A board game is a tabletop game that involves counters or pieces moved or placed on a pre-marked surface or "board", according to a set of rules. Some games are based on pure strategy. Games have a goal that a player aims to achieve. Early board games represented a battle between two armies, most modern board games are still based on defeating opponents in terms of counters, winning position, or accrual of points. There are many varieties of board games, their representation of real-life situations can range from having no inherent theme, like checkers, to having a specific theme and narrative, like Cluedo. Rules can range from the simple, like Tic-tac-toe, to those describing a game universe in great detail, like Dungeons & Dragons – although most of the latter are role-playing games where the board is secondary to the game, serving to help visualize the game scenario; the time required to learn to play or master a game varies from game to game, but is not correlated with the number or complexity of rules.
Board games have been played in societies throughout history. A number of important historical sites and documents shed light on early board games such as Jiroft civilization gameboards in Iran. Senet, found in Predynastic and First Dynasty burials of Egypt, c. 3500 BC and 3100 BC is the oldest board game known to have existed. Senet was pictured in a fresco found in Merknera's tomb. From predynastic Egypt is Mehen. Hounds and Jackals another ancient Egyptean board game appeared around 2000 BC; the first complete set of this game was discovered from a Theban tomb that dates to the 13th Dynasty. This game was popular in Mesopotamia and the Caucasus. Backgammon originated in ancient Persia over 5,000 years ago. Chess and Chaupar originated in India. Go and Liubo originated in China. Patolli originated in Mesoamerica played by the ancient Aztec and The Royal Game of Ur was found in the Royal Tombs of Ur, dating to Mesopotamia 4,600 years ago; the earliest known games list is the Buddha games list. In 17th and 18th century colonial America, the agrarian life of the country left little time for game playing though draughts and card games were not unknown.
The Pilgrims and Puritans of New England frowned on game playing and viewed dice as instruments of the devil. When the Governor William Bradford discovered a group of non-Puritans playing stool-ball, pitching the bar, pursuing other sports in the streets on Christmas Day, 1622, he confiscated their implements, reprimanded them, told them their devotion for the day should be confined to their homes. In Thoughts on Lotteries Thomas Jefferson wrote: Almost all these pursuits of chance produce something useful to society, but there are some which produce nothing, endanger the well-being of the individuals engaged in them or of others depending on them. Such are games with cards, billiards, etc, and although the pursuit of them is a matter of natural right, yet society, perceiving the irresistible bent of some of its members to pursue them, the ruin produced by them to the families depending on these individuals, consider it as a case of insanity, quoad hoc, step in to protect the family and the party himself, as in other cases of insanity, imbecility, etc. and suppress the pursuit altogether, the natural right of following it.
There are some other games of chance, useful on certain occasions, injurious only when carried beyond their useful bounds. Such are insurances, raffles, etc; these they do not take their regulation under their own discretion. The board game Traveller's Tour Through the United States and its sister game Traveller's Tour Through Europe were published by New York City bookseller F. & R. Lockwood in 1822 and today claims the distinction of being the first board game published in the United States; as the U. S. shifted from agrarian to urban living in the 19th century, greater leisure time and a rise in income became available to the middle class. The American home, once the center of economic production, became the locus of entertainment and education under the supervision of mothers. Children were encouraged to play board games that developed literacy skills and provided moral instruction; the earliest board games published in the United States were based upon Christian morality. The Mansion of Happiness, for example, sent players along a path of virtues and vices that led to the Mansion of Happiness.
The Game of Pope and Pagan, or The Siege of the Stronghold of Satan by the Christian Army pitted an image on its board of a Hindu woman committing suttee against missionaries landing on a foreign shore. The missionaries are cast in white as "the symbol of innocence and hope" while the pope and pagan are cast in black, the color of "gloom of error, and... grief at the daily loss of empire". Commercially produced board games in the mid-19th century were monochrome prints laboriously hand-colored by teams of low-paid young factory women. Advances in paper making and printmaking during the period enabled the commercial production of inexpensive board games; the most significant advance was the development of chromolithography, a technological achievement that made bold, richly colored images available at affordable prices. Games cost as little as US$.25 for a small boxed card game to $3.00 for more elaborate games. American Protestants believed a virtuous life led to success, but the belief was challenged mid-century when the country embraced materialism and c
Liar's dice is a class of dice games for two or more players requiring the ability to deceive and to detect an opponent's deception. In "single hand" liar's dice games, each player has a set of dice, all players roll once, the bids relate to the dice each player can see plus all the concealed dice. In "common hand" games, there is one set of dice, passed from player to player; the bids relate to the dice as they are in front of the bidder after selected dice have been re-rolled. The genre has its roots in South America, with games there being known as Dudo, Perudo or Dadinho; the drinking game version is sometimes called Mexican in the United States. It is known by various names in Asia. Five dice are used per player with dice cups used for concealment; each round, each player rolls a "hand" of dice under their cup and looks at their hand while keeping it concealed from the other players. The first player begins bidding, announcing any face value and the minimum number of dice that the player believes are showing that value, under all of the cups in the game.
