United States Capitol
The United States Capitol, often called the Capitol Building or Capitol Hill, is the home of the United States Congress, and the seat of the legislative branch of the U. S. federal government. It sits atop Capitol Hill at the end of the National Mall in Washington. Though not at the center of the Federal District, the Capitol forms the origin point for the Districts street-numbering system. The original building was completed in 1800 and was subsequently expanded, like the principal buildings of the executive and judicial branches, the Capitol is built in a distinctive neoclassical style and has a white exterior. Both its east and west elevations are referred to as fronts, though only the east front was intended for the reception of visitors. In 2014, scaffolding was erected around the dome for a project scheduled to be completed by early 2017. All exterior scaffolding was removed by the end of summer 2016, prior to establishing the nations capital in Washington, D. C. the United States Congress and its predecessors had met in Philadelphia, New York City, and a number of other locations.
In September 1774, the First Continental Congress brought together delegates from the colonies in Philadelphia, followed by the Second Continental Congress, Congress requested that John Dickinson, the Governor of Pennsylvania, call up the militia to defend Congress from attacks by the protesters. In what became known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, Dickinson sympathized with the protesters and refused to remove them from Philadelphia. As a result, Congress was forced to flee to Princeton, New Jersey, on June 21,1783, and met in Annapolis, the United States Congress was established upon ratification of the United States Constitution and formally began on March 4,1789. New York City remained home to Congress until July 1790, when the Residence Act was passed to pave the way for a permanent capital. As part of the legislation, Philadelphia was chosen as a capital for ten years, until the nations capital in Washington. Pierre Charles LEnfant was given the task of creating the city plan for the new capital city, in reviewing LEnfants plan, Thomas Jefferson insisted the legislative building be called the Capitol rather than Congress House.
The word Capitol comes from Latin and is associated with the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on Capitoline Hill, the connection between the two is not, crystal clear. In spring 1792, United States Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson proposed a competition to solicit designs for the Capitol and the Presidents House. The prize for the competition was $500 and a lot in the Federal City, the most promising of the submissions was by Stephen Hallet, a trained French architect. However, Hallets designs were overly fancy, with too much French influence, a late entry by amateur architect William Thornton was submitted on January 31,1793, to much praise for its Grandeur and Beauty by Washington, along with praise from Thomas Jefferson. Thornton was inspired by the east front of the Louvre, as well as the Paris Pantheon for the portion of the design
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress which, along with the House of Representatives, the lower chamber, composes the legislature of the United States. The composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. S. From 1789 until 1913, Senators were appointed by the legislatures of the states represented, following the ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913. The Senate chamber is located in the wing of the Capitol, in Washington. It further has the responsibility of conducting trials of those impeached by the House, in the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers. This idea of having one chamber represent people equally, while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise, there was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other.
One was intended to be a Peoples House directly elected by the people, the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally, the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate, the name is derived from the senatus, Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the comment about the Senate, In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people. An agrarian law would take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation, landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, and to balance and check the other.
They ought to be so constituted as to protect the minority of the opulent against the majority, the senate, ought to be this body, and to answer these purposes, the people ought to have permanency and stability. The Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that states consent, the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two senators, but they are officials of the D. C. city government. The United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. In 1787, Virginia had roughly ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has roughly 70 times the population of Wyoming and this means some citizens are effectively two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are approximately proportionate to the population of each state, before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, Senators were elected by the individual state legislatures
John Randolph Thune /ˈθuːn/ is an American politician and senior United States Senator from South Dakota, a member of the Republican Party. He previously served as a United States Representative for South Dakotas at-large congressional district and he became South Dakotas senior senator with the retirement of Tim Johnson in 2015. He has worked in politics and civic organizations since completing his MBA graduate degree and he is the current dean of South Dakotas congressional delegation. Thune was born in the South Dakota state capital of Pierre, South Dakota, Thunes paternal grandfather, Nicholas Thune, was an immigrant from Norway who partnered with his brother Matt to start Thune Hardware stores in Mitchell and Murdo, South Dakota. His maternal grandfather is from Ontario and Thunes mother was born in Saskatchewan, Thunes brother, Richard Thune, is an English teacher at Rowland High School in California. Thune was an athlete in high school, and was active in basketball, track. Thune graduated from Jones County High School in 1979 and he played college football and basketball at Biola University in California, where he graduated in 1983 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in Business.
