Nepal the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas but includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. With an estimated population of 26.4 million, it is 48th largest country by population and 93rd largest country by area. It borders China in the north and India in the south and west while Bangladesh is located within only 27 km of its southeastern tip and Bhutan is separated from it by the Indian state of Sikkim. Nepal has a diverse geography, including fertile plains, subalpine forested hills, eight of the world's ten tallest mountains, including Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth. Kathmandu is largest city. Nepal is a multiethnic nation with Nepali as the official language; the name "Nepal" is first recorded in texts from the Vedic period of the Indian subcontinent, the era in ancient India when Hinduism was founded, the predominant religion of the country. In the middle of the first millennium BCE, Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, was born in Lumbini in southern Nepal.
Parts of northern Nepal were intertwined with the culture of Tibet. The centrally located Kathmandu Valley is intertwined with the culture of Indo-Aryans, was the seat of the prosperous Newar confederacy known as Nepal Mandala; the Himalayan branch of the ancient Silk Road was dominated by the valley's traders. The cosmopolitan region developed distinct traditional architecture. By the 18th century, the Gorkha Kingdom achieved the unification of Nepal; the Shah dynasty established the Kingdom of Nepal and formed an alliance with the British Empire, under its Rajput Rana dynasty of premiers. The country was never colonized but served as a buffer state between Imperial China and British India. Parliamentary democracy was introduced in 1951, but was twice suspended by Nepalese monarchs, in 1960 and 2005; the Nepalese Civil War in the 1990s and early 2000s resulted in the proclamation of a secular republic in 2008, ending the world's last Hindu monarchy. The Constitution of Nepal, adopted in 2015, establishes Nepal as a federal secular parliamentary republic divided into seven provinces.
Nepal was admitted to the United Nations in 1955, friendship treaties were signed with India in 1950 and the People's Republic of China in 1960. Nepal hosts the permanent secretariat of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, of which it is a founding member. Nepal is a member of the Non Aligned Movement and the Bay of Bengal Initiative; the military of Nepal is the fifth largest in South Asia. Local legends have it that a Hindu sage named "Ne" established himself in the valley of Kathmandu in prehistoric times, that the word "Nepal" came into existence as the place was protected by the sage "Nemi", it is mentioned in Vedic texts. According to the Skanda Purana, a rishi called. In the Pashupati Purana, he is mentioned as a protector, he is said to have taught there. The name of the country is identical in origin to the name of the Newar people; the terms "Nepāl", "Newār", "Newāl" and "Nepār" are phonetically different forms of the same word, instances of the various forms appear in texts in different times in history.
Nepal is the learned Sanskrit form and Newar is the colloquial Prakrit form. A Sanskrit inscription dated 512 CE found in Tistung, a valley to the west of Kathmandu, contains the phrase "greetings to the Nepals" indicating that the term "Nepal" was used to refer to both the country and the people, it has been suggested that "Nepal" may be a Sanskritization of "Newar", or "Newar" may be a form of "Nepal". According to another explanation, the words "Newar" and "Newari" are vulgarisms arising from the mutation of P to V, L to R. Neolithic tools found in the Kathmandu Valley indicate that people have been living in the Himalayan region for at least eleven thousand years. Nepal is first mentioned in the late Vedic Atharvaveda Pariśiṣṭa as a place exporting blankets, in the post-Vedic Atharvashirsha Upanishad. In Samudragupta's Allahabad Pillar it is mentioned as a border country; the Skanda Purana has a separate chapter, known as "Nepal Mahatmya", with more details. Nepal is mentioned in Hindu texts such as the Narayana Puja.
