National Register of Historic Places listings in Nebraska
This is a list of more than 1,100 properties and districts in Nebraska that are on the National Register of Historic Places. Of these, 20 are National Historic Landmarks. There are listings in 90 of the state's 93 counties; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. There are no properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Blaine County. There are no properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Logan County. There are no properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places in McPherson County. List of National Historic Landmarks in Nebraska Nebraska National Register Sites–Nebraska State Historical Society
This article is about tangible folk art objects. For performance folk arts, see Folk arts. Folk art covers all forms of visual art made in the context of folk culture. Definitions vary, but the objects have practical utility of some kind, rather than being decorative; the makers of folk art are trained within a popular tradition, rather than in the fine art tradition of the culture. There is overlap, or contested ground, with naive art, but in traditional societies where ethnographic art is still made, that term is used instead of "folk art"; the types of object covered by the term varies and in particular "divergent categories of cultural production are comprehended by its usage in Europe, where the term originated, in the United States, where it developed for the most part along different lines." In America, "folk art" is more to include contemporary or recent works of "Outsider art" and similar types, that elsewhere might be called "popular art". Folk arts are reflective of the cultural life of a community.
They encompass the body of expressive culture associated with the fields of folklore and cultural heritage. Tangible folk art includes objects which are crafted and used within a traditional community. Intangible folk arts include such forms as music and narrative structures; each of these arts, both tangible and intangible, was developed to address a real need. Once this practical purpose has been lost or forgotten, there is no reason for further transmission unless the object or action has been imbued with meaning beyond its initial practicality; these vital and reinvigorated artistic traditions are shaped by values and standards of excellence that are passed from generation to generation, most within family and community, through demonstration and practice. Objects of folk art are a subset of material culture, include objects which are experienced through the senses, by seeing and touching; as with all material culture, these tangible objects can be handled re-experienced and sometimes broken.
They are considered works of art because of the skillful technical execution of an existing form and design. As folk art, these objects share several characteristics which distinguish them from other artifacts of material culture; the object is created by a single team of artisans. The craftsmen and women work within an established cultural framework, they have a recognizable style and method in crafting their pieces, allowing their products to be recognized and attributed to a single individual or workshop. This was articulated by Alois Riegl in his study of "Volkskunst, und Hausindustrie", published in 1894. "Riegl … stressed that the individual hand and intentions of the artist were significant in folk creativity. To be sure, the artist may have been obliged by group expectations to work within the norms of transmitted forms and conventions, but individual creativity – which implied personal aesthetic choices and technical virtuosity – saved received or inherited traditions from stagnating and permitted them to be renewed in each generation."
Individual innovation in the production process plays an important role in the continuance of these traditional forms. Many folk art traditions like quilting, ornamental picture framing, decoy carving continue to thrive, while new forms emerge. Contemporary outsider artists are self-taught as their work is developed in isolation or in small communities across the country; the Smithsonian American Art Museum houses over 70 such self-taught artists. All folk art objects are produced in a one-off production process. Only one object is made at a time, either in a combination of hand and machine methods; as a result of this manual production, each individual piece is unique and can be differentiated from other objects of the same type. In his essay on "Folk Objects", folklorist Simon Bronner references preindustrial modes of production, but folk art objects continue to be made as unique crafted pieces by skilled artisans. "The notion of folk objects tends to emphasize the handmade over machine manufactured.
Folk objects imply a mode of production common to preindustrial communal society where knowledge and skills were personal and traditional." This does not mean that all folk art is old, it continues to be hand-crafted today in many regions around the world. The design and production of folk art is taught informally or formally. Folk art does not strive for individual expression. Instead, "the concept of group art implies, indeed requires, that artists acquire their abilities, both manual and intellectual, at least in part from communication with others; the community has something a great deal, to say about what passes for acceptable folk art." The training in a handicraft was done as apprenticeships with local craftsmen, such as the blacksmith or the stonemason. As the equipment and tools needed were no longer available in the community, these traditional crafts moved into technical schools or applied arts schools; the object is recognizable within its cultural framework as being of a known type.