Thune received the degree of Master of Business Administration from the University of South Dakota in 1984, Thune continues to be physically active and frequently competes in running events. A2012 feature by Runners World Magazine noted that Thune has been the fastest man in Congress since 2009, after completing his MBA, Thune became involved in politics. He worked as an aide for U. S. Senator James Abdnor from 1985 to 1987, in 1989, Thune moved to the state capital of Pierre, South Dakota, where he served as executive director of the state Republican Party for two years. Thune was appointed as Railroad Director of South Dakota by Governor George S. Mickelson, from 1993 to 1996, he was executive director of the South Dakota Municipal League. In 1996, Thune decided to make his first foray into electoral politics and that year, he entered the race for South Dakotas lone seat in the U. S. House of Representatives. The Almanac of American Politics said that Thune entered the 1996 race as much an underdog.
Thunes primary opponent was sitting Lt, Governor Carole Hillard of Rapid City, who benefited from the support of the long-term South Dakota governor Bill Janklow. A poll released in May 1996 showed Hillard ahead of Thune 69%-15%, by relying on strong personal skills and the help of his old network of Abdnor friends, Thune won the primary, defeating Hillard 59%-41%. In the general election, Thune defeated Democrat Rick Weiland, an aide to U. S. Thune won his subsequent races for U. S. House by wide margins and he won re-election in 1998 with 75% of the vote and in 2000 with 73% of the vote
Russell Senate Office Building
The Russell Senate Office Building is the oldest of the United States Senate office buildings. Designed in the Beaux-Arts architectural style, it was built from 1903 to 1908, opened in 1909 and it occupies a site north of the Capitol bounded by Constitution Avenue, First Street, Delaware Avenue, and C Street N. E. The first congressional office building was constructed immediately after the turn of the 20th century to relieve overcrowding in the United States Capitol, members who wanted office space had to rent quarters or borrow space in committee rooms. In March 1901 Congress authorized Architect of the Capitol Edward Clark to draw plans for office buildings adjacent to the Capitol grounds. In March 1903 the acquisition of sites and construction of the buildings were authorized, in April 1904, the prominent New York City architectural firm of Carrère and Hastings was retained. John Carrère took charge of the Senate Office Building project, while Thomas Hastings oversaw the construction of an almost identical office building for the United States House of Representatives and their Beaux Arts designs were restrained complements to the Capitol.
Architecturally, their elevations are divided into a base and a colonnade with an entablature. The Constitution AV side is a replica of the easternmost façade of the Palais du Louvre in Paris. The colonnades, with 34 Doric columns that face the Capitol, are echoed by pilasters on the sides of the buildings, both buildings are faced with marble and limestone, the Russell Buildings base and terrace are gray granite. Modern for their time, they included such facilities as forced-air ventilation systems, steam heat, individual lavatories with hot and cold running water and ice water, both are connected to the Capitol by underground passages. Originally there were 98 suites and eight rooms in the Russell Building. Of special architectural interest is the rotunda, eighteen Corinthian columns support an entablature and a coffered dome, whose glazed oculus floods the rotunda with sunlight. The Russell Building was occupied in 1909 by the Senate of the 61st Congress, the growth of staff and committees in the twenty years following its completion resulted in the addition of a fourth side, the First Street Wing, to the originally U-shaped building.
Wyeth and Francis P. Sullivan were the architects for the new wing
Dirksen Senate Office Building
On the eve of America’s entry into World War II, in 1941, the U. S. Senate authorized the Architect of the Capitol to prepare plans for a second Senate Office Building. When World War II delayed implementation of the Senate’s building plans, to house the additional staff, the Senate resorted to renting space in nearby buildings. Moreover, with the admission of Alaska and Hawaii as states. As pressure for more space mounted, the Senate in 1948 acquired property on which to erect an office building in order to accommodate the enlarged staff. Although more streamlined and less ornate, the new building was designed to harmonize with the Capitol, bronze spandrels between the third- and fourth-floor windows depicted scenes from American industry, Farming, Manufacturing and Lumbering. Below the new building’s west pediment is the inscription, “The Senate is the Living Symbol of Our Union of States. ”Although the Senate approved the plans for the new building in 1949, construction was delayed until 1956.