Legends and ancient texts that mention the region now known as Nepal reach back to the 30th century BC. The Gopal Bansa were one of the earliest inhabitants of Kathmandu valley; the earliest rulers of Nepal were the Kiratas, peoples mentioned in Hindu texts, who ruled Nepal for many centuries. Various sources mention up to 32 Kirati kings. Around 500 BCE, small kingdoms and confederations of clans arose in the southern regions of Nepal. From one of these, the Shakya polity, arose a prince who renounced his status to lead an ascetic life, founded Buddhism, came to be known as Gautama Buddha. By 250 BCE, the southern regions had come under the influence of the Maurya Empire of North India and became a vassal state under the Gupta Empire in the 4th century CE. There is a quite detailed description of the kingdom of Nepal in the account of the renowned Chinese Buddhist pilgrim monk Xuanzang, dating from about 645 CE. Stone inscriptions in the Kathmandu Valley are important sources for the history of Nepal.
The kings of the Lichhavi dynasty have been found to have r
Urdu —or, more Modern Standard Urdu—is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language. It is the official national lingua franca of Pakistan. In India, it is one of the 22 official languages recognized in the Constitution of India, having official status in the six states of Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal, as well as the national capital territory of Delhi, it is a registered regional language of Nepal. Apart from specialized vocabulary, spoken Urdu is mutually intelligible with Standard Hindi, another recognized register of Hindustani; the Urdu variant of Hindustani received recognition and patronage under British rule when the British replaced the local official languages with English and Hindustani written in Nastaʿlīq script, as the official language in North and Northwestern India. Religious and political factors pushed for a distinction between Urdu and Hindi in India, leading to the Hindi–Urdu controversy. According to Nationalencyklopedin's 2010 estimates, Urdu is the 21st most spoken first language in the world, with 66 million speakers.
According to Ethnologue's 2017 estimates, along with standard Hindi and the languages of the Hindi belt, is the 3rd most spoken language in the world, with 329.1 million native speakers, 697.4 million total speakers. Urdu, like Hindi, is a form of Hindustani, it evolved from the medieval Apabhraṃśa register of the preceding Shauraseni language, a Middle Indo-Aryan language, the ancestor of other modern Indo-Aryan languages. Around 75% of Urdu words have their etymological roots in Sanskrit and Prakrit, 99% of Urdu verbs have their roots in Sanskrit and Prakrit; because Persian-speaking sultans ruled the Indian subcontinent for a number of years, Urdu was influenced by Persian and to a lesser extent, which have contributed to about 25% of Urdu's vocabulary. Although the word Urdu is derived from the Turkic word ordu or orda, from which English horde is derived, Turkic borrowings in Urdu are minimal and Urdu is not genetically related to the Turkic languages. Urdu words originating from Chagatai and Arabic were borrowed through Persian and hence are Persianized versions of the original words.
For instance, the Arabic ta' marbuta changes to te. Contrary to popular belief, Urdu did not borrow from the Turkish language, but from Chagatai, a Turkic language from Central Asia. Urdu and Turkish borrowed from Arabic and Persian, hence the similarity in pronunciation of many Urdu and Turkish words. Arabic influence in the region began with the late first-millennium Muslim conquests of the Indian subcontinent; the Persian language was introduced into the subcontinent a few centuries by various Persianized Central Asian Turkic and Afghan dynasties including that of Mahmud of Ghazni. The Turko-Afghan Delhi Sultanate established Persian as its official language, a policy continued by the Mughal Empire, which extended over most of northern South Asia from the 16th to 18th centuries and cemented Persian influence on the developing Hindustani; the name Urdu was first used by the poet Ghulam Hamadani Mushafi around 1780. From the 13th century until the end of the 18th century Urdu was known as Hindi.
The language was known by various other names such as Hindavi and Dehlavi. Hindustani in Persian script was used by Muslims and Hindus, but was current chiefly in Muslim-influenced society; the communal nature of the language lasted until it replaced Persian as the official language in 1837 and was made co-official, along with English. Hindustani was promoted in British India by British policies to counter the previous emphasis on Persian; this triggered a Hindu backlash in northwestern India, which argued that the language should be written in the native Devanagari script. This literary standard called "Hindi" replaced Urdu as the official language of Bihar in 1881, establishing a sectarian divide of "Urdu" for Muslims and "Hindi" for Hindus, a divide, formalized with the division of India and Pakistan after independence. There have been attempts to "purify" Urdu and Hindi, by purging Urdu of Sanskrit words, Hindi of Persian loanwords, new vocabulary draws from Persian and Arabic for Urdu and from Sanskrit for Hindi.
