The Partial Test Ban Treaty is the abbreviated name of the 1963 Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water, which prohibited all test detonations of nuclear weapons except for those conducted underground. It is abbreviated as the Limited Test Ban Treaty and Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, though the latter may refer to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, which succeeded the PTBT for ratifying parties. Negotiations focused on a comprehensive ban, but this was abandoned due to technical questions surrounding the detection of underground tests and Soviet concerns over the intrusiveness of proposed verification methods; the impetus for the test ban was provided by rising public anxiety over the magnitude of nuclear tests tests of new thermonuclear weapons, the resulting nuclear fallout. A test ban was seen as a means of slowing nuclear proliferation and the nuclear arms race. Though the PTBT did not halt proliferation or the arms race, its enactment did coincide with a substantial decline in the concentration of radioactive particles in the atmosphere.
The PTBT was signed by the governments of the Soviet Union, United Kingdom, United States in Moscow on 5 August 1963 before being opened for signature by other countries. The treaty formally went into effect on 10 October 1963. Since 123 other states have become party to the treaty. Ten states have signed but not ratified the treaty. Much of the stimulus for the treaty was increasing public unease about radioactive fallout as a result of above-ground or underwater nuclear testing given the increasing power of nuclear devices, as well as concern about the general environmental damage caused by testing. In 1952–53, the US and Soviet Union detonated their first thermonuclear weapons, far more powerful than the atomic bombs tested and deployed since 1945. In 1954, the US Castle Bravo test at Bikini Atoll had a yield of 15 megatons of TNT, more than doubling the expected yield; the Castle Bravo test resulted in the worst radiological event in US history as radioactive particles spread over more than 11,000 square kilometers, affected inhabited areas, sickened Japanese fishermen aboard the Lucky Dragon upon whom "ashes of death" had rained.
In the same year, a Soviet test sent radioactive particles over Japan. Around the same time, victims of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima visited the US for medical care, which attracted significant public attention. In 1961, the Soviet Union tested the Tsar Bomba, which had a yield of 50 megatons and remains the most powerful man-made explosion in history, though due to a efficient detonation fallout was limited. Between 1951 and 1958, the US conducted 166 atmospheric tests, the Soviet Union conducted 82, Britain conducted 21. In 1945, Britain and Canada made an early call for an international discussion on controlling atomic power. At the time, the US had yet to formulate a cohesive strategy on nuclear weapons. Taking advantage of this was Vannevar Bush, who had initiated and administered the Manhattan Project, but had a long-term policy goal of banning on nuclear weapons production; as a first step in this direction, Bush proposed an international agency dedicated to nuclear control. Bush unsuccessfully argued in 1952 that the US pursue a test ban agreement with the Soviet Union before testing its first thermonuclear weapon, but his interest in international controls was echoed in the 1946 Acheson–Lilienthal Report, commissioned by President Harry S. Truman to help construct US nuclear weapons policy.
J. Robert Oppenheimer, who had led Los Alamos National Laboratory during the Manhattan Project, exerted significant influence over the report in its recommendation of an international body that would control production of and research on the world's supply of uranium and thorium. A version of the Acheson-Lilienthal plan was presented to the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission as the Baruch Plan in June 1946; the Baruch Plan proposed that an International Atomic Development Authority would control all research on and material and equipment involved in the production of atomic energy. Though Dwight D. Eisenhower the Chief of Staff of the United States Army, was not a significant figure in the Truman administration on nuclear questions, he did support Truman's nuclear control policy, including the Baruch Plan's provision for an international control agency, provided that the control system was accompanied by "a system of free and complete inspection." The Soviet Union dismissed the Baruch Plan as a US attempt to secure its nuclear dominance, called for the US to halt weapons production and release technical information on its program.