Similar objects can be found in the environment made by other individuals which resemble this object. Without exception, individual pieces of folk art will reference other works in the culture as they show
National Register of Historic Places listings in Minnesota
This is a list of sites in Minnesota which are included in the National Register of Historic Places. There are more than 1,600 properties and historic districts listed on the NRHP. Twenty-two sites are National Historic Landmarks. Minneapolis listings are in the Hennepin County list; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. The following are approximate tallies of current listings by county; these counts are based on entries in the National Register Information Database as of April 24, 2008 and new weekly listings posted since on the National Register of Historic Places web site. There are frequent additions to the listings and occasional delistings and the counts here are approximate and not official. New entries are added to the official Register on a weekly basis; the counts in this table exclude boundary increase and decrease listings which modify the area covered by an existing property or district and which carry a separate National Register reference number.
The numbers of NRHP listings in each county are documented by tables in each of the individual county list-articles. List of National Historic Landmarks in Minnesota National Register of Historic Places listings in Voyageurs National Park
A pagoda is a tiered tower with multiple eaves, built in traditions originating as stupa in historic South Asia and further developed in East Asia with respect to those traditions, common to Nepal, Japan, Vietnam, India, Sri Lanka and other parts of Asia. Some pagodas are used as Taoist houses of worship. Most pagodas were built to have a religious function, most Buddhist, were located in or near viharas. In some countries, the term may refer to other religious structures. In Vietnam and Cambodia, due to French translation, the English term pagoda is a more generic term referring to a place of worship, although pagoda is not an accurate word to describe a Buddhist vihara; the modern pagoda is an evolution of the stupa. Stupas are a tomb-like structure where sacred relics could be kept venerated; the architectural structure of the stupa has spread across Asia, taking on many diverse forms as details specific to different regions are incorporated into the overall design. Many Philippine bell towers are influenced by pagodas through Chinese workers hired by the Spaniards.
One proposed etymology is from a South Chinese pronunciation of the term for an eight-cornered tower, Chinese: 八角塔, reinforced by the name of a famous pagoda encountered by many early European visitors to China, the "Pázhōu tǎ", standing just south of Guangzhou at Whampoa Anchorage. Another proposed etymology is Persian butkada, from but, "idol" and kada, "temple, dwelling."Another etymology, found in many English language dictionaries, is modern English pagoda from Portuguese, from Sanskrit bhagavati, feminine of bhagavat, "blessed", from bhag, "good fortune". Yet another etymology of pagoda is from the Sinhala word dāgaba, derived from Sanskrit dhātugarbha or Pali dhātugabbha: "relic womb/chamber" or "reliquary shrine", i.e. a stupa, by way of Portuguese. The origin of the pagoda can be traced to the stupa; the stupa, a dome shaped monument, was used as a commemorative monument associated with storing sacred relics. In East Asia, the architecture of Chinese towers and Chinese pavilions blended into pagoda architecture also spreading to Southeast Asia.
The pagoda's original purpose was to sacred writings. This purpose was popularized due to the efforts of Buddhist missionaries, pilgrims and ordinary devotees to seek out and extol Buddhist relics. On the other side, the stupa emerged as a distinctive style of Newa architecture of Nepal and was adopted in Southeast and East Asia. Nepali architect Araniko shared his skills to build stupa buildings in China; these buildings became prominent. Chinese iconography is noticeable in Chinese pagoda as well as other East Asian pagoda architectures; the image of Gautama Buddha in the abhaya mudrā is noticeable in some Pagodas. Buddhist iconography can be observed throughout the pagoda symbolism. In an article on Buddhist elements in Han dynasty art, Wu Hung suggests that in these tombs, Buddhist symbolism was so well-incorporated into native Chinese traditions that a unique system of symbolism had been developed. Pagodas attract lightning strikes because of their height. Many pagodas have a decorated finial at the top of the structure, when made of metal, this finial, sometimes referred to as a "demon-arrester", can function as a lightning rod.