Ones are wild, always counting as the face of the current bid. Turns rotate among the players in a clockwise order; each player has two choices during their turn: to make a higher bid, or challenge the previous bid—typically with a call of "liar". Raising the bid means either increasing the quantity, or the face value, or both, according to the specific bidding rules used. There are many variants of disallowed bids. If the current player challenges the previous bid, all dice are revealed. If the bid is valid, the bidder wins. Otherwise, the challenger wins; the player who loses a round loses one of their dice. The last player to still retain a die is the winner; the loser of the last round starts the bidding on the next round. If the loser of the last round was eliminated, the next player starts the new round. Instead of the current player being the only one who can raise the bet, challenge the previously-made bid, any player may raise or challenge a bid at any time; the first challenge made ends the round, the challenger closest to the current bidder in the direction of play has priority if multiple players challenge at the same time.
If played with the above variant, the player who made the last bid may count aloud from 1 to 10. If he reaches 10 with no one challenging or increasing the bid, the round ends with that player earning back a die. A player may have more than 5 dice that way, any player who reaches 10 dice that way wins the game. With the above-mentioned variants, some players may win easily. To avoid that, the following rule may be added: Each time a player loses a challenge, he loses a die but the two players sitting to their left and right lose a die as well. Another solution to the above-mentioned variants is to force all players to choose a side: Each player holds a two-sided item, decides which side means'true', which means'lie'; when a player challenges, all players must join the challenge, placing their items on the table on either'true' or'lie', hidden beneath their hands. Once all players have joined, the items are revealed and the table is divided into players who support either side of the challenge.
Every player on the losing side loses a die at the end of the challenge. With some bidding systems, a player may elect to choose one or more dice of matching value from under their cup, place them outside the cup in view of the other players, re-roll the remaining dice, make a new bid of any quantity of that face value; when a player has no two dice with the same face, he may choose to pass once in a game round. If he does so, the bid will not be raised; the next player can call the bluff. By doing so, he challenges the claim of the passing player having no two dice with the same face; this is used in multi-round games where dice are removed from the game, as it helps players with few dice left to gain more information about the other dice without risk. Instead of raising or challenging, the player can claim that the current bid is correct. If the number is higher or lower, the player loses to the previous bidder, but if they are correct, they win. A "spot-on" claim has a lower chance of being correct than a challenge, so a correct "spot on" call sometimes has a greater reward, such as the player regaining a lost die.
As with any game of chance, probability is important. The key element is the "expected quantity": the quantity of any face value that has the highest probability of being present. For six-sided dice, the expected quantity is one-sixth the number of dice in play, rounded down; when wilds are used, the e
Cards Against Humanity
Cards Against Humanity is a party game in which players complete fill-in-the-blank statements using words or phrases deemed as offensive, risqué or politically incorrect printed on playing cards. It has originated from a Kickstarter campaign, its title refers to the phrase "crimes against humanity", reflecting its politically incorrect content. Cards Against Humanity was created by a group of eight Highland Park High School alumni, including Ben Hantoot and Max Temkin. Influenced by the popular Apples to Apples card game, it was named Cardenfreude and involved a group of players writing out the most abstract and humorous response to the topic question; the name was changed to Cards Against Humanity, with the answers pre-written on the white cards known today. Co-creator Ben Hantoot cited experiences with various games such as Magic: The Gathering and Charades as inspiration noting that Mad Libs was "the most direct influence" for the game; the game was financed with a Kickstarter crowdfunding campaign and influenced by a previous crowd-funded campaign for a book on the design of the Obama campaign.
The campaign started on December 1, 2010. The campaign ended on January 30, 2011, raised over $15,000. With this additional money raised towards the game, the creators added fifty more cards to the game itself. To start the game, each player draws ten white cards. According to the rule book provided with the game, the person who most "pooped" begins as the "Card Czar" and plays a black card, face up; the Card Czar reads the question or fill-in-the-blanks phrase on the black card out loud. The other players answer the question or fill in the blanks by each passing one white card, face down, to the Card Czar; the Card Czar shares each card combination with the group. For full effect, the Card Czar should re-read the black card before presenting each answer; the Card Czar picks the funniest play, whoever submitted it gets one "Awesome Point". After the round, a new player becomes the Card Czar, everyone draws back up to 10 white cards; the part of speech of a white card is a noun or gerund, including both single words and phrase constructions.