English has exerted a heavy influence on both as a co-official language. There are over 100 million native speakers of Urdu in India and Pakistan together: there were 52 million and 80.5 million Urdu speakers in India as per the 2001 and 2011 censuses respectively. However, a knowledge of Urdu allows one to speak with far more people than that, because Hindustani, of which Urdu is one variety, is the third most spoken language in the world, after Mandarin and English; because of the difficulty in distinguishing between Urdu and Hindi speakers in India and Pakistan, as well as estimating the number of people for whom Urdu is a second language, the estimated number of speakers is uncertain and controversial. Owing to interaction with other languages, Urdu has become localized wherever it is spoken, including in Pakistan. Urdu in Pakistan has undergone changes and has incorporated and borrowed many words from region
Geography of Nepal
Nepal measures about 800 kilometers along its Himalayan axis by 150 to 250 kilometers across. Nepal has an area of 147,181 square kilometers. Nepal is landlocked by China's Tibet Autonomous Region to the north. West Bengal's narrow Siliguri Corridor or Chicken's Neck separate Bangladesh. To the east are India and Bhutan. Nepal depends on India for goods transport facilities and access to the sea for most goods imported from China. For a small country, Nepal has tremendous geographic diversity, it rises from as low as 59 metres elevation in the tropical Terai—the northern rim of the Gangetic Plain, beyond the perpetual snow line to some 90 peaks over 7,000 metres including Earth's highest 8,848 metres Mount Everest or Sagarmatha. In addition to the continuum from tropical warmth to cold comparable to polar regions, average annual precipitation varies from as little as 160 millimetres in the rainshadow north of the Himalaya to as much as 5,500 millimetres on windward slopes. Along a south-to-north transect, Nepal can be divided into three belts: Terai and Himal.
In the other direction, it is divided into three major river systems, from east to west: Koshi, Gandaki/Narayani and Karnali, all tributaries of the Ganges. The Ganges-Yarlung Zangbo/Brahmaputra watershed coincides with the Nepal-Tibet border, however several Ganges tributaries rise inside Tibet. Terai is a low land region containing some hill ranges; the Terai region begins at the Indian border and includes the southernmost part of the flat, intensively farmed Gangetic Plain called the Outer Terai. By the 19th century and other resources were being exported to India. Industrialization based on agricultural products such as jute began in the 1930s and infrastructure such roadways and electricity were extended across the border before it reached Nepal's pahad; the Outer Terai is culturally more similar to adjacent parts of India's Bihar and Uttar Pradesh than to the Pahad of Nepal. Nepali is taught in schools and spoken in government offices, however the local population uses Maithali and Tharu languages.
The Outer Terai ends at the base of the first range of foothills called the Siwaliks or Churia. This range has a densely forested skirt of coarse alluvium called the bhabhar. Below the bhabhar, less permeable sediments force groundwater to the surface in a zone of springs and marshes. In Persian, terai refers to marshy ground. Before the use of DDT this was dangerously malarial. Nepal's rulers used. Above the bhabhar belt, the Siwaliks rise to about 700 metres with peaks as high as 1,000 metres, steeper on their southern flanks because of faults known as the Main Frontal Thrust; this range is composed of poorly consolidated, coarse sediments that do not retain water or support soil development so there is no agricultural potential and sparse population. In several places beyond the Siwaliks there are dūn valleys called Inner Terai; these valleys have productive soil but were dangerously malarial except to indigenous Tharu people who had genetic resistance. In the mid-1950s DDT came into use to suppress mosquitos and the way was open to settlement from the land-poor hills, to the detriment of the Tharu.
