click links in text for more info


Parsis or Parsees are an ethnoreligious group who migrated to the Indian subcontinent from Persia during the Muslim conquest of Persia of CE 636–651. Zoroastrianism is the ethnic religion of the Parsi people. According to the Qissa-i Sanjan, Parsis migrated from Sasanian Empire to Gujarat, where they were given refuge, between the 8th and 10th century CE to avoid persecution following the Muslim conquest of Persia. At the time of the Muslim conquest of Persia, the dominant religion of the region was Zoroastrianism. Iranians such as Babak Khorramdin rebelled against Muslim conquerors for 200 years. During this time many Iranians chose to preserve their religious identity by fleeing from Persia to India; the word پارسیان, pronounced "Parsian", i.e. "Parsi" in the Persian language means Persian. Note that Farsi is an arabization of the word Parsi, used as an endonym of Persian, Persian language is spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and some other former regions of the Persian Empire; the long presence of the Parsis in India distinguishes them from the smaller Zoroastrian Indian community of Iranis, who are much more recent arrivals descended from Zoroastrians fleeing the repression of the Qajar dynasty and the general social and political tumult of late 19th- and early 20th-century Iran.

According to the Encyclopædia Britannica,Parsi spelled Parsee, member of a group of followers in India of the Persian prophet Zoroaster. The Parsis, whose name means "Persians", are descended from Persian Zoroastrians who emigrated to India to avoid religious persecution by the Muslims, they live chiefly in Mumbai and in a few towns and villages to the south of Mumbai, but a few minorities nearby in Karachi and Chennai. There is a sizeable Parsee population in Pune as well in Bangalore. A few Parsee families reside in Kolkata and Hyderabad. Although they are not speaking, a caste, since they are not Hindus, they form a well-defined community; the exact date of the Parsi migration is unknown. According to tradition, the Parsis settled at Hormuz on the Persian Gulf but finding themselves still persecuted they set sail for India, arriving in the 8th century; the migration may, in fact, have taken place as late in both. They settled first at Diu in Kathiawar but soon moved to South Gujarāt, where they remained for about 800 years as a small agricultural community.

The term Pārsi, which in the Persian language is a demonym meaning "inhabitant of Pārs" and hence "ethnic Persian", is not attested in Indian Zoroastrian texts until the 17th century. Until that time, such texts use the Persian-origin terms Zartoshti "Zoroastrian" or Vehdin " the good religion"; the 12th-century Sixteen Shlokas, a Sanskrit text in praise of the Parsis, is the earliest attested use of the term as an identifier for Indian Zoroastrians. The first reference to the Parsis in a European language is from 1322, when a French monk, Jordanus refers to their presence in Thane and Bharuch. Subsequently, the term appears in the journals of many European travelers, first French and Portuguese English, all of whom used a Europeanized version of an local language term. For example, Portuguese physician Garcia de Orta observed in 1563 that "there are merchants... in the kingdom of Cambaia... known as Esparcis. We Portuguese call them Jews, they are Gentios." In an early 20th-century legal ruling, Justices Davar and Beaman asserted that "Parsi" was a term used in Iran to refer to Zoroastrians.

Notes that in much the same way as the word "Hindu" was used by Iranians to refer to anyone from the Indian subcontinent, "Parsi" was used by the Indians to refer to anyone from Greater Iran, irrespective of whether they were ethnic Persian people. In any case, the term "Parsi" itself is "not an indication of their Iranian or'Persian' origin, but rather as indicator – manifest as several properties – of ethnic identity". Moreover, if heredity were the only factor in a determination of ethnicity, the Parsis would count as Parthians according to the Qissa-i Sanjan; the term "Parseeism" or "Parsiism" is attributed to Abraham Hyacinthe Anquetil-Duperron, who in the 1750s, when the word "Zoroastrianism" had yet to be coined, made the first detailed report of the Parsis and of Zoroastrianism, therein mistakenly assuming that the Parsis were the only remaining followers of the religion. In addition to above, the term "Parsi" existed before they moved to India: The earliest reference to the Parsis is found in the Assyrian inscription of Shalmaneser III.

