Parliamentary system

A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislature a parliament, is held accountable to that parliament. In a parliamentary system, the head of state is a person distinct from the head of government; this is in contrast to a presidential system, where the head of state is the head of government and, most the executive does not derive its democratic legitimacy from the legislature. Countries with parliamentary democracies may be constitutional monarchies, where a monarch is the head of state while the head of government is always a member of parliament, or parliamentary republics, where a ceremonial president is the head of state while the head of government is from the legislature. In a few parliamentary republics, such as Botswana, South Africa, Suriname, among some others, the head of government is head of state, but is elected by and is answerable to parliament.

In bicameral parliaments, the head of government is though not always, a member of the lower house. Parliamentarianism is the dominant form of government in Europe, with 32 of its 50 sovereign states being parliamentarian, it is common in the Caribbean, being the form of government of 10 of its 13 island states, in Oceania. Elsewhere in the world, parliamentary countries are less common, but they are distributed through all continents, most in former colonies of the British Empire that subscribe to a particular brand of parliamentarianism known as the Westminster system. Since ancient times, when societies were tribal, there were councils or a headman whose decisions were assessed by village elders; these councils have evolved into the modern parliamentary system. The first parliaments date back to Europe in the Middle Ages: in 1188 Alfonso IX, King of Leon convened the three states in the Cortes of León. An early example of parliamentary government developed in today's Netherlands and Belgium during the Dutch revolt, when the sovereign and executive powers were taken over by the States General of the Netherlands from the monarch, King Philip II of Spain.

The modern concept of parliamentary government emerged in the Kingdom of Great Britain between 1707–1800 and its contemporary, the Parliamentary System in Sweden between 1721–1772. In England, Simon de Montfort is remembered as one of the fathers of representative government for convening two famous parliaments; the first, in 1258, stripped the king of unlimited authority and the second, in 1265, included ordinary citizens from the towns. In the 17th century, the Parliament of England pioneered some of the ideas and systems of liberal democracy culminating in the Glorious Revolution and passage of the Bill of Rights 1689. In the Kingdom of Great Britain, the monarch, in theory, chose ministers. In practice, King George I's inability to speak English led the responsibility for chairing cabinet to go to the leading minister the prime or first minister, Robert Walpole; the gradual democratisation of parliament with the broadening of the voting franchise increased parliament's role in controlling government, in deciding whom the king could ask to form a government.

By the 19th century, the Great Reform Act of 1832 led to parliamentary dominance, with its choice invariably deciding, prime minister and the complexion of the government. Other countries adopted what came to be called the Westminster Model of government, with an executive answerable to parliament, exercising, in the name of the head of state, powers nominally vested in the head of state. Hence the use of phrases like His Excellency's government; such a system became prevalent in older British dominions, many of which had their constitutions enacted by the British parliament. Some of these parliaments were reformed from, or were developed as distinct from their original British model: the Australian Senate, for instance, has since its inception more reflected the US Senate than the British House of Lords. Democracy and parliamentarianism became prevalent in Europe in the years after World War I imposed by the democratic victors, the United States, Great Britain and France, on the defeated countries and their successors, notably Germany's Weimar Republic and the new Austrian Republic.

Nineteenth-century urbanisation, the Industrial Revolution and modernism had fuelled the political left's struggle for democracy and parliamentarianism for a long time. In the radicalised times at the end of World War I, democratic reforms were seen as a means to counter popular revolutionary currents. A parliamentary system may be either bicameral, with two chambers of parliament or unicameral, with just one parliamentary chamber. A bicameral parliament consists of a directly elected lower house with the power to determine the executive government, an upper house which may be appointed or elected through a different mechanism from the lower house. Scholars of democracy such as Arend Lijphart distinguish two types of parliamentary democracies: the Westminster and Consensus systems; the Westminster system is found in the Commonwealth of Nations and countries which were influenced by the British political tradition. These parliaments tend to have

