Parterre (theater audience)
The word parterre comes from the French par and terre and literally translated means “on the ground. While parterre audiences differed in social status, inclusion of women, the occupation, wealth and social standing of parterre spectators differed depending on geographical location. Historians studying theater audiences in France have traditionally identified the parterre as the domain of lower-class males. More recently, scholars such as Jeffrey Ravel argue that parterre audiences were more heterogeneous than previously believed. For one, spectators who sat in the more expensive loges were free to meander into the parterre as they wished, as well, despite restrictions against women entering the parterre, cross-dressing was not uncommon. Englands parterre audiences differed from France because of the high number of elites. Historian Jennifer Hall-Witt provides several possible explanations for the character of Englands parterre. Also in England, unlike in France or Austria, parterre tickets were not the cheapest, the pit in England was more socially respectable than elsewhere in Europe.
If separation between “nobles and commoners” in English or French theaters was informal, in Austrian theaters, the parterre formally differentiated between elites and non-elites. For instance, in 1748, Viennas Kärntnertor theater partitioned a section of the standing parterre to create a second parterre behind the orchestra where only elites could sit, Parterre practices ranged from harmless gossiping to violent rioting. Talking, whistling, drunken brawls, and hissing, according to historian and musicologist James Johnson, Few complained about the noise and bustle. Eighteenth-century audiences considered music little more than an agreeable ornament of a magnificent spectacle, in which they played the principal part. ”It is not surprising then. For example, “it was in the parterre that Jean-Jacques Rousseau received “kicks in the rear” after his attack on French music. ”Responses could take less-intrusive forms of applause or booing. James Van Horn Melton writes that “audiences at Londons Drury Lane Theater expressed their dissatisfaction by pelting the stage with oranges.
”What influence did parterre audiences have. On many occasions, for example, audience members from the parterre succeeded in forcing performers to switch programs mid-act, or repeat their favourite arias. ”However, scholars caution against equating the parterre with “the public, ” especially since the latter term has changed meanings in the past two centuries. Thus, the public” that was the parterre was distinct from the people who could not afford even the cheapest theater tickets. These edicts where directed at the parterre, and many managers, music critics. Yet, parterre behaviour continued largely unchanged, in Rome and Parma, efforts to regulate start times were ineffective and ignored, especially by “the notorious minor abbots who littered the parterre
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
A monogram is a motif made by overlapping or combining two or more letters or other graphemes to form one symbol. Monograms are often made by combining the initials of an individual or a company, a series of uncombined initials is properly referred to as a cypher and is not a monogram. Monograms first appeared on coins, as early as 350BC, the earliest known examples are of the names of Greek cities who issued the coins, often the first two letters of the citys name. For example, the monogram of Achaea consisted of the letters alpha, a famous example of a monogram serving as an artists signature is the AD used by Albrecht Dürer. Over the centuries, monograms of the name of Jesus Christ have been used as Christian symbols, the IX monogram consists of the initial Greek letters of the name Jesus Christ, I for Ιησούς, and X for Χριστος. The IHS Christogram, denoting the first three letters of the Greek name of Jesus, is written as a cypher. Perhaps the most significant Christogram is the Chi Rho, formed from the first two letters of Χριστος, monograms of the names of monarchs are used as part of the insignia of public organizations in kingdoms, such as on police badges.
This indicates a connection to the ruler, the royal cypher, so familiar on pillar boxes, is not technically a monogram, since the letters are not combined. Royal monograms often appear on coins, frequently surmounted by a crown, countries that have employed this device in the past include Bulgaria, Great Britain, Russia and many German states. Today, several Danish coins carry the monogram of Margrethe II, the only countries using the Euro to have a royal monogram as their national identifying mark are Belgium and Monaco. In Thailand royal monograms appear on the flag for each major royal family member. An individuals monogram is often a very fancy piece of art used for stationery, for adorning luggage, for embroidery on clothing and these monograms may have two or three letters. Married or engaged couples may use two-letter monograms of their entwined initials, married couples may create three-letter monograms incorporating the initial of their shared surname. For example, the monogram MJA might be used for Michael, monogramming etiquette for the married couple varies according to the item being monogrammed.
