Pasadena is a city in Los Angeles County, United States, located 10 miles northeast of Downtown Los Angeles. The estimated population of Pasadena was 142,647 in 2017, making it the 183rd-largest city in the United States. Pasadena is the ninth-largest city in Los Angeles County. Pasadena was incorporated on June 19, 1886, becoming one of the first cities to be incorporated in what is now Los Angeles County, following the city of Los Angeles, it is one of the primary cultural centers of the San Gabriel Valley. The city is known for hosting Tournament of Roses Parade. In addition, Pasadena is home to many scientific and cultural institutions, including Caltech, Pasadena City College, Fuller Theological Seminary, ArtCenter College of Design, the Pasadena Playhouse, the Ambassador Auditorium, the Norton Simon Museum, the USC Pacific Asia Museum; the original inhabitants of Pasadena and surrounding areas were members of the Native American Hahamog-na tribe, a branch of the Tongva Nation. They had lived in the Los Angeles Basin for thousands of years.
Tongva dwellings lined the Arroyo Seco in present day Pasadena and south to where it joins the Los Angeles River and along other natural waterways in the city. The native people lived in dome-shape lodges, they lived on a diet of acorn meal and herbs, other small animals. They traded for ocean fish with the coastal Tongva, they made cooking vessels from steatite soapstone from Catalina Island. The oldest transportation route still in existence in Pasadena is the old Tongva foot trail known as the Gabrielino Trail, that follows the west side of the Rose Bowl and the Arroyo Seco past the Jet Propulsion Laboratory into the San Gabriel Mountains; the trail has been in continuous use for thousands of years. An arm of the trail is still in use in what is now known as Salvia Canyon; when the Spanish occupied the Los Angeles Basin they built the San Gabriel Mission and renamed the local Tongva people "Gabrielino Indians," after the name of the mission. Today, several bands of Tongva people live in the Los Angeles area.
Pasadena is a part of the original Mexican land grant named Rancho del Rincon de San Pascual, so named because it was deeded on Easter Sunday to Eulalia Perez de Guillén Mariné of Mission San Gabriel Arcángel. The Rancho comprised the lands of today's communities of Pasadena and South Pasadena. Before the annexation of California in 1848, the last of the Mexican owners was Manuel Garfias who retained title to the property after statehood in 1850. Garfias sold sections of the property to the first Anglo settlers to come into the area: Dr. Benjamin Eaton, the father of Fred Eaton. Much of the property was purchased by Benjamin Wilson, who established his Lake Vineyard property in the vicinity. Wilson, known as Don Benito to the local Indians owned the Rancho Jurupa and was mayor of Los Angeles, he was the grandfather of Jr. and the namesake of Mount Wilson. In 1873, Wilson was visited by Dr. Daniel M. Berry of Indiana, looking for a place in the country that could offer a mild climate for his patients, most of whom suffered from respiratory ailments.
Berry claimed that he had his best three night's sleep at Rancho San Pascual. To keep the find a secret, Berry code-named the area "Muscat" after the grape. To raise funds to bring the company of people to San Pascual, Berry formed the Southern California Orange and Citrus Growers Association and sold stock in it; the newcomers were able to purchase a large portion of the property along the Arroyo Seco and on January 31, 1874, they incorporated the Indiana Colony. As a gesture of good will, Wilson added 2,000 acres of then-useless highland property, part of which would become Altadena. Colonel Jabez Banbury opened the first school on South Orange Grove Avenue. Banbury had twin daughters, named Jessie; the two became the first students to attended Pasadena’s first school on Orange Grove. At the time, the Indiana Colony was a narrow strip of land between the Arroyo Seco and Fair Oaks Avenue. On the other side of the street was Wilson's Lake Vineyard development. After more than a decade of parallel development on both sides, the two settlements merged into the City of Pasadena.