Darius the Great establishes this fact when he records his Parsi ancestry for posterity, “parsa parsahya puthra ariya ariyachitra”, meaning, “a Parsi, the son of a Parsi, an Aryan, of Aryan family. In Outlines of Parsi History, Dasturji Hormazdyar Dastur Kayoji Mirza, Bombay 1987, pp. 3-4 writes, “According to the Pahlavi text of Karnamak i Artakhshir i Papakan, the Indian astrologer refers to Artakhshir as khvatay parsikan ‘the king of the Parsis’. Herodotus and Xenophon, the two great historians who lived in the third and fourth centuries BC referred to Iranians as Parsis. In ancient Persia, Zoroaster taught that good and evil were opposite forces and the battle between them is more or less evenly matched. A person should always be vigilant to align with forces of light. According to the asha or the righteousness an

Bacteriophage MS2

The bacteriophage MS2 is an icosahedral, positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that infects the bacterium Escherichia coli and other members of the Enterobacteriaceae. MS2 is a member of a family of related bacterial viruses that includes bacteriophage f2, bacteriophage Qβ, R17, GA. In 1961, MS2 was isolated by Alvin John Clark and recognized as an RNA-containing phage similar to bacteriophage f2. In 1976, the MS2 genome was the first genome to be sequenced; this was accomplished by Walter Fiers and his team, building upon their earlier milestone in 1972 of the first gene to be sequenced, the MS2 coat protein. These sequences were determined at the RNA level, whereas the next landmark achievement, the sequence of the bacteriophage ΦX174 genome in 1977, was determined using DNA; the first effort at a statistical analysis of the MS2 genome was a search for patterns in the nucleotide sequence. Several non-coding sequences were identified, however at the time of this investigation, the functions of the non-coding patterns were unknown.

The MS2 genome is one of the smallest known, consisting of 3569 nucleotides of single-stranded RNA. It encodes just four proteins: the maturation protein, the lysis protein, the coat protein, the replicase protein; the gene encoding lysis protein overlaps both the 3'-end of the upstream gene and the 5'-end of the downstream gene, was one of the first known examples of overlapping genes. The positive-stranded RNA genome serves as messenger RNA, is translated upon viral uncoating within the host cell. Although the four proteins are encoded by the same messenger/viral RNA, they are not all expressed at the same levels. An MS2 virion is about 27 nm in diameter, as determined by electron microscopy, it consists of one copy of the maturation protein and 180 copies of the coat protein arranged into an icosahedral shell with triangulation number T=3, protecting the genomic RNA inside. The virion has an isoelectric point of 3.9. The structure of the coat protein is a five-stranded β-sheet with a hairpin.

When the capsid is assembled, the helices and hairpin face the exterior of the particle, while the β-sheet faces the interior. MS2 infects enteric bacteria carrying the fertility factor, a plasmid that allows cells to serve as DNA donors in bacterial conjugation. Genes on the F plasmid lead to the production of an F pilus. MS2 attaches to the side of the pilus via its single maturation protein; the precise mechanism by which phage RNA enters the bacterium is unknown. Once the viral RNA has entered the cell, it begins to function as a messenger RNA for the production of phage proteins; the gene for the most abundant protein, the coat protein, can be translated. The translation start of the replicase gene is hidden within RNA secondary structure, but can be transiently opened as ribosomes pass through the coat protein gene. Replicase translation is shut down once large amounts of coat protein have been made; the start of the maturation protein gene is accessible in RNA being replicated but hidden within RNA secondary structure in the completed MS2 RNA.