The terai ends and the Pahad begin at a higher range of foothills called the Mahabharat Range. Hilly is a mountain region which doesn't contain snow, it is situated south of the Himal, the hilly is betw altitude. This region begins at the Mahabharat Range where a fault system called the Main Boundary Thrust creates an escarpment 1,000 to 1,500 metres high, to a crest between 1,500 and 2,700 metres; these steep southern slopes are nearly uninhabited, thus an effective buffer between languages and culture in the Terai and hilly. Hindu Paharis populate river and stream bottoms that enable rice cultivation and are warm enough for winter/spring crops of wheat and potato; the urbanized Kathmandu and Pokhara valleys fall within the Hill region. Newars are an indigenous ethnic group with their own Tibeto-Burman language; the Newar were indigenous to the Kathmandu valley but have spread into Pokhara and other towns alongside urbanized Pahari. Other indigenous janajati ethnic groups -— natively speaking localized Tibeto-Burman languages and dialects -— populate hillsides up to about 2,500 metres.
This group includes Magar and Kham Magar west of Pokhara, Gurung south of the Annapurnas, Tamang around the periphery of Kathmandu Valley and Rai, Koinch Sunuwar and Limbu further east. Temperate and subtropical fruits are grown as cash crops. Marijuana was grown and processed into Charas until international pressure persuaded the government to outlaw it in 1976. There is increasing reliance on animal husbandry with elevation, using land above 2,000 metres for summer grazing and moving herds to lower elevations in winter. Grain production has not kept pace with population growth at elevations above 1,000 metres where colder temperatures inhibit double cropping. Food deficits drive emigration out of the pahad in search of employment; the Hilly ends where ridges begin rising out of the temperate climate zone into subalpine zone above 3,000 metres. Himal is a mountain region containing snow; the Mountain Region or Parbat begins where high ridges begin rising above 3,000 metres into the subalpi
Orders of magnitude (area)
This page is a progressive and labelled list of the SI area orders of magnitude, with certain examples appended to some list objects. Orders of magnitude
Province No. 2
Province No. 2 is a province in the southeastern region of Nepal, formed after the adoption of the Constitution of Nepal. It is Nepal's second most populous province, smallest province by area, it borders Province No. 1 to the east, Province No. 3 to the north, India to the south. It has an area of 9,661 km2 with a population of 5,404,145 per the 2011 Census of Nepal, making it most densely populated province of Nepal; the Koshi River and Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve acts as provincial demarcation border between Province 2 and Province 1 in the east. And the demarcation line between Chitwan National Park and Parsa National Park acts as provincial demarcation border between Province 2 and Province 3 in the west; the province includes eight districts from Saptari District in the east to Parsa District in the west. The majority of the province's population speaks Maithili, Bhojpuri and Nepali; the Capital city, a sub-metropolitan city of Janakpur known as Janakpurdham, is a centre for religious and cultural tourism.
It is thought to have been the capital of the Videha dynasty that ruled Mithila region in ancient times. The first urban planned municipality of Nepal, Rajbiraj, is the oldest municipality of the Terai belt of Nepal; the town is believed to have been named after the ancient Rajdevi temple, which dates back to the 1700s. The metropolitan city of Birgunj is an economically important industrial centre and the only metropolitan city in the province; as per a 17 January 2018 cabinet meeting, Janakpur has been declared as the interim capital of Province No. 2. Mohammad Lalbabu Raut Gaddhi is the current Chief Minister; the region is surrounded by: The Sunsari District of Province No. 1 to the East. The Chitwan District of Province No. 3 to the West. The Makwanpur District and Sindhuli District of Province No. 3 and Udayapur District of Province No. 1 to the North. India to the South; as per Central Bureau of Statistics the province covers about 9,661 km2. of Nepal's total area of 147,181 km2. With total number of 5,404,145 inhabitants, it is the second most populous province in Nepal.