Brak El-Shati airbase raid

On 18 May 2017, clashes broke out in Brak al-Shati airbase between the LNA and the forces of Misrata, 141 people were killed, according to Benghazi-based LNA military spokesman, Ahmad al-Mismari. He said that the casualties included 103 army soldiers and unspecified numbers of civilians; the LNA launched air strikes on militant sites near the area in retaliation. Human Rights Watch accused the 13th brigade falling under the authority of Government of National Accord, Benghazi Defense Brigades militia of summary executions of both civilians and soldiers. 75 bodies that were received by local hospitals showed sign of execution by shot in the head, including two 15 year old boys. Attackers were shouting slogans of You apostates, you enemies of God as they were executing captured soldiers according to one survivor, interviewed by HRW. Arab League decried the events as a "barbaric massacre". Egyptian ministry of foreign affairs declared the event as a terrorist attack. Envoys from China, Russia, United Kingdom and United States of America issued a joint statement in which they described summary executions of both military personnel and civilians.

GNA Minister of Defense Al-Mahdi Al-Barghathi has been suspended by Prime Minister Fayez al-Sarraj following allegations of his involvement in attack. Barghathi denied involvement. On 20th May, after gathering of tribal elders in city of Sebha, southern tribes gave Misrata 13th battalion 72 hours to vacate their main base at Sabha Air Base, threatening to destroy Misrata forces inside otherwise. Tribal elders declared all agreements with Misrata forces void and held them responsible for massacre at Brak al-Shati. Libyan National Army in following days bombarded Benghazi Defense Brigades bases in Jufra District and at Al Jufra Air Base where both 13th Misrata battalion and Benghazi Defense Brigades are based as part of their new "Martyrs of Brak al-Shati operation". Presidency Council Vice-President Fathi Al-Mijabri has described the attack as a war crime and declared Benghazi Defense Brigades as terrorists, calling it an act of sabotage aimed at ending attempts of national reconciliation between authorities in East and West that in previous weeks saw multiple meetings between both parties

Baron Louth

Baron Louth is a title in the Peerage of Ireland. It has been created twice; the title was created firstly c. 1458 for Sir Thomas Bathe Chief Baron of the Irish Exchequer. Although he had at least one son, John Bathe of Ardee, the title seems to have become extinct soon after his death in 1478, it was created secondly in 1541 for Sir Oliver Plunkett. His great-great-great-grandson, the seventh Baron, served as Lord Lieutenant of County Louth. However, he supported King James II and was outlawed, his great-great-grandson, the eleventh Baron, managed to obtain a reversal of the outlawry and was restored to the title. As of 2019the title is held by the latter's great-great-great-great-grandson, the seventeenth Baron, who succeeded his father in 2013. Saint Oliver Plunkett was related to Barons of Louth. Admiral Peter Warren was a female-line great-grandson of the fifth Baron. Thomas Bathe, 1st Baron Louth Oliver Plunkett, 1st Baron Louth Thomas Plunkett, 2nd Baron Louth Patrick Plunkett, 3rd Baron Louth Oliver Plunkett, 4th Baron Louth Matthew Plunkett, 5th Baron Louth Oliver Plunkett, 6th Baron Louth Matthew Plunkett, 7th Baron Louth Oliver Plunkett,"de jure" 8th Baron Louth Matthew Plunkett, de jure 9th Baron Louth Oliver Plunkett,"de jure" 10th Baron Louth Thomas Oliver Plunkett, 11th Baron Louth Thomas Oliver Plunkett, 12th Baron Louth Randal Percy Otway Plunkett, 13th Baron Louth Randal Pilgrim Ralph Plunkett, 14th Baron Louth Otway Randal Percy Oliver Plunkett, 15th Baron Louth Otway Michael James Oliver Plunkett, 16th Baron Louth Jonathan Oliver Plunkett, 17th Baron Louth The heir apparent is the present holder's son Hon.

Matthew Oliver Plunkett. The family seat was Louth Hall, near County Louth. Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990. Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages Louth Papers