The lysis protein gene can only be initiated by ribosomes that have completed translation of the coat protein gene and "slip back" to the start of the lysis protein gene, at about a 5% frequency. Replication of the plus-strand MS2 genome requires synthesis of the complementary minus strand RNA, which can be used as a template for synthesis of a new plus strand RNA. MS2 replication has been much less well studied than replication of the related bacteriophage Qβ because the MS2 replicase has been difficult to isolate, but is to be similar; the formation of the virion is thought to be initiated by binding of maturation protein to the MS2 RNA. The assembly of the icosahedral shell or capsid from coat proteins can occur in the absence of RNA. Bacterial lysis and release of newly formed virions occurs when sufficient lysis protein has accumulated. Lysis protein forms pores in the cytoplasmic membrane, which leads to loss of membrane potential and breakdown of the cell wall; the lysis protein is known to bind to DnaJ via an important P330 residue.

A LS dipeptide motif on the L protein is found throuout the genus Levivirus and appears to be essential to the lysis activity, although their different locations suggest that they have evolved independently. Since 1998, the MS2 operator hairpin and coat protein have found utility in the detection of RNA in living cells. MS2 and other viral capsids are currently under investigation as agents in drug delivery, tumor imaging, light harvesting applications. MS2, due to its structural similarities to noroviruses, its similar optimum proliferation conditions, non-pathogenicity to humans, has been used as substitute for noroviruses in studies of disease transmission. Bacteriophage f2 bacteriophage Qβ Phi-X174 phage Bacteriophage Complete genome

Charles Chalmers

Charles Chalmers is a saxophonist, session musician, backup singer and producer. He has written several hit songs for many recording artists, has arranged & performed on many grammy winning recordings. Seven of those recordings are in the Grammy Hall of Fame: Al Green's "Let's Stay together", he holds an Album of the Century award for his work on Aretha Franklin's, "I Ain't Never Loved a Man the Way that I Love You." Charlie Chalmers began playing music in his high school marching band. By age 19, he had worked extensively with Charlie Rich. Chalmers came to the attention of Bill Black. Not long after working with Black, Willie Mitchell asked Chalmers to play on some of his recordings. Chalmers played lead sax on Mitchell's instrumental, "Soul Serenade". Mitchell called Chalmers to work on his productions, not only as a saxophone player, but as an arranger and back up singer. Chalmers helped arrange and sang backup on "Let's Stay Together" by Al Green with a group that came to be called Rhodes, Chalmers, & Rhodes.

They sang on Green's album, I Can't Stop, produced by Mitchell, for Blue Note Records. Before recording with Al Green, Chalmers was asked to go to Muscle Shoals, Alabama, to play on a Wilson Pickett recording date for Atlantic Records. "Land of a Thousand Dances" and " Mustang Sally" were two of the songs he recorded with Pickett that week, it was that Chalmers met Jerry Wexler and Tom Dowd. Chalmers arranged the horns and played sax on many Aretha Franklin songs, including "I Ain't Never Loved A Man", "Respect", "Do Right Woman", "Chain of Fools", "Dr. Feel Good", "Natural Woman". Rick Hall, of Fame Recording greatly influenced Chalmers' career producing for Chess Records, Chalmers' Sax and the Single Girl. After Chalmers sang on Paul Anka's big hit" Having My Baby", he performed live dates with Anka in Las Vegas for three years at Caesar's Palace. Chalmers located a studio in Las Vegas. After working for several years in Vegas and his group were called to Miami to do some sessions at Criteria Studios.

