SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Parramatta Road

Parramatta Road is the major historical east-west artery of metropolitan Sydney, connecting the Sydney CBD with Parramatta. It is the easternmost part of the Great Western Highway. Since the 1980s its role has been augmented by the City West Link Road and Motorway M4; the road begins as a continuation of George Street at Harris St Ultimo and as far as City Road is called Broadway. Its 23 kilometres distance is dominated by small marginally-viable shops. At the same time, however, it has over 100 abandoned and derelict stores. Owing to this and its abrasively noisy traffic, it has been considered beautiful. Opened in 1811, it is Australia's first road between two cities. Today, over 3 million commuters every year drive Parramatta Road; the road is the hub of Sydney's motor dealership industry - with 67% of the adjacent land used for motor retailing and services. Parramatta was settled by Europeans in the same year as Sydney; the Parramatta River was used as navigation between them. Sometime between 1789 and 1791 an overland track was made to provide an official land route between the two settlements.

Parramatta Road dates to the 1792 formation of a route linking Sydney to the settlement of Parramatta. This route was formalised under the direction of Surveyor-General Augustus Alt in 1797. Parramatta Road became one of the colony's most important early roads, for many years remained one of Sydney's principal thoroughfares; the early road was a poorly maintained track through bush. In 1794, the governor of the colony reported that he had caused a good road to be made, but there is no evidence that any bridges were built over the streams; the road subsequently deteriorated and on 9 June 1805 the Sydney Gazette reported that the road was impassable as the result of heavy rain. Attempts to improve the road continued over the years. By 1811, Parramatta Road had opened to traffic and was financed during a large portion of the 19th century by a toll, with toll booths located at what now is Sydney University and the Duck River. Governor Macquarie called tenders for the repair of the road, raised a 3 shilling per gallon levy on spirits and levied a toll to pay for the work.

The road was to be 10 metres wide. This turnpike road was opened on 10 April 1811; the toll barriers were at Becket's Creek. In 1814, a stage cart service was established along Parramatta Road. Fares were 3 pence for letters. Heavy rain again nearly destroyed this road, so in 1817 it was announced that all tree-stumps would be removed and the road paved with stone which would be covered with earth and gravel; this improvement was announced as finished on 15 January 1815. In 1815 the "profit" from the Sydney toll reached £465; the growth of Sydney caused the toll barrier to be moved to Grose Farm in April 1836. In 1839 it was moved further west to Annandale; the colony's first stage coach was imported in 1821 but did not begin regular service until 1823. The stage left the city at 7:00 am, arrived in Parramatta at 9:30 am and left Parramatta for the return journey at 4:00 pm. Inside passengers were charged 6 shillings. Hazards on the road included the threat of attacks by Indigenous bushrangers. Hotels and settlements sprang up along the road to serve coaching traffic.

The importance of the road declined with the advent of the Sydney-Parramatta railway in 1855. In 1883, a steam tram line opened along Parramatta Road as far as Annandale, was extended onward to Norton St in 1884, where it turned to run along Norton Street to Short Street. In the 1800s, the Government acquired a strip of land from Ashfield to Burwood from the Rosebank Estate, owned by the Sisters of the Good Samaritan, Australia's first religious congregation. Rosebank College now stands on the former Rosebank Estate, the heritage-listed building of the private school stands adjacent to the road at Five Dock. Sydney Municipal Council began widening the major routes into the city centre in 1911, including the construction of Broadway and the widening of the cutting on Parramatta Road adjacent to Sydney University. In the 1920s, the road was sealed and tramlines were removed from the road. Sheep and cattle were still crossing Parramatta Road at Homebush as late as the 1960s. In 2012 it was announced that the road would be widened and lowered below street level in a "slot" as part of the Roads and Maritime Services WestConnex motorway proposal.

