Diemen's Land, With a Particular Enumeration of the Advantages Which These Colonies Offer for Emigration and Their Superiority in Many Respects Over Those Possessed by the United States of America, in which he advocated an elected assembly for New South Wales, trial by jury and settlement of Australia by free emigrants rather than convicts. Wentworth completed his legal studies by 1822 and was called to the bar.
In 1823 he was admitted to Cambridge. That year he published an epic poem Australasia, which contains lines now famous in Australia: And, O Britannia!... may this — thy last-born infant — arise, To glad thy heart, greet thy parent eyes. Wentworth returned to Sydney in 1824. D'Arcy Wentworth died in 1827 and William inherited his
New South Wales Legislative Assembly
The New South Wales Legislative Assembly is the lower of the two houses of the Parliament of New South Wales, an Australian state. The upper house is the New South Wales Legislative Council. Both the Assembly and Council sit at Parliament House in Sydney; the Assembly is presided over by the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly. The Assembly has 93 members, elected by single-member constituency, which are known as seats. Voting is by the optional preferential system. Members of the Legislative Assembly have the post-nominals MP after their names. From the creation of the assembly up to about 1990, the post-nominals "MLA" were used; the Assembly is called the bearpit on the basis of the house's reputation for confrontational style during heated moments and the "savage political theatre and the bloodlust of its professional players" attributed in part to executive dominance. The Legislative Assembly was created in 1856 with the introduction of a bicameral parliament for the Crown Colony of New South Wales.
In the beginning, only men were eligible to be members of the Assembly, only around one half of men were able to pass the property or income qualifications required to vote. Two years the Electoral Reform Act, passed despite the opposition of the Legislative Council, saw the introduction of a far more democratic system, allowing any man, resident in the colony for six months the right to vote, removing property requirements to stand as a candidate. Following Australia's federation in 1901, the New South Wales parliament became a State legislature. Women were granted the right to vote in 1902, gained the right to be members of the Assembly in 1918, with the first successful candidate being elected in 1925; the Legislative Assembly sits in the oldest legislative chamber in Australia. Built for the Legislative Council in 1843, it has been in continuous use since 1856; the colour of the Legislative Assembly chamber is green, which follows the British tradition for lower houses. Most legislation is initiated in the Legislative Assembly.
The party or coalition with a majority of seats in the lower house is invited by the Governor to form government. The leader of that party subsequently becomes Premier of New South Wales, their senior colleagues become ministers responsible for various portfolios; as Australian political parties traditionally vote along party lines, most legislation introduced by the governing party will pass through the Legislative Assembly. As with the federal parliament and other Australian states and territories, voting in the Assembly is compulsory for all those over the age of 18. Elections are held every four years on the fourth Saturday in March, exceptional circumstances notwithstanding, as the result of a 1995 referendum to amend the New South Wales Constitution. 47 votes as a majority are required to pass legislation. The clerk of the house of the NSW Legislative Assembly is the senior administrative officer; the clerk advises the speaker of the Assembly and members of parliament on matters of parliamentary procedure and management.
The office is modelled on the clerk of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom. The following have served as clerks: Richard O’Connor 1856–59 Charles Thompson 1860–69 Oliver Kelly 1869–69 Stephen Jones 1869–87 Frederick Webb CMG 1888–1904 Richard Arnold 1904–16 William Mowle 1916–27 Sydney Boydell 1927–30 William Rupert McCourt CMG 1930–47 Frederick Langley 1947 Harry Robbins MC 1947–56 Allan Pickering CBE 1956–66 Ivor Vidler CBE 1967–74 Ronald Ward 1974–81 Douglas Wheeler 1981–84 Grahame Cooksley 1984–90 Russell Grove PSM 1990–2011 Ronda Miller 2011–2016 Helen Minnican 2016–present The ceremonial duties of the serjeant-at-arms are as the custodian of the mace, the symbol of the authority of the House and the speaker, as the messenger for formal messages from the Legislative Assembly to the Legislative Council; the serjeant has the authority to remove disorderly people, by force if necessary, from the Assembly or the public or press galleries on the instructions of the speaker. The administrative duties of the serjeant include allocation of office accommodation and fittings for members' offices, co-ordination of car transport for members and courier services for the House, security for the House and arrangements for school visits.