Black cards are either fill-in-the-blank questions. Both white and black cards break these rules on rare occasions; the rules do not state how to win the game—the object being to have fun. The rules in Cards Against Humanity are flexible and can be altered with the many house rules that players can incorporate; the official rules include additional provisions for gambling won "Awesome Points" for the right to play additional white cards during a round. After six months of development, Cards Against Humanity was released in May 2011. A month it became the number one game on Amazon.com. Since its release, CAH has become more popular and has seen a rise of sales throughout the years; the Chicago Sun-Times estimated that CAH earned at least $12 million in profit, according to the company, customers have downloaded the PDF file 1.5 million times in the year since they began tracking the numbers. In October 2011, the game was exhibited as part of the "Big Games" area of the annual IndieCade games festival in Culver City, where the release of a first expansion was announced.
In November 2011, the expansion was released. It sold out in three days; the first expansion contained 12 blank cards. The base game cards are licensed under CC-BY-NC-SA 2.0 license and can be downloaded at their website. Since 2013, the creators of Cards Against Humanity have held satirical promotions on Black Friday. In 2013, an "anti-sale" was held in which the game's cost was raised by $5 USD. Despite its higher price, the game went on to maintain its best-selling status on Amazon and experienced a minor spike in sales during that period. In 2014, to "help you experience the ultimate savings on Cards Against Humanity", the game and its expansions were removed from the online store and replaced by "Bullshit"—boxes containing sterilized bull feces, sold at $6 USD each. Over 30,000 boxes were sold. In 2015, the game's online store was replaced by an order form with an offer to "Give Cards Against Humanity $5" and receive nothing in return; the offer was justified by claiming. We're offering that for the rock-bottom price of $5.
How can you afford NOT to seize this incredible opportunity?", that what the money would be used for would be announced "soon" 11,248 customers spent $71,145 on the offer during the campaign. The money was divided among the Cards Against Humanity team members, who were asked to report back what they spent their money on. Many of them made donations to different charities. For 2016, the creators began to live stream the excavation of a "Holiday Hole", located in Oregon and stated that they would continue to dig the hole as long as they continue to receive donations; the creators did not state any reason for the hole nor any planned use of the money, explicitly ruled out charity in a FAQ by asking the reader, "why aren't YOU giving all this money to charity? It's your money." $100,573 was collected. In the week, the hole was filled back up and reseeded. Prior to Black Friday in 2017, a brand of potato chips known as Original Prongles (a parody of Prin
Pictionary is a charades-inspired word-guessing game invented by Robert Angel with graphic design by Gary Everson and first published in 1985 by Angel Games Inc. Hasbro purchased the rights in 1994 after acquiring the games business of Western Publishing before selling the rights to Mattel; the game is played with teams with players trying to identify specific words from their teammates. Each team moves a piece on a game board formed by a sequence of squares; each square has a shape identifying the type of picture to be drawn on it. The objective is to be the first team to reach the last space on the board. To achieve this a player must guess the word or phrase being drawn by their partner, or if the player lands on an "all play" square, one player from each team attempts to illustrate the same concept with the two teams racing to guess first; the first player to land and guess at the finish wins. The team chooses one person to begin drawing; the drawer chooses a card out of a deck of special Pictionary cards and tries to draw pictures which suggest the word printed on the card.
The pictures cannot contain any numbers or letters, nor can the drawer use verbal clues about the subject they are drawing. The teammates try to guess the word. There are five types of squares on the board, each Pictionary card has a list of five words printed on it. Players must draw the word which corresponds to the square on the board on which the team's marker is: AP category are designated as "All Play". For "All Play," the teams compete against each other; each team designates a player. The team that guesses the word first gets to take the next turn. If none of the teams guess the word, the turn passes to. One may not point or gesture to an object A one-minute timer a sand timer, is used to compel players to complete their drawing and guessing. ISketch, a Pictionary-like online game Pictionary and Pictionary, two television shows that were based on Pictionary Win, Lose or Draw, a game show with a similar concept to Pictionary Fast Draw, a 1968 game show with a similar concept to Win, Lose or Draw and Pictionary Pictionary Pictionary for Samsung 2014 TV Draw Something, an asynchronous mobile game with a similar concept.