For the next few years, they recorded with artists including Andy Gibb, The Bee Gees, Fire Fall, Harry Chapin, John Mellencamp and K. C. and the Sunshine Band. In 1989, Mel Tillis asked Chalmers to work with him at his new theatre in Missouri. After two years, Chalmers built a recording studio in Branson. Charlie Chalmers now resides in Branson, where he produces in his studio, "Branson Recording & Music Productions", he recorded. Chalmers is married to Josie and in 2008 they had a son; as a songwriter and music publisher, Charlie Chalmers had a #1 hit record by Conway Twitty: "The Clown". Among Chalmers' songs are "One Woman", on the Isaac Hayes album Hot Buttered Soul, "One Big Unhappy Family", on the album The Isaac Hayes Movement. Both albums are double Platinum sellers. "Alice Is In Wonderland" is on The Oak Ridge Boys' Deliver. Al Green recorded "One Woman" on his Green Is Blues album; the Staple Singers recorded "City In The Sky" for their City In The Sky album, Boz Scaggs recorded "Look What I Got" on his self-titled Atlantic album Boz Scaggs, Etta James recorded the popular "It Hurts Me So Much" on the album Tell Mama for Chess Records.

Http:// Charlie's Allmusic entry


Burnum, an archaeological site, was a Roman Legion camp and town. It is located 2.5 km north of Kistanje, in inland Dalmatia, Croatia. The remains include a praetorium, the foundations of several rooms, the amphitheatre and the aqueduct. Burnum is popularly called Hollow Church and is one of many ruins in the Balkans identified in folklore as Traianus' Town. Only two of the original five arches have been preserved; the Roman writer Plinius wrote about Burnum as "fortress distinguished in wars." - "In hoc tractu sunt Burnum, Tribulium nobilitata proeliis castella." The Pagana chart from the 16th century presented marked traits of Burnum as the ancient locality, but it did not reach archeological interest until the 19th century, when it occupied the attention of renowned Croatian archaeologists, father Lujo Marun and father Frane Bulić. The first excavations were conducted by Austrian archaeologists, it is assumed that Burnum originates from the year 33 BC, but it is more that it was established a few decades later.

Several Roman legions were located there in succession, the first one was Legio XX Valeria Victrix from the beginning of the Pannonian uprising in AD 6-9. The reason for its location was the need for the control of traffic around the Krka River. Building was initiated by the Roman governor for Dalmatia Publius Cornelius Dolabella and continued by the Emperor Claudius; the camp gained its final shape during the reign of Claudius around 50 AD. Legio XI Claudia Pia Fidelis left the camp some time between AD 42 and 67 AD 56-57 and was succeeded by Legio IIII Flavia Felix. According to some sources, a rebellion of Lucius Arruntius Camillus Scribonianus against the emperor Claudius in AD 42 was started at this camp as well. After the last Roman legions had left the camp, it developed into an urban settlement; the camp was destroyed when the emperor Justinian attempted to take it back from the Ostrogoths in the 6th century. The Plavno Polje is an underground aqueduct, so that water stayed cool in the summer and could not freeze in the winter.

It is about 32.6 kilometers long. 170m height-difference are between the town. It flowed 86 liters per second; the location is only archaeologically investigated. A pre-Roman Liburnian builder can not be excluded at the moment in accordance with previous studies. There are two old legends about the construction of this aqueduct; the first story is: Two men courted a woman. One man should build a town, the other man should build an aqueduct to this town, and who would be first, he would receive her as his wife. Both done but that one, who had built the town, that his town was not finished yet, so the other one should marry her. With the earth, dugged out at the building of the aqueduct, was built a hill and on the hill a village; the name of that one, who built the aqueduct, was Rade and so is the village called Radučka glavica. Another old legend about this aqueduct is: Selemnus, a beautiful young shepherd in those parts, was beloved by Argyra, the Nymph, from whom the town and fountain of that name were called.