The popularity of the region drew people from across the country, Pasadena became a stop on the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway, which led to an explosion in growth. From the real estate boom of the 1880s until the Great Depression, as great tourist hotels were developed in the city, Pasadena became a winter resort for wealthy Easterners, spurring the development of new neighborhoods and business districts, increased road and transit connections with Los Angeles, culminating with the opening of the Arroyo Seco Parkway, California's first freeway. By 1940, Pasadena had become the eighth-largest city in California and was considered a twin city to Los Angeles; the first of the great hotels to be established in Pasadena was the Raymond atop Bacon Hill, renamed Raymond Hill after construction. Pasadena was served by the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway at the Santa Fe Depot in downtown when the Second District was opened in 1887; the original Mansard Victorian 200-room facility burned down on Easter morning of 1895, was rebuilt in 1903, razed during the Great Depression to make way for residential development.
The Maryland Hotel existed from the early 1900s and was demolished in 1934. The world-famous Mount Lowe Railway and associated mountain hotels shu
A middle school is an educational stage which exists in some countries, providing education between primary school and secondary school. The concept and classification of middle schools, as well as the ages covered, vary between, sometimes within, countries. In Afghanistan, middle school consists of the primary school grades 5,6, 7 and the secondary school grade 8. In Albania, middle school is included in the primary education which lasts 9 years and attendance is mandatory. In Algeria, a middle school includes 4 grades; the ciclo básico of secondary education is equivalent to middle school. Most regions of Australia do not have middle schools, as students go directly from primary school to secondary school; as an alternative to the middle school model, some secondary schools divided their grades into "junior high school" and "senior high school". Some have three levels, "junior", "intermediate", "senior". In 1996 and 1997, a national conference met to develop what became known as the National Middle Schooling Project, which aimed to develop a common Australian view of early adolescent needs guiding principles for educators appropriate strategies to foster positive adolescent learning.
The first middle school established in Australia was The Armidale School, in Armidale. Other schools have since followed this trend; the Northern Territory has introduced a three tier system featuring Middle Schools for years 7–9 and high school year 10–12. Many schools across Queensland have introduced a Middle School tier within their schools; the middle schools cover years 5 to 8. In Bangladesh, middle school is not separated like other countries. Schools are from class 1 to class 10, it means upper primary. From class 6–8 is thought as middle school. Grades 1,2,3,4 and 5 are said to be primary school while all the classes from 6 to 9 are considered high school while 10–12 is called college. There aren't middle schools in Bolivia since 1994. Students aged 11–15 attend the last years of elementary education or the first years of secondary education. In Bosnia and Herzegovina "middle school" refers to educational institutions for ages between 14 and 18, lasts 3–4 years, following elementary school.
Gymnasiums are the most prestigious type of "middle" school. In Brazil, middle school is a mandatory stage that precedes High School called "Ensino Fundamental II" consisting of grades 6 to 9, ages 11 to 14. In Canada, the terms "Middle School" and "Junior High School" are both used, depending on which grades the school caters to. Junior high schools tend to include only grades 7, 8, sometimes 9, whereas middle schools are grades 6–8 or only grades 7–8 or 6–7, varying from area to area and according to population vs. building capacity. Another common model is grades 5–8. Alberta, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island junior high schools include only grades 7–9, with the first year of high school traditionally being grade 10. In some places students go from elementary school to secondary school, meaning the elementary school covers to the end of Grade 8. In Ontario, the term "Middle School" and "Senior Public School" are used, with the latter being used in the Old Toronto and Scarborough sections of Toronto plus in Mississauga and Kitchener-Waterloo.
