Equestrianism, more known as horse riding or horseback riding, refers to the skill and sport of riding, steeplechasing or vaulting with horses. This broad description includes the use of horses for practical working purposes, recreational activities, artistic or cultural exercises, competitive sport. Horses are trained and ridden for practical working purposes, such as in police work or for controlling herd animals on a ranch, they are used in competitive sports including, but not limited to, endurance riding, reining, show jumping, tent pegging, polo, horse racing and rodeo. Some popular forms of competition are grouped together at horse shows where horses perform in a wide variety of disciplines. Horses are used for non-competitive recreational riding such as fox hunting, trail riding, or hacking. There is public access to horse trails in every part of the world. Horses are used for therapeutic purposes both in specialized para-equestrian competition as well as non-competitive riding to improve human health and emotional development.
Horses are driven in harness racing, at horse shows, in other types of exhibition such as historical reenactment or ceremony pulling carriages. In some parts of the world, they are still used for practical purposes such as farming. Horses continue to be used in public service: in traditional ceremonies and volunteer mounted patrols and for mounted search and rescue. Riding halls enable the training of horse and rider in all weathers as well as indoor competition riding. Though there is controversy over the exact date horses were domesticated and when they were first ridden, the best estimate is that horses first were ridden 3500 BC. Indirect evidence suggests. There is some evidence that about 3,000 BC, near the Dnieper River and the Don River, people were using bits on horses, as a stallion, buried there shows teeth wear consistent with using a bit. However, the most unequivocal early archaeological evidence of equines put to working use was of horses being driven. Chariot burials about 2500 BC present the most direct hard evidence of horses used as working animals.
In ancient times chariot warfare was followed by the use of war horses as heavy cavalry. The horse played an important role throughout human history all over the world, both in warfare and in peaceful pursuits such as transportation and agriculture. Horses died out at the end of the Ice Age. Horses were brought back to North America by European explorers, beginning with the second voyage of Columbus in 1493. Equestrianism was introduced in the 1900 Summer Olympics as an Olympic sport with jumping events. Humans appear to have long expressed a desire to know which horse or horses were the fastest, horse racing has ancient roots. Gambling on horse races appears to go hand-in hand with racing and has a long history as well. Thoroughbreds have the pre-eminent reputation as a racing breed, but other breeds race. Under saddle Thoroughbred horse racing is the most popular form worldwide. In the UK, it is governed by the Jockey Club in the United Kingdom. In the USA, horse racing is governed by The Jockey Club.
Steeplechasing involves racing on a track where the horses jump over obstacles. It is most common in the UK, where it is called National Hunt racing. American Quarter Horse racing—races over distances of a quarter-mile. Seen in the United States, sanctioned by the American Quarter Horse Association. Arabian horses, Akhal-Teke, American Paint Horses and other light breeds are raced worldwide. Endurance riding, a sport in which the Arabian horse dominates at the top levels, has become popular in the United States and in Europe; the Federation Equestre International governs international races, the American Endurance Ride Conference organizes the sport in North America. Endurance races take place over a given, measured distance and the horses have an start. Races are 50 to 100 miles, over mountainous or other natural terrain, with scheduled stops to take the horses' vital signs, check soundness and verify that the horse is fit to continue; the first horse to finish and be confirmed by the veterinarian as fit to continue is the winner.
Additional awards are given to the best-conditioned horses who finish in the top 10. Limited distance rides of about 25–20 miles are offered to newcomers. Ride and Tie. Ride and Tie involves three equal partners: one horse; the humans alternately ride. Show jumping: Show jumping is when a horse carries a rider over an obstacle commonly known as a jump. There are multiple jumps in a show, if the horse hits or refuses a jump, points will be deducted from the rider score; this is a timed event, the rider is expected to complete the course in a certain amount of time, without error. There are the hunter divisions. In the hunters, riders have to make their horses look good; the judges look at the quality of the course, if there are two or more riders who had put down amazing courses the judge or judges looks at how the horse looks and acts with the rider. In harness: Both light and heavy breeds as well as ponies are raced in harness with a sulk
The moose or elk, Alces alces is a member of the New World deer subfamily and is the largest and heaviest extant species in the Deer family. Moose are distinguished by the palmate antlers of the males. Moose inhabit boreal forests and temperate broadleaf and mixed forests of the Northern Hemisphere in temperate to subarctic climates. Hunting and other human activities have caused a reduction in the size of the moose's range over time. Moose have been reintroduced to some of their former habitats. Most moose are found in Canada, New England, Baltic states, Russia, their diet consists of both aquatic vegetation. The most common moose predators are the gray wolf along with humans. Unlike most other deer species, moose do not form herds and are solitary animals, aside from calves who remain with their mother until the cow begins estrus, at which point the cow chases away young bulls. Although slow-moving and sedentary, moose can become aggressive and move if angered or startled, their mating season in the autumn features energetic fights between males competing for a female.