The Acheson–Lilienthal paper and Baruch Plan would serve as the basis for US policy into the 1950s. Between 1947 and 1954, the US and Soviet Union discussed their demands within the United Nations Commission for Conventional Disarmament. A series of events in 1954, including the Castle Bravo test and spread of fallout from a Soviet test over Japan, redirected the international discussion on nuclear policy. Additionally, by 1954, both US and Soviet Union had assembled large nuclear stockpiles, reducing hopes of complete disarmament. In the early years of the Cold War, the US approach to nuclear control reflected a strain between an interest in controlling nuclear weapons and a belief that dominance in the nuclear arena given the size of Soviet conventional forces, was critical to US security. Interest in nuclear control and efforts to stall proliferation of we
Thomas K. Tellez is a renowned track and field coach, noted in particular because of his contributions to the sport in the areas of kinesiology and biomechanics. Tellez attended Whittier College as a student athlete and started coaching in the military in the 1950s, he coached at Buena Park High School and Whittier High School in California. He soon moved on to coaching positions at Fullerton Junior College in California, next for UCLA, where he was the field events coach. In 1976 he became the head coach at the University of Houston, where he ran the program until the late 1990s. During the 1980s and 1990s Tellez doubled as a coach for the Santa Monica Track Club, which produced some of the world's leading competitors, his most notable athlete was sprinter Carl Lewis. Tellez has coached such world class track and field athletes as Leroy Burrell, Mike Marsh, Kirk Baptiste, Joe DeLoach, Carol Lewis, Willie Banks, Mike Tully, Michelle Finn-Burrell, Frank Rutherford, many others. Tellez had many of his research papers published in coaching journals, helped design coaching education throughout the world.
He was the head coach of the United States Track and Field team at the 1991 World Championships in Tokyo. Tellez still holds clinics and consults with active coaches; the Tom Tellez Track at Carl Lewis International Complex at the University of Houston is named after Tellez. He was Inducted into the Texas Track and Field Coaches Hall of Fame, Class of 2011. In 2016, Tellez was awarded the Legend Coach Award by USA Track & Field
Prem Dhawan was an Indian lyricist, music composer and actor of Bollywood known for his patriotic songs for the lyrics and compositions for the 1965 Manoj Kumar starrer, Shaheed. He was a winner of the National Film Award for Best Lyrics in 1971 and was honoured by the Government of India in 1970 with Padma Shri, the fourth highest Indian civilian award. Prem Dhawan was born on 13 June 1923 at Ambala in the present day Haryana state of India to a Jail Superintendent working for the British government, he did his college studies in Lahore during which period he was involved with the activities of the Communist party of India. He started his career in Lahore in 1946 as Assistant of Composer Khwaja Khurshid Anwar in Khwaja Ahmad Abbas's film Aaj Aur Kal, he moved to Mumbai to join the Indian People's Theatre Association. His association with the Indian People's Theatre Association helped him to learn classical music under the renowned classical musician, Ravi Shankar. In 1946, he debuted as a lyricist with the movie, Dharti Ke Lal, the first of the several till his last film, the Hindi version of Apoorva Sagodharargal, in 1989.