Pagodas come in many different sizes, as some may be small and others may be large. Pagodas traditionally have an odd number of levels, a notable exception being the eighteenth century pagoda designed by Sir William Chambers at the Royal Botanic Gardens, London; the pagodas in Myanmar, Thailand and Cambodia are different from Chinese and Japanese pagodas. Pagodas in those countries are derived from Dravidian architecture. Tiered towers with multiple eaves: Songyue Pagoda on Mount Song, China, built in 523. Mireuksa at Iksan, built in the early 7th century. Bunhwangsa at Gyeongju, built in 634. Xumi Pagoda at Zhengding, China, built in 636. Daqin Pagoda in China, built in 640. Hwangnyongsa Wooden nine-story pagoda on Hwangnyongsa, Korea, built in 645. Pagoda at Hōryū-ji, Nara, built in the 7th century. Giant Wild Goose Pagoda, built in Xi'an, China in 704 Small Wild Goose Pagoda, built in Xi'an, China in 709. Seokgatap on Bulguksa, Korea, built in 751. Dabotap on Bulguksa, Korea, built in 751. Tiger Hill Pagoda, built in 961 outside of Suzhou, China Lingxiao Pagoda at Zhengding, China, built in 1045.
Iron Pagoda of Kaifeng, built in 1049, during the Song dynasty. Liaodi Pagoda of Dingzhou, built in 1055 during the Song dynasty Pagoda of Fogong Temple, built in 1056 in Ying County, China. Pizhi Pagoda of Lingyan Temple, China, 11th century. Beisi Pagoda at Suzhou, China, built in 1162. Liuhe Pagoda of Hangzhou, built in 1165, during the Song dynasty. Ichijō-ji, Kasai, Hyōgo, built in 1171; the Porcelain Tower of Nanjing, built between 1402 and 1424, a wonder of the medieval world in Nanjing, China. Tsui Sing Lau Pagoda in Ping Shan, Hong Kong, built in 1486. Dragon and Tiger Pagodas in Kaohsiung, built in 1976. Seven-storey Pagoda in Chinese Garden at Jurong East, built in 1975. Pazhou Pagoda on Whampoa Island, China, built in 1600. Pagoda of the Celestial Lady, in Huế, built in 1601. Palsangjeon, a five-story pagoda at Beopjusa, Korea built in 1605. Tō-ji, the tallest wooden structure in Kyoto, built in 1644. Nyatapola at Bhaktapur, Kathmandu Valley built during 1701–1702; the Great Pagoda at Kew Gardens, London, UK, built in 1762.
Trấn Quốc Pagoda, Ha
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
National Register of Historic Places architectural style categories
In the United States, the National Register of Historic Places classifies its listings by various types of architecture. Listed properties are given one or more of 40 standard architectural style classifications that appear in the National Register Information System database. Other properties are given a custom architectural description with "vernacular" or other qualifiers, others have no style classification. Many National Register-listed properties do not fit into the several categories listed here, or they fit into more specialized subcategories; the complete list of the 40 architectural style codes in the National Register Information System—NRIS follows: Obs — ARSTYLCD — ARSTYL 1 — 01 NO STYLE LISTED 2 — 10 COLONIAL 3 — 11 GEORGIAN 4 — 20 EARLY REPUBLIC 5 — 21 FEDERAL 6 — 30 MID 19TH CENTURY REVIVAL 7 — 31 GREEK REVIVAL 8 — 32 GOTHIC REVIVAL 9 — 33 ITALIAN VILLA 10 — 34 EXOTIC REVIVAL 11 — 40 LATE VICTORIAN 12 — 41 GOTHIC 13 — 42 ITALIANATE 14 — 43 SECOND EMPIRE 15 — 44 STICK/EASTLAKE 16 — 45 QUEEN ANNE 17 — 46 SHINGLE STYLE 18 — 47 ROMANESQUE 19 — 48 RENAISSANCE 20 — 49 OCTAGON MODE 21 — 50 LATE 19TH AND 20TH CENTURY REVIVALS 22 — 51 COLONIAL REVIVAL 23 — 52 CLASSICAL REVIVAL 24 — 53 TUDOR REVIVAL 25 — 54 LATE GOTHIC REVIVAL 26 — 55 MISSION/SPANISH REVIVAL 27 — 56 BEAUX ARTS 28 — 57 PUEBLO 29 — 60 LATE 19TH AND EARLY 20TH CENTURY AMERICAN MOVEMENTS 30 — 61 PRAIRIE SCHOOL 31 — 62 EARLY COMMERCIAL 32 — 63 CHICAGO 33 — 64 SKYSCRAPER 34 — 65 BUNGALOW/CRAFTSMAN 35 — 70 MODERN MOVEMENT 36 — 71 MODERNE 37 — 72 INTERNATIONAL STYLE 38 — 73 ART DECO 39 — 80 OTHER 40 — 90 MIXED Some selected National Register Information System styles, with examples, include: Federal architecture was the classicizing architecture style built in the newly founded United States between c. 1780 and 1830.