Alces alces is called an "elk" in British English. The word "elk" in North American English refers to a different species of deer, the Cervus canadensis called the wapiti. A mature male moose is called a bull, a mature female a cow, an immature moose of either sex a calf; the word "elk" originated in Proto-Germanic, from which Old English evolved and has cognates in other Indo-European languages, e.g. elg in Danish/Norwegian. In the continental-European languages, these forms of the word "elk" always refer to the Alces alces; the word "moose" had first entered English by 1606 and is borrowed from the Algonquian languages, involved forms from multiple languages mutually reinforcing one another. The Proto-Algonquian form was *mo·swa; the moose became extinct in Britain during the Bronze Age, long before the European arrival in the Americas. The youngest bones were found in Scotland and are 3,900 years old; the word "elk" remained in usage because of its existence in continental Europe but, without any living animals around to serve as a reference, the meaning became rather vague to most speakers of English, who used "elk" to refer to "large deer" in general.
Dictionaries of the 18th century described "elk" as a deer, "as large as a horse". Confusingly, the word "elk" is used in North America to refer to a different animal, Cervus canadensis, called by the Algonquian indigenous name, "wapiti"; the British began colonizing America in the 17th century, found two common species of deer for which they had no names. The wapiti appeared similar to the red deer of Europe although it was much larger and was not red; the moose was a rather strange-looking deer to the colonists, they adopted local names for both. In the early days of American colonization, the wapiti was called a grey moose and the moose was called a black moose, but early accounts of the animals varied wildly, adding to the confusion; the wapiti is superficially similar to the red deer of central and western Europe, although it is distinctly different behaviorally and genetically. Early European explorers in North America in Virginia where there were no moose, called the wapiti "elk" because of its size and resemblance to familiar-looking deer like the red deer.
The moose resembled the "German elk", less familiar to the British colonists. For a long time neither species were called a variety of things. In North America the wapiti became known as an elk while the moose retained its Anglicized Native-American name. In 1736, Samuel Dale wrote to the Royal Society of Great Britain: The common light-grey moose, called by the Indians and the large or black-moose, the beast whose horns I herewith present; as to the grey moose, I take it to be no larger than what Mr. John Clayton, in his account of the Virginia Quadrupeds, calls the Elke... was in all respects like those of our red-deer or stags, only larger... The black moose is accounted a large creature.... The stag, buck, or male of this kind has a palmed horn, not like that of our common or fallow-deer, but the palm is much longer, more like that of the German elke. Moose require habitat with adequate edible plants, cover from predators, protection from hot or cold weather. Moose travel among different habitats with the seasons to address these requirements.
Moose are cold-adapted mammals with thickened skin, heat-retaining coat, a low surface:volume ratio, which provides excellent cold tolerance but poor heat tolerance. Moose survive hot weather by immersion in cool water. In hot weather, moose are found wading or swimming in lakes or ponds; when heat-stressed, moose may fail to adequately forage in summer and may not gain adequate body fat to survive the winter. Also
The Nlaka'pamux or Nlakapamuk previously known as the Thompson, Thompson River Salish, Thompson Salish, Thompson River Indians or Thompson River people, as the Klackarpun, Knife Indians and Couteau Indians, are an indigenous First Nations people of the Interior Salish language group in southern British Columbia. Their traditional territory includes parts of the North Cascades region of Washington. Frontier-era histories and maps transliterate the name Nlaka ` pamux as Klackarpun. In the dialect of the Thompson language used by the Ashcroft Indian Band, the variant Nl'akapxm is used; the Nlaka'pamux of the Nicola Valley, who are all in the Nicola Tribal Association reserves refer to themselves Scw'exmx and speak a different dialect of the Thompson language. Together with the Spaxomin people, a branch of the Okanagan people who live in the upper Nicola valley and belong to the Nicola Tribal Association, they are collectively known as the Nicola people, or Nicolas. Vaccinium myrtilloides are used in pies.