And because they both had separated, but those story was never forgotten, the names remained in memory in Argyra and Selemnos near Korinth and in Argyruntum and Zrmanja. So the aqueduct stayed in memory; the major harbour of Liburnian navy since 5th century BC was Corynthia at eastern cape of Krk island. Marin Buovac: O natpisnoj građi rimskih amfteatara na prostoru istočnojadranske obale / On the inscriptions of Roman amphitheatres in the Eastern Adriatic seaboard, Vjesnik za arheologiju i povijest dalmatinsku, Vol. 105, No. 1, 2012. Marin Buovac: Duhovni svijet i božanstva gladijatora u sklopu rimskih amfiteatara na tlu današnje Hrvatske / The spiritual world and deities of gladiators in Roman amphitheatres in the territory of present-day Croatia, Vjesnik Arheološkog muzeja u Zagrebu, Vol. 46 - 2014. Str. 135 - 157. Marin Buovac: Rimski amfiteatri na tlu istočnog Jadrana i zaobalja / Römische Amphitheater auf dem ostadriatischen Gebiet und Hinterland, Histria Antiqua, vol. 22, Pula, 2013. Str. 129 - 156

Antwerpen-Centraal railway station

Antwerpen-Centraal is the main train station in the Belgian city of Antwerp. The station is operated by the NMBS; the original terminal station building was constructed between 1895 and 1905 as a replacement for the first terminus of the Brussels-Mechelen-Antwerp railway. The stone-clad building, with a vast dome above the waiting room hall, were designed by Louis Delacenserie; the viaduct into the station is a notable structure designed by local architect Jan Van Asperen. A plaque on the north wall bears an expression now antiquated in Dutch; the station is regarded as the finest example of railway architecture in Belgium, although the extraordinary eclecticism of the influences on Delacenserie's design had led to a difficulty in assigning it to a particular architectural style. In W. G. Sebald's novel Austerlitz an ability to appreciate the full range of the styles that might have influenced Delacenserie is used to illustrate the brilliance of the fictional architectural historian, the novel's protagonist.

In 2009 the American magazine Newsweek judged Antwerpen-Centraal the world's fourth greatest train station. In 2014 the British-American magazine Mashable awarded Antwerpen-Centraal the first place for the most beautiful railway station in the world; the iron and glass train hall was designed by Clément Van Bogaert, an engineer, covers an area of 12,000 square metres. The height of the station was once necessary for the smoke of steam locomotives; the roof of the train hall was made of steel. During World War II, severe damage was inflicted to the train hall by the impact of V-2 rockets, without destroying the structural stability of the building, according to the National Railway Company of Belgium, it has been claimed that the warping of the substructure due to a V-2 impact had caused constructional stresses. The impact remains visible due to a lasting wave-distortion in the roofing of the hall. In the mid-twentieth century, the building's condition had deteriorated to the point that its demolition was being considered.

The station was closed on 31 January 1986 for safety reasons, after which restoration work to the roof and façades was performed. The stress problems due to the impact of bombs during the war were solved by the use of polycarbonate sheets instead of glass, due to its elasticity and its low weight, which avoided the need for extra supporting pillars. After replacing or repairing steel elements, they were painted burgundy. Copper was used in the renovation process of the roof. In 1998 large-scale reconstruction work began to convert the station from a terminus to a through station. A tunnel was excavated between Berchem station in the south of the city and Antwerpen-Dam station in the north, passing under Central station, with platforms on two underground levels; this allows Thalys, HSL 4 and HSL-Zuid high-speed trains to travel through Antwerp Central without the need to turn around. The major elements of the construction project were completed in 2007, the first through trains ran on 25 March 2007.