By then, increased costs of construction caused some scaling back of the original design and the Russell Senate Office Building. The Hart and Dirksen Buildings are connected, and one can walk between the two almost as easily as if they were one structure. The building was renovated during 1999–2000 under the auspices of the Architect of the Capitol, day-to-day supervision of the project carried out by Assistant Architect Michael G. Turnbull, FAIA. The renovation was well received by Senators and their staff, I have nostalgia for the Dirksen Building because this is where my father had his office, and I was very content to stay here. Now that it has been renovated--and mine was the first suite to be consider that we are in the high-rent district. Thank you for the truly well thought out way in which building is being renovated. It is now work space that serve the needs of the Senators for another 50 years
Hart Senate Office Building
Construction began in January 1975, and it was first occupied in November 1982. Rapidly rising construction costs plagued the building, creating several scandals, the structure is named for Philip Hart, who served 18 years as a senator from Michigan. The Dirksen Senate Office Building was intended to occupy the block bounded by 1st Street NE, Constitution Avenue NE, 2nd Street NE. However, due to the resource and financial demands of the Korean War, in 1969, Congress voted to acquire the eastern half of the block for a New Senate Office Building. Originally, the Senate intended only to build a $21 million underground parking garage here and that effort was approved in June 1971. But in May 1972, the Subcommittee on Buildings of the Senate Committee on Public Works approved a plan to construct the New Senate Office Building above the parking garage, the buildings cost was estimated at $48 million in June 1972. The full Senate approved the plan in September 1972. Warneckes design for the building was approved by the Senate Committee on Public Works on August 8,1974.
Warnecke was given just two weeks to come up with the cost estimate, which the Architect of the Capitol claimed was far too little time to generate an accurate cost forecast, by the end of the year, the estimated cost of construction had risen to $69 million. Ground for the new structure was broken in January 1975, the poor and uneven condition of the soil at the site caused delays in the excavation, and major cost increases. When the foundations were finished, it was discovered many of the anchoring bolts were misaligned and had to be replaced. This added new costs to the project. On August 30,1976, the Senate voted to name the new building the Philip A. Hart Senate Office Building in honor of retiring Senator Philip Hart. Hart died on December 26,1976, of melanoma, having declined to run for reelection the previous November, by August 1978, actual construction costs were now $85 million and were expected to top $122 million. The Senate approved a plan to spend another $54 million on the structure, the House approved this plan.
But when constituents bitterly complained, the House reversed itself on both counts, by 1979, construction estimates had soared to $179 million, and the General Accounting Office said it would rise to $230 million without changes. In July 1979, the Senate agreed to cap costs at $137.7 million after an acrimonious three-hour debate during which some suggested the building be torn down. The Hart Senate Office Building was completed in September 1982 at a cost of $137.7 million, Architect of the Capitol George M. White argued the construction cost was a reasonable $110 per square foot
The rollback, first implemented by an Act of Congress in 1909, reverts the emoluments of the office to the amount they were when that member began his or her elected term. To prevent ethical conflicts, James Madison proposed language at the Constitutional Convention that was adopted as the Ineligibility Clause after debate, Members of Congress have been appointed to federal judgeships without any fix being enacted, court challenges to such appointments have failed. There were four Saxbe fixes for appointees of presidents prior to Barack Obama, the first two rollbacks concerned appointees of Republicans William Howard Taft and Richard Nixon, and the last two were implemented for appointees of Democrats Jimmy Carter and Bill Clinton. Congress approved two more in the weeks preceding Obamas presidency in preparation for his designated Cabinet nominees, since the 1980s, Saxbe fixes have only been temporary, extending to the conclusion of the term for which the sitting member of Congress was elected.