Linens, for example, typically list the womans given initial first, followed by the shared surname initial. Monograms can often be found on dress shirts where they can be located in a number of different positions. Some companies and organizations adopt a monogram for a logo, usually with the letters of their acronym, for example, as well as having an official seal, and the Texas Longhorns logo, the University of Texas at Austin uses a UT monogram. The New York Yankees baseball team uses a monogram on their ball cap insignia
A herma, commonly in English herm, is a sculpture with a head, and perhaps a torso, above a plain, usually squared lower section, on which male genitals may be carved at the appropriate height. The form originated in Ancient Greece, and was adopted by the Romans, in the earliest times Greek divinities were worshiped in the form of a heap of stones or a shapeless column of stone or wood. In many parts of Greece there were piles of stones by the sides of roads, especially at their crossings, and on the boundaries of lands. The religious respect paid to such heaps of stones, especially at the meeting of roads, is shown by the custom of each passer-by throwing a stone on to the heap or anointing it with oil. Later there was the addition of a head and phallus to the column, before his role as protector of merchants and travelers, Hermes was a phallic god, associated with fertility, luck and borders. The surmounting heads were not, confined to those of Hermes, those of gods and heroes. In this case a compound was formed, Hermares, Hermanubis, Hermalcibiades, in Athens, where the hermai were most numerous and most venerated, they were placed outside houses as apotropes for good luck.
They would be rubbed or anointed with oil and adorned with garlands or wreaths. This superstition persists, for example the Porcellino bronze boar of Florence, in Roman and Renaissance versions, the body was often shown from the waist up. The form was used for portrait busts of famous public figures, especially writers like Socrates. Sappho appears on Ancient Greek herms, and anonymous female figures were used from the Renaissance on. In 415 BC, on a night shortly before the Athenian fleet was about to set sail for Syracuse during the Peloponnesian War and this was a horribly impious act and many people believed it threatened the success of the expedition. Though it was never proven, the Athenians at the time believed it was the work of saboteurs, either from Syracuse or Spartan sympathizers from Athens itself, one suspect was the writer Xenophon. The J. Paul Getty museum in Los Angeles has a collection of Roman Herma boundary marker stones in its stored collection. An Aesops fable makes fun of statue of Hermes, when a pious dog offers to anoint it, the god hastily assures his worshipper that this is not necessary
In art and literature, grotesque may refer to something that simultaneously invokes in an audience a feeling of uncomfortable bizarreness as well as sympathetic pity. More specifically, the forms on Gothic buildings, when not used as drain-spouts, should not be called gargoyles. The word first was used of paintings found on the walls of basements of Roman ruins that were called at that time Le Grotte due to their appearance. Spreading from Italian to the other European languages, the term was used largely interchangeably with arabesque and moresque for types of decorative patterns using curving foliage elements. Rémi Astruc has argued that there is an immense variety of motifs and figures. Beyond the current understanding of the grotesque as an aesthetic category, Astruc identifies the grotesque as a crucial, and potentially universal, anthropological device that societies have used to conceptualize alterity and change. Such designs were fashionable in ancient Rome, as fresco wall decoration, floor mosaics, the Roman wall decorations in fresco and delicate stucco were a revelation.
The first appearance of the word appears in a contract of 1502 for the Piccolomini Library attached to the duomo of Siena. Light scrolling grotesques could be ordered by confining them within the framing of a pilaster to give them more structure, giovanni da Udine took up the theme of grotesques in decorating the Villa Madama, the most influential of the new Roman villas. In the 16th century, such artistic license and irrationality was controversial matter, more familiar material for grotesques could be drawn from Ovids Metamorphoses. This large array provided a repertoire of elements that were the basis for artists across Europe, counter Reformation writers on the arts, notably Cardinal Gabriele Paleotti, bishop of Bologna, turned upon grottesche with a righteous vengeance. Vasari, echoing Vitruvius, described the style as follows, Grotesques are a type of extremely licentious, other 16th-century writers on grottesche included Daniele Barbaro, Pirro Ligorio and Gian Paolo Lomazzo. In the meantime, through the medium of engravings the grotesque mode of surface ornament passed into the European artistic repertory of the 16th century, from Spain to Poland.