In many smaller Ontario cities and in some parts of larger cities, most elementary schools serve junior kindergarten to grade 8 meaning there are no separate Middle Schools buildings, while in some cities specific schools do serve the intermediate grades but are still called "Elementary" or "Public" schools with no recognition of the grades they serve in their name. Quebec uses a grade system, different from those of the other provinces. In Quebec there is no Middle school section; the Secondary level has five grades starting after Elementary Grade 6. These are called Secondary I to Secondary V. There aren't middle schools in Chile. Students aged 11 to 16 attend the last years of educación básica or the first years of educación media. In the People's Republic of China, middle school has junior stage and senior stage; the junior stage education is the last 3 years of 9-year-compulsory education for all young citizens. Some middle schools have both stages; the admissions for most students to enroll in senior middle schools from junior stage are on the basis of the scores that they get in "Senior Middle School Entrance Exam", which are held by local governments.
Other students may bypass the exam, based on their distinctive talents, like athletics, or excellent daily performance in junior stage. Secondary education is divided into basic secondary and
Institute of Education Sciences
The Institute of Education Sciences is the independent, non-partisan statistics and evaluation arm of the U. S. Department of Education. IES' stated mission is to provide scientific evidence on which to ground education practice and policy and to share this information in formats that are useful and accessible to educators, policymakers and the public, it was created as part of the Education Sciences Reform Act of 2002. The first director of IES was Grover Whitehurst, appointed in November 2002 and served for six years. Dr. Mark Schneider is the Director of IES. IES is divided into four major research and statistics centers: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance —NCEE conducts large-scale evaluations and provides research-based technical assistance and information about high-quality research to educators and policymakers in a variety of different formats. NCEE's work includes evaluations of education practices supported by federal funds. Dr. Matthew Soldner is the Commissioner of NCEE.
National Center for Education Research —NCER supports research to improve student outcomes and education quality in the United States and pursue workable solutions to the challenges faced by educators and the education community. NCER supports training programs to prepare researchers to conduct high quality, scientific education research. Dr. Elizabeth Albro is the Commissioner of NCER. National Center for Education Statistics —NCES is the primary federal entity that collects and analyzes data related to education in the United States and other nations. Among the programs and initiatives that NCES oversees is the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Dr. James Lynn Woodworth is the Commissioner of NCES. National Center for Special Education Research —NCSER sponsors and supports comprehensive research, designed to expand the knowledge and understanding of infants and children with disabilities, or those who are at risk of developing disabilities. NCSER supports training programs to prepare researchers to conduct high quality, scientific special education research.
Dr. Joan E. McLaughlin is the commissioner of NCSER; the National Board for Education Sciences serves as an advisory board for IES and has 15 voting members, who are appointed by the President of the United States. The Board includes several ex-officio, non-voting members, including the director of IES, the commissioners of the four centers, representatives of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the U. S. Census Bureau, the U. S. Department of Labor, the National Science Foundation; the Board advises and consults with the director and the commissioners to identify research and organizational priorities for IES. Dr. Larry Hedges, of Northwestern University, is the chairman of the National Board for Education Sciences. Title 34 of the Code of Federal Regulations Institute of Education Sciences Official Website National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance Website
A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools can provide both lower secondary education and upper secondary education, but these can be provided in separate schools, as in the American middle and high school system. Secondary schools follow on from primary schools and lead into vocational and tertiary education. Attendance is compulsory in most countries for students between the ages of 11 and 16; the organisations and terminology are more or less unique in each country. Within the English speaking world, there are three used systems to describe the age of the child; the first is the'equivalent ages' countries that base their education systems on the'English model' use one of two methods to identify the year group, while countries that base their systems on the'American K-12 model' refer to their year groups as'grades'. This terminology extends into research literature. Below is a convenient comparison.
The building needs to accommodate: Curriculum content Teaching methods Costs Education within the political framework Use of school building Constraints imposed by the site Design philosophyEach country will have a different education system and priorities. Schools need to accommodate students, storage and electrical systems, support staff, ancillary staff and administration; the number of rooms required can be determined from the predicted roll of the school and the area needed. According to standards used in the United Kingdom, a general classroom for 30 students needs to be 55 m², or more generously 62 m². A general art room for 30 students needs to be 83 m ². A drama studio or a specialist science laboratory for 30 needs to be 90 m². Examples are given on, and 1,850 place secondary school. The building providing the education has to fulfil the needs of: The students, the teachers, the non-teaching support staff, the administrators and the community, it has to meet general government building guidelines, health requirements, minimal functional requirements for classrooms and showers, electricity and services and storage of textbooks and basic teaching aids.