The WestConnex proposal was changed to a pair of tunnels parallel to Parramatta Road known as M4 East, running between North Strathfield and Haberfield. The new tunnels opened to traffic in July 2019; the tunnel entry and exit to Parramatta Road are located south-east of the Wattle Street and Parramatta Road intersection. The road has been criticised by the community for its traffic pollution and for its vacant shops and rundown buildings between Leichhardt and Concord, local government has been accused of failing to adopt policies to encourage the redevelopment and regeneration of vacant sites. A local mayor described it as a "varicose vein". A NSW Business Chamber Executive Patricia Forsythe said that the road is "one of the least attractive commercial areas of Sydney". Former NSW premier Nick Greiner thought the road looked "like Beirut on a bad day"; the Sydney Morning Herald writer Elizabeth Farrelly dismissed it as a "filthy hole". On a lighter note, Tess De Quincey, an Australian performer/director said, "Every chapter of Sydney's history has been written on Parramatta Road."

A Sydney Morning Herald editor said that whilst the road is "ugly in parts, drab in others, unpleasant

Clinique La Colline

Hirslanden Clinique La Colline is a Swiss hospital located in Geneva, Switzerland. Founded in 1903, it has been part of the Hirslanden Private Hospital Group since 2014. In 1903, a group of nuns from the Trinitarian Order of Avignon, forced to leave France as a result of religious persecution, took up residence in Geneva. Aided by local doctors, they founded a home to care for sick people of all religious beliefs; this home was Clinique La Colline, included 15 rooms. In 1904 the first operating room was installed. Geneva doctors schooled the nuns in. Clinique La Colline’s success meant that it rapidly became necessary to build an annex, in order to have more rooms, add a second operating room; the newly-enlarged Clinique La Colline had a capacity of 40 beds. A new wing was added in 1925, in 1950 the nuns began to be assisted and replaced by laypersons. In 1974, the north wing was extended to accommodate the operating theater and the radiology department, in 1990 an outpatient clinic, a physiotherapy department and a fourth operating room were added.

With the arrival of computers in 1984, the administrative aspects of Clinique La Colline were entrusted to laypersons. In 2011, it was bought by the families Picciotto and Paul Hökfelt; the clinic grew with the creation of about 30 associated medical offices and an emergency department in 2012. Subsequently, an extension of the clinic was inaugurated in 2013; the Hirslanden Private Hospital Group acquired Clinique La Colline for $146 million in 2014. Stéphan Studer became Clinical Director of Clinique La Colline in 2015. Following an extension in 2013, Clinique La Colline has 100 rooms and suites, one emergency department, six operating rooms and one polyclinic, it has 281 employees and 150 physicians for 3'784 patients in 2015. Clinique La Colline houses over 20 consultation practices, an analysis laboratory and medical samples, an orthopedic department, a neurosurgery and back surgery department, a general surgery department as well as many other specialised centers such as an emergency department, a radiology department, a physiotherapy unit, a spa pool and a check-up department.

The main specialties of Clinique La Colline are anesthesiology, angiology and thoracic vascular surgery, checkup, clinical emergency medicine and venereology, general internal medicine, general surgery and traumatology, gynaecology, hand surgery, intensive care, maxillo-facial surgery, medical analysis laboratory FAMH, medical oncology, neurosurgery, ophthalmic surgery, ophthalmology and maxillofacial surgery, orthopaedic surgery and traumatology, otorhinolaryngology, physical medicine and rehabilitation, plastic and cosmetic surgery, pneumology and psychotherapy, rheumatology, spine surgery, sports medicine, urology, visceral surgery. Clinique La Colline is a member of the National Association for the development of quality in hospitals and clinics. Clinique La Colline

Philippine Open Short Track Championships

The Philippine Open Short Track Championships is the national short track speed skating competition in the Philippines. It is organized by the Philippine Skating Union; the first edition will be held on September 27, 2018 at the SM Megamall Ice Skating Rink in Mandaluyong. The performance of the more than 35 athletes which will compete in the inaugural edition of the championships will be used as basis for the selection of the Philippines' representatives in the 2019 Southeast Asian Games in short track speed skating. 500-meter, 1000-meter, 1,500-meter and relay will be contested for both male and female competitors. India fielded speed skaters in this edition. Kevin Villanueva dominated the Men Senior Category by winning three gold medals while Kathryn Magno did the same for the Ladies Senior Category by winning three gold medals. Official website