The province is located on flat plains of Terai, Chure or the Shiwalik Hills are the natural border of the province which falls in northern side. The southern side has an international border with the India. Koshi River on its eastern side acting as a natural border with Province No. 1. Province No. 2 has eight districts in a series. Koshi River, Bagmati River, Kamla River, Lakhandei River and Bishnumati River are the main rivers of the province; the Governor acts as the head of the province while the Chief Minister is the head of the provincial government. The Chief Judge of the Janakpur High Court is the head of the judiciary; the present Governor, Chief Minister and Chief Judge are Ratneshwar Lal Kayastha, Mohammad Lalbabu Raut and Udaya Prakash Chapagain. The province has 107 provincial assembly constituencies and 32 House of Representative constituencies. Province No. 2 has a unicameral legislature, like all of the other provinces in Nepal. The term length of provincial assembly is five years.
The Provincial Assembly of Province No. 2 is temporarily housed at the District Education Office in Janakpur. Province No. 2 is divided into eight districts. A district is administrated by the head of the District Coordination Committee and the District Administration Officer; the districts are further dived to rural municipalities. The municipalities include one metropolitan city, three sub-metropolitan cities and 73 municipalities. There are 59 rural municipalities in the province. Province No. 2 has no difficult terrains still the transportation has not been well developed in the region due to lack of investments and negligence. The major connecting link for the province is the Mahendra Highway which runs longitudinally across the province. All major cities of the province remain disconnected from this highway. Janakpurdham, Birgunj AND Gaur lie 25,10,24 and 42 kilometres south of the Mahendra Highway, respectively; the Tribhuvan Highway does not cross as much of the province as the Mahendra Highway, but it is most important link as it connects the province to Kathmandu and to the India.
The starting point of Tribhuvan Highway i.e. Birgunj is the most important International Gateway and trade way for this province and entire country and hence known as "The Gateway of Nepal". In terms of revenue generation, Birjung custom point is the largest. Birendra highway whhich is connected to Mahendra highway from Headquarter of Rautahat district Gaur to the Chandranigahpur. Which is 42km in length. Mahendra Highway - Part Postal Highway - Part Tribhuvan Highway - Part Birendra Highway - part A few other railway projects are under progress in the province no. 2. All these projects are of Nepal Railways. Government of Nepal has proposed Janakpur as a Main Station for 1024 km east-west Metro Railway project and further be extended to India and China for connecting Nepal Railways with Indian Railways and China Railway for business and tourism promotion. Janakpur to Lhasa Bardibas, Janakpur to Jainagar, Bihar Janakpur to Kathmandu Janakpur to Biratnagar Janakpur to Nepalgunj Janakpur to Birgunj Province No. 2 has 3 airports: Rajbiraj Airport, in Rajbiraj Janakpur Airport in Janakpur.
Simara Airport in Pipara Simara close to Birganj. Nijgadh International Airport in Bara district. List of provinces of Nepal List of districts of Nepal
Gaunpalika or gaupalika is the newly formed lower administrative division in Nepal. The Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local Development dissolved the existing village development committees and announced the establishment of this new local body. There are 460 rural municipalities; the main purpose of a gaunpalika is similar to that of a village development committee. Besides this, this division has the authority to collect various taxes like entertainment tax, business tax and residential tax at the local level; the Village Development Committee was dissolved on 10 March 2017. Panchayat was dissolved and turned into VDC by the Constitution of Nepal 1990. According to the English translation of the Constitution of Nepal, the term "gaunpalika" has been used as "village body". However, the Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local Development explained that the term "rural municipality" was coined after opinions from experts and diverse sources; the chief is the head of a rural municipality. A total of 744 chiefs were selected by the government in 10 March 2017.
The rural municipalities will have an annual budget of at least Rs 10 million. Village development committees of Nepal topics
The Terai is a lowland region in southern Nepal and northern India that lies south of the outer foothills of the Himalayas, the Siwalik Hills, north of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. This lowland belt is characterised by tall grasslands, scrub savannah, sal forests and clay rich swamps. In northern India, the Terai spreads from the Yamuna River eastward across Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar; the Terai is part the Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands ecoregion. The corresponding lowland region in West Bengal, Bangladesh and Assam in the Brahmaputra River basin is called'Dooars'. In Nepal, the Terai stretches over 33,998.8 km2, about 23.1% of Nepal's land area, lies at an altitude of between 67 and 300 m. The region comprises more than 50 wetlands. North of the Terai rises a narrow but continuous belt of forest about 8 -- 12 km wide. In Hindi the region is called तराई,'tarāī' meaning "foot-hill". In Nepali, the region is called तराइ'tarāi' meaning "the low-lying land, plain" and "the low-lying land at the foot of the Himālayas".