An optimum secondary school will meet the minimum conditions and will have: adequately sized classrooms. Government accountants having read the advice publish minimum guidelines on schools; these enable environmental establishing building costs. Future design plans are audited to ensure. Government ministries continue to press for cost standards to be reduced; the UK government published this downwardly revised space formula in 2014. It said the floor area should be 1050m² + 6.3m²/pupil place for 11- to 16-year-olds + 7m²/pupil place for post-16s. The external finishes were to be downgraded to meet a build cost of £1113/m². A secondary school locally may be called high senior high school. In some countries there are two phases to secondary education and, here the junior high school, intermediate school, lower secondary school, or middle school occurs between the primary school and high school. Names for secondary schools by countryArgentina: secundaria or polimodal, escuela secundaria Australia: high school, secondary college Austria: Gymnasium, Hauptschule, Höhere Bundeslehranstalt, Höhere Technische Lehranstalt Azerbaijan: orta məktəb Bahamas, The: junior high, senior high Belgium: lagere school/école primaire, secundair onderwijs/école secondaire, humaniora/humanités Bolivia: educación primaria superior and educación secundaria and Herzegovina: srednja škola, gimnazija Brazil: ensino médio, segundo grau Brunei: sekolah menengah, a few maktab Bulgaria: cредно образование Canada: High school, junior high or middle school, secondary school, école secondaire, collegiate institute, polyvalente Chile: enseñanza media China: zhong xue, consisting of chu zhong from grades 7 to 9 and gao zhong from grades 10 to 12 Colombia: bachillerato, segunda enseñanza Croatia: srednja škola, gimnazija Cyprus: Γυμνάσιο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο Czech Republic: střední škola, gymnázium, střední odborné učiliště Denmark: gymnasium Dominican Republic: nivel medio, bachillerato Egypt: Thanawya Amma, Estonia: upper secondary school, Lyceum Finland: lukio gymnasium France: collège, lycée Germany: Gymnasium, Realschule, Fachoberschule Greece: Γυμνάσιο, Γενικό Λύκειο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο, Hong Kong: Secondary school Hungary: gimnázium, k
Sierra Madre, California
Sierra Madre is a city in Los Angeles County, California whose population was 10,917 at the 2010 U. S. Census, up from 10,580 at the time of the 2000 U. S. Census; the city is in the foothills of the San Gabriel Valley below the southern edge of the Angeles National Forest. Pasadena and Altadena are with Arcadia to its south and east. Sierra Madre is known as "Wisteria City", its city seal is decorated with a drawing of the now known 500-foot vine, it is called the "Village of the Foothills" and was an All-America City in 2007. In 500 CE, Tongva Indians, the native people migrated from the Mojave area to what would become Los Angeles County, their name means "People of the Earth". Their primary language was Uto-Aztecan Shoshonean. In the 16th century there were about 25 Tongva villages, with a population of 400 people. By 1769, the first Spanish settlers arrived in the region, finding an estimated 5,000 Tongva living in 31 villages. Sierra Madre was the site of a settlement named Sonayna. Two years Mission San Gabriel Arcangel was founded in today's Montebello.