Charades, a game that inspired Pictionary where players act out words or phrases
A Nerf war is an activity involving Nerf Blasters or other foam-firing toy weapons. Nerf wars can be a wide range of games, from informal shootouts in offices and basements to well-organized outdoor battles with high-powered modified blasters. Since foam-firing guns are safe and cheap, Nerf wars can include participants and battlefields otherwise unsuitable for airsoft and paintball. Nerf wars can take place anywhere. Any area with a good balance of open space and cover can be a candidate. Basements and backyards are common locations for informal games. For larger wars with more participants, bigger venues like gymnasiums, public parks, forests and schools make good playing areas; the inside of a large hall such as a room can may be turned into a battlefield by turning tables onto their sides. When planning a Nerf war in a public area, the organizer reserves the space and watches out for non-participants to reduce any liability; the ability to play in free locations is an important element of a Nerf war's accessibility.
Informal wars are ad hoc games played in an office or backyard. These are all-out free-for-alls that break out spontaneously and last until the supply of darts has run out. Informal wars in a workplace are a cheap and exciting relief from daily tedium, an interesting method to build camaraderie. Organized wars are more intense, larger in scale, well-publicized. Planned in advance by a group of friends, a Nerf club, or the Nerf Internet Community, these battles are held in large public areas, attract Nerf hobbyists, have standardized rules; because the games are more competitive and the battlefield larger, blasters are modified for increased range. Many wars across the United States are organized and promoted through the forums of enthusiast sites like OzNerf, PDK Films, NerfRevolution, NerfHQ, Foam Universe, Heart of Nerf; the members of these forums are collectively known as the Nerf Internet Community, or NIC. The NIC holds large annual wars on both the East Coast and West Coast of the United States and certain locations have bi-annual or monthly wars.
All around Australia there are wars as well, a yearly event called Reign Of Foam. Some colleges and youth groups have active associations that host Nerf Wars regularly. Rules of participation are set by the war's hosts to create a more balanced game. Over time, the NIC has centered on a accepted set of standard rules and game types. Humans vs. Zombies The Great Office War - A viral video of a Nerf war
Gift Trap is a 2006 indie party board game, invented by Nick Kellet. Gift Trap is billed as "The hilarious gift-exchange party game". Gift Trap relies on the players' personal knowledge of each other. Cards are dealt to the table depicting different gift items. Players use face-down tokens to mark the gifts they would give to each of the other players, which gifts they would like to receive themselves. Tokens are revealed, players score according to the correlation of gifting and reception tokens. Madhouse Creative created the packaging and brand identity for the game. Images used for the gift cards in the game were licensed using a Creative Commons Attribution license. Winners received a free copy of the game along with having their names included in the game. Gift Trap's website has always been an integral part of its story featuring contests and showing all the artwork for the gift images from the game in all the different languages. In 2009 a number of videos were added to communicate the fun aspects of exchanging gifts.
This was extended by the addition of an Interactive video by Hustream to communicate the concept of the game and to feature the awards and content of the game. Gift Trap donated one copy to the charity Right To Play for every ten copies sold from the first production run of 10,000 games. Gift Trap It won a Major Fun Party Award from Bernie DeKoven in September 2006, was featured on CBC Venture's show Dreamers & Schemers in December 2006. Reviews by Tom Vasel, Bruno Faidutti, Scott Nicholson and Greg Schloesser helped create early awareness for Gift Trap in the run up to its first holiday season. In 2007 Gift Trap won Party Game of the Year in France by Bruno Faidutti and Best New Party Game 2008 and placed in the Games 100 by Games magazine in the USA Gift Trap has been translated into eight languages. In 2010 the game entered its sixth production run and added Chinese, Russian and Japanese editions. Gift Trap official website Gift Trap at BoardGameGeek Bruno Faidutti's review Spiel Des Jahres - Sonder Prize for Party Game of the Year 2009 Video Review by Scott Nicholson
Party Game (game show)
Party Game was a Canadian television game show in the 1970s, produced by Hamilton independent station CHCH-TV from 1970 to 1981. It aired throughout Canada in syndication, broadcast on 32 stations at its peak; the show featured two teams of three players in a charades competition: the Challenger Team was composed of a contestant joined with two guest star players, while the Home Team consisted of series regulars Jack Duffy, Dinah Christie and Billy Van. Using game play similar to the American game show Pantomime Quiz, answers were jokes or complex phrases involving a pun or some other form of word play. Viewers at home were invited to send their own joke or phrase, which if used, could win them a small prize; the show premiered on CHCH in 1970. In its first season the show was hosted by Al Boliska, succeeded in 1971 by Bill Walker. Walker hosted for the remainder of the show's run. Party Game was produced by Riff Markowitz, the executive producer and star of The Randy Dandy Show and executive producer of The Hilarious House of Frightenstein.
The set was a simple living room type with a few wall pictures and pieces. The voice-over announcer who announced each charade was credited as "Gardiner Westbound", a nod to a stretch of the Gardiner Expressway in Downtown Toronto heading toward Hamilton, but was producer Markowitz. Party Game on IMDb