Later Mannerist versions, especially in engraving, tended to lose that initial lightness and be more densely filled than the airy well-spaced style used by the Romans. Soon grottesche appeared in marquetry, in maiolica produced above all at Urbino from the late 1520s, in book illustration, in the 17th and 18th centuries the grotesque encompasses a wide field of teratology and artistic experimentation. The monstrous, for instance, often occurs as the notion of play, the sportiveness of the grotesque category can be seen in the notion of the preternatural category of the lusus naturae, in natural history writings and in cabinets of curiosities. The last vestiges of romance, such as the marvellous provide opportunities for the presentation of the grotesque in, for instance, the mixed form of the novel was commonly described as grotesque - see for instance Fieldings comic epic poem in prose. Grotesque ornament received an impetus from new discoveries of original Roman frescoes and stucchi at Pompeii
Saint-Germain-en-Laye is a commune in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France in north-central France. It is located in the suburbs of Paris,19.1 km from the centre of Paris. Inhabitants are called Saint-Germanois or Saint-Germinois, with its elegant tree-lined streets it is one of the more affluent suburbs of Paris, combining both high-end leisure spots and exclusive residential neighborhoods. Saint-Germain-en-Laye is a sub-prefecture of the department, because it includes the National Forest of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, it covers approximately 48 km2, making it the largest commune in the Yvelines. It occupies a large loop of the Seine, Saint-Germain-en-Laye lies at one of the western termini of Line A of the RER. Saint-Germain-en-Laye was founded in 1020 when King Robert the Pious founded a convent on the site of the present Church of Saint-Germain, in 1688, James II, King of England, exiled himself to the city due to religious conflicts in his own country. He spent the remainder of his days there, and died on 16 September 1701, prior to the French Revolution in 1789, it had been a royal town and the Château de Saint-Germain the residence of numerous French monarchs.
The old château was constructed in 1348 by King Charles V on the foundations of an old castle dating from 1238 in the time of Saint Louis, francis I was responsible for its subsequent restoration. In 1862, Napoleon III set up the Musée des Antiquités Nationales in the erstwhile royal château and this museum has exhibits ranging from Paleolithic to Celtic times. The Dame de Brassempouy sculpted on a mammoths ivory tusk around 23,000 years ago is the most famous exhibit in the museum, kings Henry IV and Louis XIII left their mark on the town. Louis XIV was born in the château, and established Saint-Germain-en-Laye as his residence from 1661 to 1681. Louis XIV turned over the château to James VII & II of Scotland and England after his exile from Britain after the Glorious Revolution in 1688, James lived in the Château for 13 years, and his daughter Louisa Maria Stuart was born in exile here in 1692. James II is buried in the Church of Saint-Germain, Saint-Germain-en-Laye is famous for its 2. 4-kilometre long stone terrace built by André Le Nôtre from 1669 to 1673.
The terrace provides a view over the valley of the Seine and, in the distance, during the French Revolution, the name was changed along with many other places whose names held connotations of religion or royalty. During his reign, Napoleon I established his cavalry officers training school in the Château-Vieux, the Treaty of Saint-Germain was signed in 1919 and was applied on July 16,1920. The treaty officially registered the breakup of the Habsburg empire, which recognized the independence of Czechoslovakia, Poland and the Kingdom of the Serbs, during the occupation from 1940 to 1944, the town was the headquarters of the German Army. Saint-Germain-en-Laye is served by Saint-Germain-en-Laye station on Paris RER line A and it is served by two stations on the Transilien Paris – Saint-Lazare suburban rail line, Saint-Germain – Bel-Air – Fourqueux and Saint-Germain – Grande Ceinture. Saint-Germain-en-Laye is served by Achères – Grand Cormier station on Paris RER line A and this station is located in the middle of the Forest of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, far away from the urbanized part of the commune
Bodysgallen Hall is a manor house in Conwy county borough, north Wales, near the village of Llanrhos. Since 2008 the house has been owned by The National Trust and it is a Grade I listed building, currently used as a hotel. This listed historical building derives primarily from the 17th century, and has additions. Bodysgallen was constructed as a house in the Middle Ages to serve as defensive support for nearby Conwy Castle. According to tradition, the site of Bodysgallen was the 5th century AD stronghold of Cadwallon Lawhir, King of Gwynedd, the ruins of Cadwallon Lawhirs residence are on a woodland knoll above the present Bodysgallen Hall. By 1835 it was a ruin totally overgrown by thorns and this possibly might have been one of three gwelyau, originally belonging to Gloddaeth. The site was first occupied, according to tradition, by Cadwallon Lawhir, Cadwallon Lawhir succeeded to the sovereignty of North Wales in AD442 and lived until 517, however there is no evidence for or against him having a court at Bodysgallen.
The 1620 block, built by Robert Wynn, finds its main entrance on the northwest exposure and has a 19th-century three storey gabled porch bay addition. On the ground floor the porch bay has a four-central headed doorway by first floor features of a transformed window, behind the porch, this doorway retains its original door and latch. On the southwest exposure the bay windows on both ground and first floor are of 17th century mullioned construct. Robert and Katherine Wynn owned the property in the early 17th century and they developed the present-day building core with severe rectilinear architecture with pink limestone mullions. The initials K. W. and R. W. appear in the 1620 date stone on the southwest gable, the largest rooms of the 17th century addition are the ground floor or terrace level low hall and the great hall immediately above. Both rooms feature an unusual southwest corner construction of a bay with windows on the south and west. Both fireplaces feature overmantels that display heraldic arms, in the great hall, these arms display the shouldered form rendered in Plas Mawr, an Elizabethan townhouse in Conwy founded by a branch of the Wynns.