In between, he wrote lyrics for a string of films such as Aaram, Aasman, Shola Aur Shabnam, Kabuliwala, Ek Phool Do Mali and Purab Aur Pachhim. He composed music for several films like Shaheed, reported to have enhanced the status of Dhawan and the lead actor of the film, Manoj Kumar; the film featured some of the hits of the time in Mera Rang De Basanti Chola. Dhawan, apart from his career as a lyricist and composer, acted in two films and Goonj Uthi Shehnai, he worked as a choreographer for seven films, though not with much success. The Government of India awarded him the civilian honour of Padma Shri in 1970, he won the National Film Award for Best Lyrics in 1971 for Nanak Dukhiya Sub Sansar. His career faded towards the eighties and did not have any notable contribution except for the 1989 dubbed movie, Apoorva Sagodharargal, he died on 7 May 2001, at the age following a cardiac arrest. Prem Dhawan on IMDb
Libby Szabo is an American politician and a former Republican member of the Colorado House of Representatives. She represented District 27 from January 12, 2011 until her resignation on January 29, 2015. Szabo is a member of the conservative lobbying group American Legislative Exchange Council, she is the organization's co-state chairperson with Bill Cadman. 2012 Szabo ran unopposed for the June 26, 2012 Republican Primary, winning with 4,969 votes, won the November 6, 2012 General election with 23,365 votes against Democratic nominee Tim Allport and her 2010 Libertarian opponent, Bud Martin. 2008 When Democratic Senator Sue Windels retired and left the Senate District 19 seat open, Szabo ran unopposed for the August 12, 2008 Republican Primary, winning with 5,857 votes, but lost the November 4, 2008 General election to Democratic Representative Evie Hudak. 2010 To challenge House District 27 incumbent Democratic Representative Sara Gagliardi, Szabo ran unopposed for the August 10, 2010 Republican Primary, winning with 5,884 votes, won the three-way November 2, 2010 General election with 14,852 votes against Democratic Representative Gagliardi and Libertarian candidate Bud Martin, who had run for a Senate seat in 2000.
Official page at the Colorado General Assembly Campaign site
Luke Nosek is a Polish-born American entrepreneur, notable for being a co-founder of PayPal. Łukasz Nosek was born in Gmina Tarnów, Poland. He earned a B. S. in Computer Engineering from the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. In the summer of 1995, while still in college, he co-founded SponsorNet New Media, Inc. along with fellow Illinois students Max Levchin and Scott Banister. Nosek worked for Netscape. In 1998, with Max Levchin, Peter Thiel, Elon Musk, Ken Howery, Nosek co-founded PayPal, serving as vice president of marketing and strategy, creating the company's "instant transfer" product. In his first conversation with Thiel, he told Thiel he had just registered to be cryonically suspended, in other words, that he would be subject to low-temperature preservation in case of his legal death in hopes that he might be revived by future medical technology. Thiel himself would follow Nosek's example. After PayPal went public and was sold to eBay for $1.5 billion in 2002, Nosek left the company to travel and pursue angel investing.
In 2005, with Thiel and Ken Howery, he started Founders Fund, a San Francisco-based venture capital firm with over $1bn under management. In July 2017, Nosek left Founders Fund to launch Gigafund, an investment fund focused on space exploration. Nosek was the first institutional investor in Elon Musk's SpaceX, sits on the company's board, he sits on the board of ResearchGate. Media related to Luke Nosek at Wikimedia Commons
This page lists public artworks which used to exist in London, but which have either been destroyed or removed to another place. Works which have been moved within London are not included, nor are temporary installations such as those on the Fourth plinth at Trafalgar Square. However, where one statue has been removed and replaced by another similar one, the former is included in this list. Prior to the installation of the present statue of Oliver Cromwell in Parliament Square there was a different statue of Cromwell in another part of the square, it looked similar to the one by Matthew Noble in Wythenshawe, but it is not clear whether this is the same statue or one is a copy of the other. The statue of Queen Anne by Francis Bird which stood outside St. Paul's Cathedral was damaged by a lunatic in the 19th century, as it was in any case in rather poor condition, it was removed, together with the four statues at its base, replaced by a copy the work of Richard Belt; the original was moved to a location near St Leonards in Sussex.
The Victoria Palace Theatre had a figure on its roof of a dancer. It was taken down to protect it from the bombing during World War II, was mislaid as a result. A replica of the original was installed in 2006; the statue of Charles II in Soho Square was removed for many years to Grim's Dyke, the estate of W. S. Gilbert, returned to its current position after the death of Gilbert's widow, who had willed it back to the square, it was accompanied by four other statues representing British rivers, the current whereabouts of these is unknown. List of demolished buildings and structures in London Works by Banksy that have been damaged or destroyed