Pas-de-Calais is a department in northern France named after the French designation of the Strait of Dover, which it borders. Inhabited since prehistoric times, the Pas-de-Calais region was populated in turn by the Celtic Belgae, the Romans, the Germanic Franks and the Alemanni. During the fourth and fifth centuries, the Roman practice of co-opting Germanic tribes to provide military and defence services along the route from Boulogne-sur-Mer to Cologne created a Germanic-Romance linguistic border in the region that persisted until the eighth century. Saxon colonization into the region from the fifth to the eighth centuries extended the linguistic border somewhat south and west so that by the ninth century most inhabitants north of the line between Béthune and Berck spoke a dialect of Middle Dutch, while the inhabitants to the south spoke Picard, a variety of Romance dialects; this linguistic border is still evident today in the patronyms of the region. Beginning in the ninth century, the linguistic border began a steady move to north and the east, by the end of the 15th century Romance dialects had displaced those of Dutch.

Pas-de-Calais is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790. It was created from parts of the former provinces of Calaisis English, Boulonnais and Artois, this last part of the Spanish Netherlands; some of the costliest battles of World War I were fought in the region. The Canadian National Vimy Memorial, eight kilometres from Arras, commemorates the Battle of Vimy Ridge assault during the Battle of Arras and is Canada's most important memorial in Europe to its fallen soldiers. Pas-de-Calais was the target of Operation Fortitude during World War II, an Allied plan to deceive the Germans that the invasion of Europe at D-Day was to occur here, rather than in Normandy. Pas-de-Calais is in the current region of Hauts-de-France and is surrounded by the departments of Nord and Somme, the English Channel, the North Sea, it shares a nominal border with the English county of Kent halfway through the Channel Tunnel. Its principal towns are, on the coast, Boulogne-sur-Mer and Étaples, in Artois, Lens, Liévin and Saint-Omer.

The principal rivers are the following: Authie Canche Ternoise Liane Sensée Scarpe Deûle Lys Aa The economy of the department was long dependent on mining the coal mines near the town of Lens, Pas-de-Calais where coal was discovered in 1849. However, since World War II, the economy has become more diversified; the inhabitants of the department are called Pas-de-Calaisiens. Pas-de-Calais is one of the most densely populated departments of France, yet it has no large cities. Calais has only about 80,000 inhabitants, followed by Arras, Boulogne-sur-Mer, Lens and Liévin; the remaining population is concentrated along the border with the department of Nord in the mining district, where a string of small towns constitutes an urban area with a population of about 1.2 million. The centre and south of the department are more rural, but still quite populated, with many villages and small towns. Although the department saw some of the heaviest fighting of World War I, its population rebounded after both world wars.

However, many of the mining towns have seen dramatic decreases in population, some up to half of their population. Population development since 1801: In the second round of the French presidential elections of 2017 Pas-de-Calais was one of only two departments in which the candidate of the Front National, Marine Le Pen, received a majority of the votes cast: 52.05%. There are two public universities in the department. Although it is one of the most populous departments of France, Pas-de-Calais did not contain a university until 1991 when the French government created two universities: ULCO on the western part of the department, Université d'Artois on the eastern part. Cantons of the Pas-de-Calais department Communes of the Pas-de-Calais department Arrondissements of the Pas-de-Calais department Battle of Vimy Ridge 7 Valleys Pas de Calais A whole wiki about the Pas-de-Calais Prefecture website General Council website Official Tourist website Short regional tourism guide Coats of arms of the municipalities in Pas-de-Calais

Rob Sasser

Robert Doffell Sasser is a former Major League Baseball player. Sasser played in one game, going 0-for-1, with the Texas Rangers, he was drafted by the Atlanta Braves in the 10th round of the 1993 amateur draft. Sasser serves as hitting coach for the Kannapolis Intimidators. In 2012, Sasser joined the Kannapolis Intimidators as batting coach; the Kannapolis Intimidators are the Single-A farm club in the Chicago White Sox minor league chain. Young players one year out of high school or college become Kannapolis Intimidators; the White Sox have affiliates in Bristol, VA, Great Falls, MT, Winston-Salem, NC, Birmingham, AL, Charlotte, NC. The 2011 Kannapolis Intimidators finished the season with an overall record of 76-62. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Baseball-Reference