The region's name in Urdu is ترائي'tarāʼī' meaning "lands lying at the foot of a watershed" or "on the banks of a river. The Terai is crossed by the large perennial Himalayan rivers Yamuna, Sarda, Karnali and Kosi that have each built alluvial fans covering thousands of square kilometres below their exits from the hills. Medium rivers such as the Rapti rise in the Mahabharat Range; the geological structure of the region consists of old and new alluvium, both of which constitute alluvial deposits of sand, silt and coarse fragments. The new alluvium is renewed every year by fresh deposits brought down by active streams, which engage themselves in fluvial action. Old alluvium is found rather away from river courses on uplands of the plain where silting is a rare phenomenon. A large number of small and seasonal rivers flow through the Terai, most of which originate in the Siwalik Hills; the soil in the Terai is fine to medium textured. Forest cover in the Terai and hill areas has decreased at an annual rate of 1.3% between 1978 and 1979, 2.3% between 1990 and 1991.
With deforestation and cultivation increasing, a permeable mixture of gravel and sand evolves, which leads to a sinking water table. But where layers consist of clay and fine sediments, the groundwater rises to the surface and heavy sediment is washed out, thus enabling frequent and massive floods during monsoon, such as the 2008 Bihar flood; the reduction in slope as rivers exit the hills and transition from the sloping Bhabhar to the nearly level Terai causes current to slow and the heavy sediment load to fall out of suspension. This deposition process creates multiple channels with shallow beds, enabling massive floods as monsoon-swollen rivers overflow their low banks and shift channels. Many areas show erosion such as gullies. There are several differences between the climate on the western edge of the Terai at Chandigarh in India and at Biratnagar in Nepal near the eastern edge. Moving inland and away from monsoon sources in the Bay of Bengal, the climate becomes more continental with a greater difference between summer and winter.
In the far western Terai, five degrees latitude further north, the coldest months' average is 3 °C cooler. Total rainfall markedly diminishes from east to west; the monsoon arrives is much less intense and ends sooner. However, winters are wetter in the west. In India, the Terai extends over the states of Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal; these are the districts of these states that are on the Indo-Nepal border: Haryana: Panchkula district Uttarakhand: Haridwar district, Udham Singh Nagar and Nainital districts Uttar Pradesh: Pilibhit district, Lakhimpur Kheri district, Bahraich district, Shravasti district, Balrampur district, Siddharthnagar district, Maharajganj district Bihar: West Champaran district, East Champaran district, Sitamarhi district, Madhubani district, Supaul district, Araria district, Kishanganj district West Bengal: Siliguri subdivision of Darjeeling district, Jalpaiguri Sadar subdivision of Jalpaiguri district The Terai in Nepal is differentiated into "Inner" and "Outer" Terai and includes 20 districts.
The Inner Terai consists of five elongated valleys located between the Mahabharat and Shivalik ranges. From north-west to south-east these valleys are: Surkhet Valley in the Surkhet district, north of the Kailali and Bardiya districts. Most of these valleys are 5 -- 10 up to 100 km long; the Outer Terai extends to the Indo-Gangetic plain. In the Far-Western Region, Nepal it comprises the Kanchanpur and Kailali districts, in the Mid-Western Region, Nepal Bardiya and Banke districts. Farther east, the Outer Terai comprises the Kapilvastu, Nawalparasi, Bara, Sarlahi, Dhanusa, Saptari, Sunsari and Jhapa districts. East of Banke the Nepalese Outer Terai is interrupted where the international border swings north and follows the edge of the Siwaliks adjacent to Deukhuri Valley. Here the Outer Terai is in Uttar Pradesh's Shravasti and Balrampur districts. East of Deukhuri the