This complete project has cost €1.6 billion. The station was awarded a Grand Prix at the European Union Prize for Cultural Heritage / Europa Nostra Awards in 2011; the station has four levels and 14 tracks arranged as follows: Level +1: The original station, 6 terminating tracks, arranged as two groups of three and separated by a central opening allowing views of the lower levels Level 0: Houses ticketing facilities and commercial space Level −1: 7 m below street level, 4 terminating tracks, arranged in two pairs separated by the central opening. Level −2: 18 m below street level, 4 through tracks, leading to the two tracks of the tunnel under the city; the station is served by the following services: High speed services Amsterdam - Rotterdam - Antwerp - Brussels - Paris High speed services Amsterdam - Rotterdam - Antwerp - Brussels - Lille High speed services Amsterdam - Rotterdam - Antwerp - Brussels - Chambéry - Bourg-Saint-Maurice High speed services Amsterdam - Rotterdam - Antwerp - Brussels - Avignon - Marseille Intercity services Amsterdam - The Hague - Rotterdam - Roosendaal - Antwerp - Brussels Airport - Brussels Intercity services Antwerp - Sint-Niklaas - Gent - Bruges - Ostend Intercity services Antwerp - Sint-Niklaas - Gent - Kortrijk - Poperinge/Lille Intercity services Antwerp - Mechelen - Brussels - Nivelles - Charleroi Intercity services Antwerp - Mechelen - Brussels Airport - Leuven - Hasselt Intercity services Antwerp - Lier - Aarschot - Leuven Intercity services Antwerp - Lier - Aarschot - Hasselt - Liège Intercity services Antwerp - Mol - Hamont/Hasselt Intercity services Noorderkempen - Antwerp Intercity services Essen - Antwerp - Mechelen - Brussels Intercity services Antwerp - Mechelen - Brussels - Halle - Braine-le-Comte - Binche Intercity services Antwerp - Sint-Niklaas - Gent Intercity services Antwerp - Herentals - Turnhout Intercity services Antwerp - Mechelen - Brussels - Nivelles - Charleroi Local services Roosendaal - Essen - Antwerp - Puurs Local services Roosendaal - Essen - Antwerp Local services Antwerp - Aarschot - Leuven Local services Antwerp - Herentals - Mol Local services Antwerp - Sin

List of songs about Nashville, Tennessee

This is a list of songs set in or referring to the city of Nashville, Tennessee that were written or performed by notable musicians. "Crazy Town" by Jason Aldean, from Wide Open 2010, country rock "Congregation" by Foo Fighters ft. Zac Brown from Sonic Highways 2014 "Devil, Devil" by Eric Church from The Outsiders 2014 "Down on Music Row" by Dolly Parton "Dream Dream Dream" by Marty Stuart "East Nashville Skyline" by Todd Snider "Guitar Town" by Steve Earle "Greetings From Nashville" by Jason & the Scorchers "Home" by Ben Rector "It Can't Be Nashville Every Night" by The Tragically Hip "I Love This Town" by Bon Jovi "I Want" by Good Lovelies "Let's Go Burn Ole Nashville Down" by Jello Biafra "Lullaby" by Shawn Mullins "Nashville" by David Mead "Nashville" by David Houston "Nashville" by the Indigo Girls "Nashville" by Pupo "Nashville #1" by Audrey Auld Mezera "Nashville Blues" by The Delmore Brothers "Nashville Blues" by Earl Scruggs "Nashville Bum" by Waylon Jennings, from Nashville Rebel 1966 "Nashville Cats" by The Lovin' Spoonful 1966 "Nashville Grey Skies" by The Shires from England "Nashville Parthenon" by Casiotone for the Painfully Alone "The Nashville Scene" by Hank Williams Jr. from Five-O 1985 "Nashville Rash" by Dale Watson "Nashville Skyline Rag" by Bob Dylan 1969, country rock from Nashville Skyline "Nashville West" by The Byrds "Nashville Winter" by Nick 13 "Nashville Without You" by Tim McGraw "Never Goin' Back To Nashville" by John Stewart, The Lovin' Spoonful "No No Song" by Hoyt Axton sung by Ringo Starr "Magic Town" by Marty Stuart "Murder On Music Row" by Larry Cordle "Sally G" by Wings "South Nashville Blues" by Steve Earle "Strings of Nashville" by Pavement "Sundown in Nashville" by Marty Stuart "Welcome to Nashville" by Halfway to Hazard "West Coast Kid" by Toby Mac "West Nashville Boogie" by Steve Earle "West Nashville Grand Ballroom Gown" by Jimmy Buffett "Woke up in Nashville" by Seth Ennis "Wrong Side of Memphis" by Trisha Yearwood