The arms include the motto of the Mostyns, Auxilium Meum a Domino, Richard Mostyn, the High Sheriff of Carnarvonshire, as it was called then, owned Bodysgallen in Elizabethan times. On the marriage of Richard Mostyns daughter Margaret to Hugh Wynn that Bodysgallen, along with Berthdu, when Dr Hugh Wynn died in 1761, his daughter Margaret inherited Bodysgallen to add to her estates of Berthdu and Plas Mar. In 1776 she married Sir Roger Mostyn, 5th Baronet and thus returned Bodysgallen to the Mostyn lineage after 156 years of Wynn ownership, the first recorded history of the site is in the mid 14th century in the Record of Caernarvon. The core element of Bodysgallen Hall is the late 13th century watchtower and this five-storey tower is made of on site quarried pink sandstone with grit dressings and has a slate roof
Drumlanrig Castle is situated on the Queensberry Estate in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland. The category A listed castle is the Dumfriesshire home of the Duke and Duchess of Buccleuch and it is open to the public at set times. The Pink Palace of Drumlanrig, constructed between 1679 and 1689 from distinctive pink sandstone, is an example of late 17th-century Renaissance architecture, the first Duke of Queensberry, William Douglas, had the castle built on the site of an ancient Douglas stronghold overlooking the Nith Valley. The castle has 120 rooms,17 turrets and four towers, in 1984, aerial photography revealed the outline of a substantial Roman fort some 350 yards to the southeast of Drumlanrig Castle. The fort was excavated in 2004 by the Time Team television programme. The Madonna of the Yardwinder is currently on loan at the Scottish National Gallery, the stableyard houses the Stableyard Studios and cafe. The earliest record for Drumlanrig is from 1384, spelled Drumlangryg, there are a number of possible etymologies for the name.
It may represent Cumbric drum ridge + -lanerc small area of cleared woodland, the first element may be Gaelic druim ridge, either added to a Cumbric name or to Scots *lang-rigg long ridge. Tibbers Castle – a 12th-century motte-and-bailey in the Drumlanrig Castle estate Official website
Fontainebleau is a commune in the metropolitan area of Paris, France. It is located 55.5 kilometres south-southeast of the centre of Paris, Fontainebleau is a sub-prefecture of the Seine-et-Marne department, and it is the seat of the arrondissement of Fontainebleau. The commune has the largest land area in the Île-de-France region, together with the neighbouring commune of Avon and three other smaller communes, form an urban area of 39,713 inhabitants. This urban area is a satellite of Paris, inhabitants of Fontainebleau are called Bellifontains. Fontainebleau has been recorded in different Latinised forms, such as, Fons Bleaudi, Fons Bliaudi, Fons Blaadi in the 12th and 13th centuries and it became Fons Bellaqueus in the 17th century, which gave rise to the name of the inhabitants as Bellifontains. The name originates as a composite of two words, Fontaine– meaning spring, or fountainhead, followed by a person’s Germanic name Blizwald. This hamlet was endowed with a hunting lodge and a chapel by Louis VII in the middle of the twelfth century.
A century later, Louis IX, called Saint Louis, who held Fontainebleau in high esteem and referred to it as his wilderness, had a country house, philip the Fair was born there in 1268 and died there in 1314. In all, thirty-four sovereigns, from Louis VI, the Fat, to Napoleon III, the connection between the town of Fontainebleau and the French monarchy was reinforced with the transformation of the royal country house into a true royal palace, the Palace of Fontainebleau. On 18 October 1685, Louis XIV signed the Edict of Fontainebleau there, the result was that a large number of Protestants were forced to convert to the Catholic faith, killed, or forced into exile, mainly in the Low Countries, Prussia and in England. The 1762 Treaty of Fontainebleau, an agreement between France and Spain concerning the Louisiana territory in North America, was concluded here. Also, preliminary negotiations, held before the 1763 Treaty of Paris was signed, during the French Revolution, Fontainebleau was temporarily renamed Fontaine-la-Montagne, meaning Fountain by the Mountain.
