Particle physics is a branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation. Although the word particle can refer to various types of small objects, particle physics investigates the irreducibly smallest detectable particles and the fundamental interactions necessary to explain their behaviour. By our current understanding, these elementary particles are excitations of the quantum fields that govern their interactions; the dominant theory explaining these fundamental particles and fields, along with their dynamics, is called the Standard Model. Thus, modern particle physics investigates the Standard Model and its various possible extensions, e.g. to the newest "known" particle, the Higgs boson, or to the oldest known force field, gravity. Modern particle physics research is focused on subatomic particles, including atomic constituents such as electrons and neutrons, produced by radioactive and scattering processes, such as photons and muons, as well as a wide range of exotic particles.
Dynamics of particles is governed by quantum mechanics. In more technical terms, they are described by quantum state vectors in a Hilbert space, treated in quantum field theory. Following the convention of particle physicists, the term elementary particles is applied to those particles that are, according to current understanding, presumed to be indivisible and not composed of other particles. All particles and their interactions observed to date can be described entirely by a quantum field theory called the Standard Model; the Standard Model, as formulated, has 61 elementary particles. Those elementary particles can combine to form composite particles, accounting for the hundreds of other species of particles that have been discovered since the 1960s; the Standard Model has been found to agree with all the experimental tests conducted to date. However, most particle physicists believe that it is an incomplete description of nature and that a more fundamental theory awaits discovery. In recent years, measurements of neutrino mass have provided the first experimental deviations from the Standard Model, since neutrinos are massless in the Standard Model.
The idea that all matter is fundamentally composed of elementary particles dates from at least the 6th century BC. In the 19th century, John Dalton, through his work on stoichiometry, concluded that each element of nature was composed of a single, unique type of particle; the word atom, after the Greek word atomos meaning "indivisible", has since denoted the smallest particle of a chemical element, but physicists soon discovered that atoms are not, in fact, the fundamental particles of nature, but are conglomerates of smaller particles, such as the electron. The early 20th century explorations of nuclear physics and quantum physics led to proofs of nuclear fission in 1939 by Lise Meitner, nuclear fusion by Hans Bethe in that same year. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, a bewildering variety of particles were found in collisions of particles from high-energy beams, it was referred to informally as the "particle zoo". That term was deprecated after the formulation of the Standard Model during the 1970s, in which the large number of particles was explained as combinations of a small number of more fundamental particles.
The current state of the classification of all elementary particles is explained by the Standard Model, gaining widespread acceptance in the mid-1970s after experimental confirmation of the existence of quarks. It describes the strong and electromagnetic fundamental interactions, using mediating gauge bosons; the species of gauge bosons are eight gluons, W−, W+ and Z bosons, the photon. The Standard Model contains 24 fundamental fermions, which are the constituents of all matter; the Standard Model predicted the existence of a type of boson known as the Higgs boson. Early in the morning on 4 July 2012, physicists with the Large Hadron Collider at CERN announced they had found a new particle that behaves to what is expected from the Higgs boson; the world's major particle physics laboratories are: Brookhaven National Laboratory. Its main facility is the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, which collides heavy ions such as gold ions and polarized protons, it is the world's first heavy ion collider, the world's only polarized proton collider.
Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics. Its main projects are now the electron-positron colliders VEPP-2000, operated since 2006, VEPP-4, started experiments in 1994. Earlier facilities include the first electron-electron beam-beam collider VEP-1, which conducted experiments from 1964 to 1968. CERN, its main project is now the Large Hadron Collider, which had its first beam circulation on 10 September 2008, is now the world's most energetic collider of protons. It became the most energetic collider of heavy ions after it began colliding lead ions. Earlier facilities include the Large Electron–Positron Collider, w
Performance Racing is a racing team based in Great Britain, involved in many areas of motorsport. The team has been managed since 1999 by Bobby Issazadhe; the Performance Racing business was founded in Sweden, in 1999, to concentrate various motorsport activities into one source. The business was bought by Issazadhe in 2000 to manage his own racing team. In the beginning, in 1999 and 2000, the team ran in Europa Cup Formula Opel, it became involved in Formula Three in Germany and Great Britain. Since 2006–07, Performance Racing manage the A1 Team Pakistan in the A1 Grand Prix World Cup of Motorsport. In January 2008, the team became the managers of A1 Team Indonesia; the team joined the International Formula Master championship in 2008. The team race the British Formula 3 B/National Class Championship; the team race the German Formula 3 Trophy Class Championship. † These drivers drove for other teams during the season and their final positions include all team results. D. C. = Drivers' Championship position, T.
C. = Teams' Championship position
Il Conte di Matera is a 1958 Italian adventure film directed by Luigi Capuano and starring Virna Lisi and Otello Toso. Otello Toso as Rambaldo Tramontana, Count of Matera Virna Lisi as Greta Tramontana Giacomo Rossi Stuart as Duke Paolo Bressi Paul Müller as Filiberto Eva Vanicek as Marquisse Taldi Aldo Bufi Landi as Count Mario Del Balzo Wandisa Guida as Gisella Bressi Emilio Petacci as Duke Bressi Guido Celano as Giacomo Nietta Zocchi as Greta's Housekeeper Armando Migliari as Antonio Bruna Cealti as Giacomo's Wife Pasquale De Filippo as Alfredo Renato Chiantoni as Rambaldo's Henchman Pietro De Vico as Golia Erminio Spalla as Golia's's Henchman Carlo Tamberlani as The architect Edoardo Toniolo as Count Ruggi Nerio Bernardi as Marquis Taldi Nazzareno Zamperla as Marco Elena Sedlak as The Ballerina Ugo Sasso as The Messenger Corrado Annicelli as The Spy Amedeo Trilli as Greta's Escort Soldier Il Conte di Matera on IMDb