Once a meeting has started in an Assembly, the serjeant will stand at the door to keep authority and make sure no one else comes in or out. The following have served as serjeant-at-arms: Laurence Joseph Harnett 1873–1909 John Mackenzie Webb Harry Robbins Ivor Percy Kidd Vidler Hubert Pierre Scarlett Ronald Edward Ward Frederick Augustine Mahony William Geoffery Luton Peter John McHugh William Christie 1909 – 1918 Leslie Gönye–present New South Wales state election, 2019 List of New South Wales state by-elections Parliaments of the Australian states and territories Members of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly New South Wales Legislative Assembly electoral districts Women in the New South Wales Legislative Assembly Official website New South Wales Constitution Act
Animal Justice Party
Animal Justice Party is a political party in Australia founded in 2009. The party was registered under the Commonwealth Electoral Act 1918 by the Australian Electoral Commission on 3 May 2011, making the party eligible for federal funding, should the party achieve the funding threshold of 4%; the party is registered in New South Wales, South Australia, Western Australia, the Australian Capital Territory. The AJP is the first political party in Australia formed to advance animal welfare issues; the preamble of the AJP charter says the party "has been formed as a response to growing public concern about the neglect of animals and animal protection issues by political parties" and states its mission is "to promote and protect the interests and capabilities of animals by providing a dedicated voice for them in Australia's political system". The party aims to give animals constitutional protection based on their sentience, as opposed to their instrumental value; the sole purpose of the AJP is to provide a focal point for people who feel there is a lack of action taken by political figures that concerns the wellbeing of animals.
The AJP opposes the export of any live animals for profit slaughter. They want an international ban of all live animal hauling throughout the world. "We demand an end to the export of live animals from Australia at the earliest possible time, taking into consideration any domestic welfare issues exceeding those faced overseas, that the animals earmarked for live export would suffer in the event of a ban" says Steve Garlick, previous president of AJP. The group realises that their government will not put a ban on the live animal export because it brings in so much money for the country though countless instances of cruelty have been blatantly proven; the exported animals go to countries that have no animal welfare laws or protection codes that ensure their protection and well being. In 2011, following the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's television footage showing abuse and the slaughter of cattle from the Northern Territory in conditions that would not have been permitted in Australia, as well as the consequential nationwide protests by supporters of animal welfare, AJP, along with Animals Australia, the Australasian Meat Industry Employees Union, The Greens and a range of other NGOs sought a ban on live animal exports.
Steve Garlick, president of AJP, said that rural Australia has been adversely affected by the export of live animals and argued that the export ban would result in economic and social benefit in the country. At the 2013 federal election, the party was a member of Glenn Druery's Minor Party Alliance but failed to win a seat; the AJP recorded a 0.70% national Senate vote. It was criticised for preferencing the Liberal Party ahead of the Greens in the Senate for the ACT, they did this because the Greens had supported the culling of kangaroos in the ACT. This preferencing decision had no impact on the result. At the 2016 federal election, Lynda Stoner, the Chief Executive of Animal Liberation and a former television actress, was the party's candidate for the Senate in New South Wales, she was one of 55 AJP candidates across both houses in the election. The AJP recorded a 1.15% national Senate vote, an increase of 0.46%. At the 2015 New South Wales election, Mark Pearson gained 1.8% of the primary vote, winning a seat in the New South Wales Legislative Council on Druery's preference deals, giving the party its first parliamentary representation.