On 20 June 1812, Pope Pius VII arrived at the château of Fontainebleau, after a transfer from Savona, accompanied by his personal physician. In poor health, the Pope was the prisoner of Napoleon, from June 1812 until 23 January 1814, the Pope never left his apartments. According to contemporary sources, the occasion was very moving, the 1814 Treaty of Fontainebleau stripped Napoleon of his powers and sent him into exile on Elba. Until the 19th century, Fontainebleau was a village and a suburb of Avon, later, it developed as an independent residential city. For the 1924 Summer Olympics, the town played host to the portion of the modern pentathlon event. This event took place near a golf course, Fontainebleau hosted the general staff of the Allied Forces in Central Europe and the land forces command, the air forces command was located nearby at Camp Guynemer
Buxus is a genus of about 70 species in the family Buxaceae. Common names include box or boxwood, centres of diversity occur in Cuba and Madagascar. They are slow-growing evergreen shrubs and small trees, growing to 2–12 m tall. The leaves are opposite, rounded to lanceolate, and leathery, they are small in most species, typically 1. 5–5 cm long and 0. 3-2.5 cm broad, the flowers are small and yellow-green, monoecious with both sexes present on a plant. The fruit is a small capsule 0. 5-1.5 cm long, containing small seeds. The African and American sections are genetically closer to other than to the Eurasian section. Europe, northwest Africa, Asia Africa, Madagascar Americas Box plants are grown as hedges. In Great Britain and Mainland Europe box is subject to damage from caterpillars of Diaphania perspectalis which can devastate a box hedge within a short time and this is a recently introduced species first noticed in Europe in 2007 and in the UK in 2008 but spreading. There were 3 UK reports of infestation in 2011,20 in 2014 and 150 in the first half of 2015, owing to its fine grain it is a good wood for fine wood carving, although this is limited by the small sizes available.
It is resistant to splitting and chipping, and thus useful for decorative or storage boxes, formerly, it was used for wooden combs. As a timber or wood for carving it is boxwood in all varieties of English. Owing to the high density of the wood, boxwood is often used for chess pieces, unstained boxwood for the white pieces and stained boxwood for the black pieces. The extremely fine endgrain of box makes it suitable for printing and woodcut blocks. In the 16th century, boxwood was used to create intricate decorative carvings, as of 2016, high quality wooden spoons have usually been carved from box, with beech being the usual cheaper substitute. Boxwood was once called dudgeon, and was used for the handles of dirks, due to its high density and resistance to chipping, boxwood is a relatively economical material, and has been used to make parts for various stringed instruments since antiquity. It is mostly used to make tailpieces, chin rests and tuning pegs, other woods used for this purpose are rosewood and ebony.
General Thomas F. Meagher decorated the hats of the men of the Irish Brigade with boxwood during the American Civil War, Boxwood blight Cydalima perspectalis - box tree moth Box / Royal Horticultural Society American Boxwood Society Revision of the genus Buxus in Madagascar
Wilton House is an English country house situated at Wilton near Salisbury in Wiltshire. It has been the seat of the Earls of Pembroke for over 400 years. The first recorded building on the site of Wilton House was a founded by King Egbert circa 871. Through the munificence of King Alfred, the priory was granted lands and manors until it became wealthy, however, by the time Wilton Abbey was dissolved in the Dissolution of the Monasteries set in motion by King Henry VIII, its prosperity was already on the wane. Following the seizure of the abbey, Henry presented it and its estates to William Herbert. William Herbert, the scion of a family in the Welsh marches, was a favourite of the king. Following a recommendation to King Henry by King Francis I of France, in 1538, Herbert married Anne Parr, daughter of Sir Thomas Parr of Kendal and sister of the future queen consort Catherine Parr and Sir William Parr, 1st Baron Parr of Kendal. The granting of a such as the Abbey of Wilton to Herbert was an accolade.
The first grants dated March and April 1542, include the site of the late monastery and these were given to William Herbert and Anne his wife for the term of their lives with certain reserved rents to King Henry VIII. Lady Anne had been a joint creator of the enterprise, Herbert immediately began to transform the deserted abbey into a fine house and symbol of his wealth. It has long claimed, without proof, that Hans Holbein the Younger re-designed the abbey as a rectangular house around a central courtyard. Holbein died in 1543, so his designs for the new house would have to have been very speedily executed indeed, if not by Holbein, it is certainly by the hand of a great master. Whoever the architect, nevertheless a great mansion arose, today only one other part of the Tudor mansion survives, the great tower in the centre of the east facade. With its central arch and three floors of windows above, the tower is slightly reminiscent of the entrance at Hampton Court. The Tudor house built by William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke, on the succession of the 4th Earl in 1630, he decided to pull down the southern wing and erect a new complex of staterooms in its place.
It is now that the great name associated with Wilton appears. While the remainder of the house is on three floors of equal value in the English style, the front has a low rusticated ground floor. Three small porches project at this level only, one at the centre, the next floor is the piano nobile, at its centre the great double-height Venetian window, ornamented at second floor level by the Pembroke arms in stone relief