Examples include: the Old Town Hall in Massachusetts, Plumb House in Virginia. Greek Revival architecture is a Neoclassical movement of the late 18th and early 19th centuries in Europe, it emerged in the U. S. following the War of 1812 and while a revolutionary war in Greece attracted America's interest. Greek Revival architecture was popularized by Minard Lafever's pattern books: The Young Builders' General Instructor in 1829, the Modern Builders' Guide in 1833, The Beauties of Modern Architecture in 1835, The Architectural Instructor in 1850. Greek Revival in the U. S. includes vernacular versions such as the 1839 Simsbury Townhouse built by an unknown craftsman and the Dicksonia Plantation, high-style versions such as the Second Bank of the United States, Philadelphia. Plantation houses Many plantation houses in the Southern United States were built in Greek Revival variations, including Millford Plantation, Melrose and Annandale Plantation Examples of the American revival of classical Palladian architecture include: The Rotunda by Thomas Jefferson at the University of Virginia, the Hammond-Harwood House in Annapolis, Maryland.
Late Victorian architecture is distributed on the register's listings, for many building types in every state. The Carpenter Gothic style was popular for Late Victorian wooden churches; the Queen Anne style was popular in American Victorian architecture, after the earlier Italianate style, is frequent on NRHP residential listings. The Shingle Style is an American variation of Queen Anne. A grouping of historicist architecture Revival styles, with the title Late 19th and 20th Century Revivals, has been applied by the NRHP for many listings. There are numerous listed buildings designed in an amalgam of several to many revival styles that defy a singular or simpler classification title. Mission/Spanish Revival is an amalgam of two distinct styles popular in different but adjacent eras: the late-19th-century Mission Revival Style architecture and early-20th-century Spanish Colonial Revival architecture; the combined term, or the individual terms, are used in the style classifications of NRHP listed buildings.
Pueblo Revival Style architecture is a revival style based on traditional Native American Pueblo architecture of adobe dwellings–communities in the Pueblo culture in present-day New Mexico, northeastern Arizona, southwestern Colorado. Examples include the Institute of American Indian Arts, La Fonda on the Plaza, the Mabel Dodge Luhan House in New Mexico, the Painted Desert Inn in Arizona. Exotic Revival architecture is another style that may reflect a mix of Moorish Revival architecture, Egyptian Revival architecture, other influences. Just a few of many National Register-listed places identified with this style are El Zaribah Shrine Auditorium, Odd Fellows Rest Cemetery, Fort Smith Masonic Temple, Algeria Shrine Temple. Examples in California include Grauman's Egyptian Theatre in Hollywood, the Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum in San Jose; the Mayan Revival architecture style blends Maya architectural and artistic motifs with those of other Mesoamerican cultures of Aztec architecture. Examples include: the Mayan Theater in Downtown Los Angeles.
S. Route 66 in Southern California. "Postmedieval English" architecture is a style term used for a number of NRHP listings, including William Ward Jr. House in Middlefield, Connecticut. "Late 19th and Early 20th Century American Movements" ar
National Register of Historic Places listings in Iowa
This is a list of properties and historic districts in Iowa that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. There are listings in all of Iowa's 99 counties; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. The following are approximate tallies of current listings by county; these counts are based on entries in the National Register Information Database as of April 24, 2008 and new weekly listings posted since on the National Register of Historic Places web site. There are frequent additions to the listings and occasional delistings and the counts here are approximate and not official. New entries are added to the official Register on a weekly basis; the counts in this table exclude boundary increase and decrease listings which modify the area covered by an existing property or district and which carry a separate National Register reference number. The numbers of NRHP listings in each county are documented by tables in each of the individual county list-articles.
List of National Historic Landmarks in Iowa