The party kept its seat at the 2019 New South Wales election, increasing its primary vote to 1.95% of the state total. The AJP won its first seat in the Victorian Legislative Council at the 2018 Victorian election, using preference deals arranged by Druery. List of animal advocacy parties List of political parties in Australia Official website Animal Justice Party
Parliament of Australia
The Parliament of Australia is the legislative branch of the government of Australia. It consists of three elements: the Senate and the House of Representatives; the combination of two elected chambers, in which the members of the Senate represent the states and territories while the members of the House represent electoral divisions according to population, is modelled on the United States Congress. Through both chambers, there is a fused executive, drawn from the Westminster system; the upper house, the Senate, consists of 76 members: twelve for each state, two each for the territories, Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory. Senators are elected using the single transferable vote proportional representation system and as a result, the chamber features a multitude of parties vying for power; the governing party or coalition has not held a majority in the Senate since 1981 and needs to negotiate with other parties and Independents to get legislation passed. The lower house, the House of Representatives consists of 150 members, each elected using full-preference instant-runoff voting from single-member constituencies known as electoral divisions.
This tends to lead to the chamber being dominated by two major political groups, the centre-right Coalition and the centre-left Labor Party. The government of the day must achieve the confidence of this House in order to gain and remain in power. Although elections can be called early, every three years the full House of Representatives and half of the Senate is dissolved and goes up for reelection. A deadlock-breaking mechanism known as a double dissolution can be used to dissolve the full Senate as well as the House in the event that the Upper House twice refuses to pass a piece of legislation passed by the Lower House; the two Houses meet in separate chambers of Parliament House on Capital Hill in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory. The Commonwealth of Australia came into being on 1 January 1901 with the federation of the six Australian colonies; the inaugural election took place on 29 and 30 March and the first Australian Parliament was opened on 9 May 1901 in Melbourne by Prince George, Duke of Cornwall and York King George V.
The only building in Melbourne, large enough to accommodate the 14,000 guests was the western annexe of the Royal Exhibition Building. After the official opening, from 1901 to 1927 the Parliament met in Parliament House, which it borrowed from the Parliament of Victoria, it had always been intended. This was a compromise at Federation due to the rivalry between the two largest Australian cities and Melbourne, which both wished to become the new capital; the site of Canberra was selected for the location of the nation's capital city in 1908. A competition was announced on 30 June 1914 to design Parliament House, with prize money of £7,000. However, due to the start of World War I the next month, the competition was cancelled, it was re-announced in August 1916, but again postponed indefinitely on 24 November 1916. In the meantime, John Smith Murdoch, the Commonwealth's Chief Architect, worked on the design as part of his official duties, he had little personal enthusiasm for the project, as he felt it was a waste of money and expenditure on it could not be justified at the time.
He designed the building by default. The construction of Old Parliament House, as it is called today, commenced on 28 August 1923 and was completed in early 1927, it was built by the Commonwealth Department of Works, using tradesmen and materials from all over Australia. The final cost was about £600,000, more than three times the original estimate, it was designed to house the parliament for a maximum of 50 years until a permanent facility could be built, but was so used for more than 60 years. The building was opened on 9 May 1927 by the Duchess of York; the opening ceremonies were both splendid and incongruous, given the sparsely built nature of Canberra of the time and its small population. The building was extensively decorated with British Empire and Australian flags and bunting. Temporary stands were erected bordering the lawns in front of the Parliament and these were filled with crowds. A Wiradjuri elder, Jimmy Clements, was one of only two aboriginal Australians present, having walked for about a week from Brungle Station to be at the event.