Otto Friedrich von der Groeben

Otto Friedrich von der Groeben was a Prussian explorer and German Generalleutnant in Polish service. Von der Groeben was born in Napratten to the General Georg Heinrich von der Groeben, he started a journey through Italy, Egypt and Cyprus in the age of 17 and returned in 1680. After Philipp Pietersen Blonck, a sailor in Prussian service, had landed at the Cape Three Points and signed a treaty of friendship with the local Ahanta chiefs Pregate and Apany in 1680, the Brandenburgisch-Afrikanische Compagnie was founded in 1681 and a new expedition was organised. In 1682 Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg assigned von der Groeben the command of a colonial expedition of Brandenburg, supposed to acquire a colony on the coast of Guinea; the small fleet of the Brandenburg Navy consisted of the Morian and the Churprinz von Brandenburg and set sail on 16 May 1682. They arrived near the village of Accada on 27 December 1682, hoisted the flag of Brandenburg on 1 January 1683 near the modern Princes Town and began to build a fortification, which they called Fort Groß Friedrichsburg.

On 5 January 1683, the treaty with the Ahanta was renewed. The garrison suffered from von der Groeben sickened of tropical fever, he passed the command of the fortress to Philipp Pietersen Blonck and returned to Prussia in the summer of 1683. In honour of the foundation of the first colony of Brandenburg, he was awarded the prospective entitlement of the Amtshauptmann of Marienwerder und Riesenburg in succession to that of his father. In 1686 von der Groeben fought against Turkish troops at Morea. On 3 January 1688 he was promoted to oberst in the Prussian Army in 1704, made a Royal Prussian Kammerherr. In 1719 von der Groeben joined the Polish army and was promoted to major general lieutenant general. Von der Groeben had 20 children, he died on 30 January 1728 at his estates near Marienwerder. Orientalische Reise-Beschreibung, des brandenburgischen Pilgers Otto Friedrich von der Gröben: Nebst d. Brandenburgischen Schifffahrt nach Guinea und der Verrichtung zu Morea, unter ihrem Titel, Marienwerder 1694 Guineische Reise-Beschreibung, Marienwerder 1694 Des edlen Bergone und seiner tugendhafften Areteen denckwürdige Lebens- und Liebesgeschichte: Zum Nutz u.

Vergnügen edeler Gemüther... welche daraus die Sitten und Gebräuche vieler Völcker u.d. ausführliche Beschreibung Italien, der Heiligen u. anderer Länder ersehen können. Datzig 1700 Voorname Scheepsogt Van Jonkheer Otho Fridrich van der Greuben, Brandenburgs Edelman, Na Guinea, Met 2 Keur-Vorstelijke Fregatten, Gedaan in het Jaar 1682...: Verhandelende... de gelegentheeden van verscheyde Zee-Kusten in Africa... der Greyn-kust, Tand- of Quaqua-kust, Goud-kust... en des Reysigers Togt van daar na Terra Nova in America gelegen: Als mede den Aart, Gewoontens.... Register en Konst-Printen... enthalten in: Johan Lodewyk Gottfried, De Aanmerkens-waardige Voyagien Door Francoisen, Deenen, Hoogduytsen en andere Vreemde Volkeren gedaan Na Oost- en West-Indien... Het 2. Stuk, Leiden 1706 Otto Friedrich von der Gröben, Guineische Reisebeschreibung, Marienwerder 1694. Archiv für Post und Telegraphie, 13 591-603 Kurt Petsch, Seefahrt für Brandenburg-Preussen 1650-1850 - Geschichte der Seegefechte, überseeischen Niederlassungen und staatlichen Handelskompanien, in: H.

Bleckwenn, Das altpreussische Heer - Erscheinungsbild und Wesen 1713-1807, Teil IV, Band 11, Biblio Verlag Osnabrück, 1986 Ulrich van der Heyden: Rote Adler an Afrikas Küste. Die brandenburgisch-preußische Kolonie Großfriedrichsburg in Westafrika, Selignow-Verlag, Berlin, 2001, ISBN 3-933889-04-9 "Gröben, Otto Friedrich von der". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920