The mission was moved to San Gabriel because of severe flooding from the Rio Hondo River, which ruined their crops. The original mission site is now marked by a California Historical Landmark. Tongvas were integrated into the culture of the mission, the tribe were renamed Gabrielino Indians by the Spaniards; the first Mount Wilson trail was carved by the Gabrielino Indians, used by them when they carried timber down from the mountains for the construction of the San Gabriel Mission in 1771. Using Mexican and Chinese laborers, Benjamin "Don Benito" Wilson expanded the Mount Wilson Trail in 1864. Nathaniel Carter purchased the original 1,103 acres that comprise Sierra Madre in 1881: 845 acres from "Lucky Baldwin", 108 acres from the Southern Pacific Railroad Company. In 1888, the Santa Anita railroad station was built; the first of the year brought Pacific Electric Railway Red Car passenger service to Sierra Madre. That year the first electric lights were installed by the Edison Electric Company.
In December 1906, the first telephones were installed, 250 of them, by the Home Telephone Company of Monrovia. On February 2, 1907, the first citywide election was held and 96 citizens voted 71–25 to incorporate Sierra Madre. Eighteen days Sierra Madre became incorporated as a California city. Charles Worthington Jones was the first mayor. Sierra Madre is linked to the old mountain resorts of the San Gabriel Mountains and Valley; the Sierra Madre Villa Hotel was a pioneer of summer resorts that populated the San Gabriel Valley in the late 19th century. The municipality operated and maintained the landmark "Lizzie's Trail" inn at the head of Old Mount Wilson Trail. Harvard College established the first Mount Wilson Observatory in 1889; the installation of the Harvard telescope in 1889, which brought its own problems of transporting the instrument up the old Wilson trail, caused an interest in a Mt. Wilson roadway, something more than a trail; the Harvard telescope was removed and in July the new toll road was opened to the public.
The toll was set by the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors at 25 cents for hikers and 50 cents for horseback. The new road was called the "New Mt. Wilson Trail" and it was more popular at the time than the old Sierra Madre trail. Foot and pack animal traffic became so heavy; the Pacific Electric "Red Cars" established their route to Sierra Madre from 1906 until 1950. Thousands of people rode the cars to Sierra Madre to hike the original Mt. Wilson Trail. In 1908, the first Mt. Wilson Trail Race was run; this annual race was discontinued during WWII and reestablished in 1966. The 102nd anniversary of the first running of the Mount Wilson Trail Race and the 44th annual race was run in May 2010; because of rain, falling trees, soil erosion and rockslides, the monitored trail course changes every year, no official records of running times are kept. The 8.6-mile course starts and ends on pavement, but most of the race is run on a dirt path about three feet wide, the Mt. Wilson Trail has occasional steep vertical drops of hundreds of feet.
Due to the trail's narrowness and steepness, the race is limited to 300 female runners. The path gains elevation to more than 2,100 feet. Scout troops hike up to provide water at two locations, at the 2.3-mile point and at the Orchard Camp turnaround. The Sierra Madre Search and Rescue Team provides emergency support on race day; the Mt. Wilson Trail Race has historical value to the community. A year after the city's incorporation, Roman Catholic families contacted a priest from Chicago, Father M. W. Barth, who had moved west for his health, to ask if he could celebrate Mass for them; the construction of the first small, church of St. Rita's parish, founded by Barth in 1908, was completed in 1910. In 1922, St. Rita's Catholic Church parochial school opened. During the first 100 years of St. Rita's Parish, it has on record 4,075 baptisms, 3,590 confirmations, 1,334 marriages and 1,469 funerals; the scattering of families that began with Barth in 1908 has grown to more than 1,200 Catholic parish homes today, in a city whose population is now 10,580.
In 1914, after a long legal battle, the city acquired title to all water rights and distributing systems of the Baldwin Estate and the Sierra Madre Water Company. In 1921, a
California Institute of Technology
The California Institute of Technology is a private doctorate-granting research university in Pasadena, California. Known for its strength in natural science and engineering, Caltech is ranked as one of the world's top-ten universities. Although founded as a preparatory and vocational school by Amos G. Throop in 1891, the college attracted influential scientists such as George Ellery Hale, Arthur Amos Noyes and Robert Andrews Millikan in the early 20th century; the vocational and preparatory schools were disbanded and spun off in 1910 and the college assumed its present name in 1921. In 1934, Caltech was elected to the Association of American Universities and the antecedents of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, which Caltech continues to manage and operate, were established between 1936 and 1943 under Theodore von Kármán; the university is one among a small group of institutes of technology in the United States, devoted to the instruction of pure and applied sciences. Caltech has six academic divisions with strong emphasis on science and engineering, managing $332 million in 2011 in sponsored research.