Dame Nellie Melba sang the National anthem. The Duke of York unlocked the front doors with a golden key, led the official party into King's Hall where he unveiled the statue of his father, King George V; the Duke opened the first parliamentary session in the new Senate Chamber. In 1978 the Fraser Government decided to proceed with a new building on Capital Hill, the Parliament House Construction Authority was created. A two-stage competition was announced, for which the Authority consulted the Royal Australian Institute of Architects and, together with the National Capital Development Commission, made available to competitors a brief and competition documents; the design competition drew 329 entries from 29 countries. The competition winner was the Philadelphia-based architectural firm of Mitchell/Giurgola, with the on-site wor
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses. Bicameralism is distinguished from unicameralism, in which all members deliberate and vote as a single group, from some legislatures that have three or more separate assemblies, chambers, or houses; as of 2015, fewer than half the world's national legislatures. The members of the two chambers are elected or selected by different methods, which vary from country to country; this can lead to the two chambers having different compositions of members. Enactment of primary legislation requires a concurrent majority – the approval of a majority of members in each of the chambers of the legislature; when this is the case, the legislature may be called an example of perfect bicameralism. However, in many Westminster system parliaments, the house to which the executive is responsible can overrule the other house and may be regarded as an example of imperfect bicameralism; some legislatures lie in between these two positions, with one house only able to overrule the other under certain circumstances.
The Founding Fathers of the United States favoured a bicameral legislature. The idea was to have the Senate be wiser. Benjamin Rush saw this though, noted that "this type of dominion is always connected with opulence"; the Senate was created to be a stabilising force, elected not by mass electors, but selected by the State legislators. Senators would be more knowledgeable and more deliberate—a sort of republican nobility—and a counter to what Madison saw as the "fickleness and passion" that could absorb the House, he noted further that "The use of the Senate is to consist in its proceeding with more coolness, with more system and with more wisdom, than the popular branch." Madison's argument led the Framers to grant the Senate prerogatives in foreign policy, an area where steadiness and caution were deemed important. State legislators chose the Senate, senators had to possess significant property to be deemed worthy and sensible enough for the position. In 1913, the 17th Amendment passed, which mandated choosing Senators by popular vote rather than State legislatures.
As part of the Great Compromise, the Founding Fathers invented a new rationale for bicameralism in which the Senate had states represented and the House had them represented by population. The British Parliament is referred to as the Mother of Parliaments because the British Parliament has been the model for most other parliamentary systems, its Acts have created many other parliaments. Many nations with parliaments have to some degree emulated the British "three-tier" model. Most countries in Europe and the Commonwealth have organised parliaments with a ceremonial head of state who formally opens and closes parliament, a large elected lower house, a smaller upper house. A formidable sinister interest may always obtain the complete command of a dominant assembly by some chance and for a moment, it is therefore of great use to have a second chamber of an opposite sort, differently composed, in which that interest in all likelihood will not rule. There have been a number of rationales put forward in favour of bicameralism, federal states have adopted it, the solution remains popular when regional differences or sensitivities require more explicit representation, with the second chamber representing the constituent states.
The older justification for second chambers—providing opportunities for second thoughts about legislation—has survived. Growing awareness of the complexity of the notion of representation and the multifunctional nature of modern legislatures may be affording incipient new rationales for second chambers, though these do remain contested institutions in ways that first chambers are not. An example of political controversy regarding a second chamber has been the debate over the powers of the Senate of Canada or the election of the Senate of France; the relationship between the two chambers varies. The first tends to be those with presidential governments; the latter tends to be the case in unitary states with parliamentary systems. There are two streams of thought: Critics believe bicameralism makes meaningful political reforms more difficult to achieve and increases the risk of gridlock—particularly in cases where both chambers have similar powers—while proponents argue the merits of the "checks and balances" provided by the bicameral model, which they believe help prevent the passage into law of ill-considered legislation.