Madison wrote that corrupt legislative actions, in the form of the creation of offices. The delegates who were present agreed that no member of Congress should be eligible to be appointed to a position while serving in Congress. Madison originally proposed a length on such a bar. However, Nathaniel Gorham, James Wilson, and Alexander Hamilton wanted no bar at all at the conclusion of congressional service. Eventually, Madison proposed a compromise, that no office ought to be open to a member, which may be created or augmented while he is in the legislature and they eliminated the one-year ban because they judged it to be ineffective in protecting the Constitution. Charles Cotesworth Pinckney moved that the vote and the prohibition carried by vote of 8 states to 3. Madison moved that the phrase or the Emoluments whereof shall have been augmented by the legislature of the United States, during the time they were members thereof and this motion failed 2–8, with one state divided. The clause was limited to civil offices so as not to military service.
Accordingly, the clause was passed in its current form without an explicit time consideration, article 1, Section 6, Clause 2 of the United States Constitution therefore prohibits self-dealing legislation and is intended to protect the separation of power of the various branches of government. Corruption such as seen in the British Parliament was a consideration during debate by the framers of the Constitution. Most scholarly texts on the Constitution ignore the clause, although the Saxbe fix is named for Nixon nominee William Saxbe, the devices first intentional use predates him by several decades. As a matter of tradition, the Saxbe fix is considered sufficient to remove the disqualification of the Ineligibility Clause. The Ineligibility Clause has interfered with appointments as far back as 1793, President George Washington attempted to appoint William Paterson to the Supreme Court on February 27,1793, after the resignation of Associate Justice Thomas Johnson. However, who was serving as Governor of New Jersey, had previously elected to serve a Senate term that would expire at noon on March 4,1793
United States Senate chamber
The United States Senate Chamber is a room in the north wing of the United States Capitol that serves as the legislative chamber of the United States Senate, since January 4,1859. The Senate first convened in its current meeting place after utilizing Federal Hall, Congress Hall, the Senate floor itself is overlooked on all four sides by a gallery on the second floor. The Senate floor itself is 80 by 113 feet, the Senate convened, beginning in 1790, in a second-floor chamber in Congress Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania until moving into the Old Supreme Court Chamber in the Capitol building in 1800. From 1810 to 1859, the Senate utilized the Old Senate Chamber for legislative functions, during this time, the Senate nearly doubled in size as new states were admitted to the Union. In light of the size of both houses of congress, two new wings were added on to the United States Capitol. Beginning in 1851, the Capitol underwent several expansions including the new wings and their respective chambers, in addition to expanding the space available for the Senates use, the chambers designers were concerned that the room have acoustical and line-of-sight qualities comparable to those of a theater.
The construction of the began in 1851 and continued until senators began utilizing the room for legislative business in 1859. The general design of the chamber, a rectangular, two-story room in the center of the Capitols north wing and this platform, semi-circular in shape, faces a raised rostrum in the front of the room. On all four sides of the second level, a visitors gallery overlooks the Senate floor. The Senate first allowed visitors to observe proceedings in 1795, the galleries for observing the Senate, including a womens gallery, became popular destinations for tourists and residents alike throughout the nineteenth century. Above the presiding officers desk at the rostrum was the press gallery, reporters are able to observe and cover the proceedings of the Senate. Because of the chambers theater-like qualities and size, numerous requests were made, in 1863, the chamber was used for a presentation of a narrative poem about a Union Army soldier, William Scott, who had fallen asleep at his post and was sentenced to be shot.
Among the audience for the performance was the then-President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln, in 1923, practicing physician and former commissioner of the New York City Board of Health Royal Copeland began his first term in the Senate. In June 1924, the Senate voted to adopt a measure by Copeland to improve the conditions of the Senate Chamber. On May 16, Copeland requested the postponement of his proposal in light of a new ventilation system that received the endorsement of experts in public health. The manufactured weather ventilation system, designed by Carrier Corporation, was completed in 1929 - the Senates first air conditioning system, in 1949-1950, the Senate Chamber underwent a reconstruction that involved the removal of the skylight and a redesign of the rooms walls. In place of the chambers original cast-iron pilasters, newer red Levanto marble pilasters were installed, the wooden rostrum was replaced with a newer, larger version made of marble. The iron and glass ceiling, including the skylight, was replaced with a ceiling of stainless steel and this redesign, in addition to improving the acoustic properties of the room, was to update the rooms mid-nineteenth century decor, which was out of date