Its 124-acre primary campus is located 11 mi northeast of downtown Los Angeles. First-year students are required to live on campus and 95% of undergraduates remain in the on-campus House System at Caltech. Although Caltech has a strong tradition of practical jokes and pranks, student life is governed by an honor code which allows faculty to assign take-home examinations; the Caltech Beavers compete in 13 intercollegiate sports in the NCAA Division III's Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference. As of October 2018, Caltech alumni and researchers include 73 Nobel Laureates, 4 Fields Medalists, 6 Turing Award winners. In addition, there are 53 non-emeritus faculty members who have been elected to one of the United States National Academies, 4 Chief Scientists of the U. S. Air Force and 71 have won the United States National Medal of Technology. Numerous faculty members are associated with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute as well as NASA. According to a 2015 Pomona College study, Caltech ranked number one in the U.
S. for the percentage of its graduates who go on to earn a PhD. Caltech started as a vocational school founded in Pasadena in 1891 by local businessman and politician Amos G. Throop; the school was known successively as Throop University, Throop Polytechnic Institute and Throop College of Technology before acquiring its current name in 1920. The vocational school was disbanded and the preparatory program was split off to form an independent Polytechnic School in 1907. At a time when scientific research in the United States was still in its infancy, George Ellery Hale, a solar astronomer from the University of Chicago, founded the Mount Wilson Observatory in 1904, he joined Throop's board of trustees in 1907, soon began developing it and the whole of Pasadena into a major scientific and cultural destination. He engineered the appointment of James A. B. Scherer, a literary scholar untutored in science but a capable administrator and fund raiser, to Throop's presidency in 1908. Scherer persuaded retired businessman and trustee Charles W. Gates to donate $25,000 in seed money to build Gates Laboratory, the first science building on campus.
In 1910, Throop moved to its current site. Arthur Fleming donated the land for the permanent campus site. Theodore Roosevelt delivered an address at Throop Institute on March 21, 1911, he declared: I want to see institutions like Throop turn out ninety-nine of every hundred students as men who are to do given pieces of industrial work better than any one else can do them. In the same year, a bill was introduced in the California Legislature calling for the establishment of a publicly funded "California Institute of Technology", with an initial budget of a million dollars, ten times the budget of Throop at the time; the board of trustees offered to turn Throop over to the state, but the presidents of Stanford University and the University of California lobbied to defeat the bill, which allowed Throop to develop as the only scientific research-oriented education institute in southern California, public or private, until the onset of the World War II necessitated the broader development of research-based science education.
The promise of Throop attracted physical chemist Arthur Amos Noyes from MIT to develop the institution and assist in establishing it as a center for science and technology. With the onset of World War I, Hale organized the National Research Council to coordinate and support scientific work on military problems. While he supported the idea of federal appropriations for science, he took exception to a federal bill that would have funded engineering research at land-grant colleges, instead sought to raise a $1 million national research fund from private sources. To that end, as Hale wrote in The New York Times: Throop College of Technology, in Pasadena California has afforded a striking illustration of one way in which the Research Council can secure co-operation and advance scientific investigation; this institution, with its able investigators and excellent research laboratories, could be of great service in any broad scheme of cooperation. President S
Pre-kindergarten is a classroom-based preschool program for children below the age of five in the United States and Turkey. It may be delivered within a reception year in elementary school. Pre-kindergartens play an important role in early childhood education, they have existed in the US since 1922 run by private organizations. The U. S. Head Start program, the country's first federally funded pre-kindergarten program, was founded in 1967; this attempts to prepare children to succeed in school. The term "pre-kindergarten" is used interchangeably with the concepts of "nursery care" and "child care", they could involve academic training, or they could involve socializing activities. Pre-kindergartens differentiate themselves from other child care by focusing on building a child's social development, physical development, emotional development, cognitive development, they follow a set of organization-created teaching standards in shaping curriculum and instructional activities and goals. The term "preschool" more approximates the name "pre-kindergarten", for both focus on harvesting the same four child development areas in subject-directed fashion.