Formal communication between houses is by various methods, including: Sending messages Formal notices, such as of resolutions or the passing of bills done in writing, via the clerk and speaker of each house Transmission of bills or amendment to bills requiring agreement from the other house Joint session a plenary session of both houses at the same time and place. Joint committees which may be formed by committees of each house agreeing to join, or by joint resolution of each house Conferences Conferences of the Houses of the English Parliament met in the Painted Chamber of the Palace of Westminster. There were a distinction between an "ordinary conference" and a "free conference". A "free conference" meets in private to resolve a dispute; the last fr
Monarchy of Australia
The monarchy of Australia concerns the form of government in which a hereditary king or queen serves as the nation's sovereign and head of state. Australia is governed under a form of constitutional monarchy modelled on the Westminster system of parliamentary government, while incorporating features unique to the Constitution of Australia; the present monarch is Elizabeth II, styled Queen of Australia, who has reigned since 6 February 1952. She is represented in Australia as a whole by the Governor-General, in accordance with the Australian Constitution and letters patent from the Queen, in each of the Australian states, according to the state constitutions, by a governor, assisted by a lieutenant-governor; the monarch appoints the Governor-General and the governors, on the advice of the Commonwealth government and each state government. These are now the only constitutional functions of the monarch with regard to Australia. Australian constitutional law provides that the monarch of the United Kingdom is the monarch in Australia.
This is understood today to constitute a separate Australian monarchy, the monarch acting with regard to Australian affairs upon the advice of Australian ministers. Australia is thus one of the Commonwealth realms, sixteen independent countries that share the same person as monarch and head of state; the role and future of the monarchy has been a recurring topic of public discussion. Further information: Commonwealth realm: The Crown in the Commonwealth realmsKey features of Australia's system of government include its basis on a combination of "written" and "unwritten rules", its retention of colonial-monarchical heads of state, comprising the British monarch and what had been the monarch's colonial representatives, the State Governors, together with the Governor-General; the monarch of Australia is the same person as the monarch of the 15 other Commonwealth realms within the 53-member Commonwealth of Nations. On all matters of the Australian Commonwealth, the monarch is advised by Australian federal Ministers of the Crown, effective with the Australia Act 1986, no British government can advise the monarch on any matters pertinent to Australia.
On all matters relating to any Australian state, the monarch is advised by the Ministers of the Crown of that state. In 1999 the High Court of Australia held in Sue v Hill that, at least since the Australia Act 1986, Britain has been a foreign power in regard to Australia's domestic and foreign affairs. In 2001 the High Court held that, until the United Kingdom became a foreign power, all British subjects were subjects of the Queen in right of the United Kingdom and thus could not be classified as aliens within the meaning of Section 51 of the constitution; the sovereign's Australian title is Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God Queen of Australia and Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth. Prior to 1953, the title had been the same as that in the United Kingdom. A change in the title resulted from occasional discussion and an eventual meeting of Commonwealth representatives in London in December 1952, at which Canada's preferred format for the monarch's title was Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of and of Her other realms and territories, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith.
Australia, wished to have the United Kingdom mentioned as well. Thus, the resolution was a title that included the United Kingdom but, for the first time separately mentioned Australia and the other Commonwealth realms; the passage of a new Royal Style and Titles Act by the Parliament of Australia put these recommendations into law. It was proposed by the Cabinet headed by Gough Whitlam that the title be amended to "denote the precedence of Australia, the equality of the United Kingdom and each other sovereign nation under the Crown, the separation of Church and State." A new Royal Titles and Styles Bill that removed specific reference to the monarch's role as Queen of the United Kingdom was passed by the federal parliament, but the Governor-General, Sir Paul Hasluck, reserved Royal Assent "for Her Majesty's pleasure". Queen Elizabeth II signed her assent at Government House, Canberra, on 19 October 1973. In 2018 a trip by the Prince of Wales to the Commonwealth country of Vanuatu, escorted by Australian Minister for Foreign Affairs Julie Bishop in between a tour of Queensland and the Northern Territory, was paid for by Australian taxpayers.
In Oct 2011, the cost of a 10-day royal visit to Australia was put at $5.85 million. The Queen's Australian governments pay only for the costs associated with the Governor-General and state governors in their exercising of the powers of the Crown on behalf of the Queen, including travel, residences and ceremonial occasions; the monarch is the locus of oaths of allegiance. This is in reciprocation to the sovereign's Coronation Oath, wherein he or she promises "to govern the Peoples of... Australia... according to their respective laws and customs". New appointees to the Federal Cabinet also swear an oath that includes allegiance to the monarch before taking their post. However, as
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s