The term "preschool" refers to such schools that are owned and operated as private or parochial schools. Pre-kindergartens refer to such school classrooms that function within a public school under the supervision of a public school administrator and funded by state or federally allocated funds, private donations. Most school districts describe Pre-Kindergarten as "an early learning program to prepare children for kindergarten who are identified as at risk". Pre-kindergarten provides learning to children who are 4 years old on or before September 1. Preschool provides learning to children who are 3 years olds on or before September 1. Most programs are 3 hours but extended day is offered in some schools. "K-2" is used interchangeably with "pre-kindergarten". Although early childhood education experts criticize the use of the term as a way to rationalize utilizing a kindergarten model and teaching kindergarten skills in pre-kindergarten classes, public school districts continue to incorporate the term as a way to integrate pre-kindergarten into the stable of accountability under the No Child Left Behind Act.
In 2013, Michigan and the city of San Antonio, enacted or expanded Pre-K programs. In New York City, mayor Bill de Blasio was elected on a pledge of Pre-K for all city children. A poll conducted in July for an early education nonprofit advocate found that 60 percent of registered Republicans and 84 percent of Democrats supported expanding public preschool by raising the federal tobacco tax. Funding for Pre-K has proven a substantial obstacle for expanding programs; the issue produced multiple approaches. Several governors and mayors targeted existing budgets. San Antonio increased sales taxes, while Maine look to gambling. In Oregon 20% of kids have access to publicly funded Pre-K of any kind, a 2016 campaign is working to fund Pre-K to 12 education, for all kids whose parents want them to have the option of Pre-K. A 2012 review by the National Institute for Early Education Research at Rutgers University identified Oklahoma and West Virginia as among the leaders in public program quality and fraction of enrolled children.
Florida had the highest enrollment in 2012 — four-fifths of all four-year-olds. About 84 percent were in religion-based or family centers; that state's preschool programs did not fare well on quality measures. Other states with more than 50 percent enrollment included Wisconsin, Iowa and Vermont. Florida was one of the first states to establish free prekindergarten; the programs offer a jump start to young children on their education. The program is open to all 4 and 5-year-olds who reside in Florida and have birthdays before September 1st of the current school year. Voluntary Pre-Kindergarten gives each child an opportunity to perform better in school and in the future. A strong emphasis is put on literacy skills and smaller class sizes; these high-quality programs aid children in becoming strong readers and improving social and developmental skills. There are several different programs for parents to choose from, they differentiate in class size, instructional hours, teacher credentials. Florida VPK programs offer specialized instruction for children with special needs.
Benefits of the VPK program include better behavior, preparation for Kindergarten, a promoted love of learning for children. The skills children learn at home are enhanced by Voluntary Pre-Kindergarten. A 2018 study in the Journal of Public Economics found in Italy that pre-kindergarten "increased mothers' participation in the labor market and lowered the reservation wage of the unemployed, thus increasing their likelihood of finding a job" but "did not affect children's cognitive development, irrespective of their family background."Pre-Kindergarten gives each child an opportunity to perform better in school and in the future. A strong emphasis is put on literacy skills and smaller class sizes; these programs aid children in becoming strong readers and improving social and developmental skills. There are several different programs for parents to choose from, they differentiate in class size, instructional hours, teacher credentials. Select programs offer specialized instruction for