The Nlaka'pamux were the object of both Anglican and Roman Catholic missionary efforts in the nineteenth century, resulting in the vast majority belonging to one of the two denominations by the beginning of the Twentieth Century. The Nlaka'pamux Nation Tribal Council despite its name does not include all Nlaka'pamux people, but is one of two main tribal bodies within the region, the other being the Nicola Tribal Association; the Lytton First Nation or Lytton Band, focussed on the town of the same name, named Camchin or Kumsheen in the Nlaka'pamux language and is one of the largest Nlaka'pamux communities, does not belong to any of the three Tribal Association. Lower Nicola Indian band is independent of all and any Tribal affiliations and is located in Lower Nicola, British Columbia, Canada. None of the Nlaka'pamux governments are in the British Columbia Treaty Commission process at present. Boothroyd Indian Band Boston Bar Indian Band Oregon Jack Creek Indian Band Spuzzum Indian Band Lytton Indian Band Skuppah Indian Band Shackan Indian Band Nooaitch Indian Band Upper Nicola Indian Band Coldwater Indian Band Siska Indian Band Cook's Ferry Indian Band Nicomen Indian Band Lower Nicola Indian Band Ashcroft Indian Band Kanaka Bar Indian Band The Nlaka'pamux speak an Interior Salishan language named nɬeʔkepmxcín transliterated as Nlaka'pamuxtsn and known in English as the Thompson language.
The Scw'exmx of the Nicola Valley speak a dialect called Scw'exmx. Scw'exmx Sxe'xn'x Thompson River Salish DictionaryCompiled by Laurence C. Thompson and M. Terry Thompson They Write Their Dreams on the Rock Forever: Rock Writings in the Stein River Valley of British Columbia (with Chris Arnett and Richard Daly Spuzzum: Fraser Canyon Histories, with Andrea LaForet Historical Atlas of British Columbia and the Pacific Northwest, Derek Hayes, Cavendish Books, Vancouver ISBN The Resettlement of British Columbia: Essays on Colonialism & Geographical Change, University of British Columbia Press. My Name is Seepeetza. Douglas and McIntyre, Inc. ISBN 0-88899-290-4. NLaka'pamux Language CD by Barbara Joe Shackan Stories by Jim Toodlican
Okanogan County, Washington
Okanogan County is a county located in the U. S. state of Washington along the Canada–US border. As of the 2010 census, the population was 41,120; the county seat is Okanogan. Its area is the largest in the state. About a fifth of the county's residents live in the Greater Omak Area; the county forms a portion of the Okanogan Country. The first county seat was Ruby. Okanogan County was formed out of Stevens County in February 1888; the name derives from the Okanagan language place name ukʷnaqín. The name Okanogan refers to a part of southern British Columbia. Before Europeans arrived, the Okanogan County region was home to numerous indigenous peoples that would become part of three Indian reservations referred to as the Northern Okanogans or Sinkaietk, Tokoratums and Konkonelps, they spoke in seven types of Interior Salish languages related to the Puget Sound tribes. The Okanogans experienced a favorable climate, camping in the winter, hunting bears in the spring, catching fish in the summer and hunting deer in fall.
The camps consisted of teepee-like longhouses built with hides and bark. Women gathered berries. A popular destination for this was the Kettle Falls. Due to its remoteness, the Okanogan County area was one of the last in Washington settled by white people, it was an early thoroughfare used by prospectors to gain access to other communities, such as British Columbia. By the 21st century, the region specialized in agriculture and tourism. Electric producer Grand Coulee Dam was constructed between 1933 and 1942 with two power plants, around the Okanogan and Grant counties at the former's southern border. In July 2014, the Carlton Complex wildfire burned over 250,000 acres in Okanogan County, it destroyed over 300 homes including 100 in and around Pateros According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 5,315 square miles, of which 5,268 square miles is land and 47 square miles is water, it is the largest county in the state by area, it is larger than three states in land area. Cascade Mountains Columbia River Okanogan River North Gardner Mountain, the highest point in Okanogan County Beaner Lake U.
S. Route 97 State Route 20 State Route 153 Pacific Northwest National Scenic Trail Nez Perce National Historical Park Okanogan National Forest Pasayten Wilderness As of the census of 2000, there were 39,564 people, 15,027 households, 10,579 families residing in the county; the population density was 8 people per square mile. There were 19,085 housing units at an average density of 4 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 75.32% White, 0.28% Black or African American, 11.47% Native American, 0.44% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 9.58% from other races, 2.84% from two or more races. 14.38% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 14.0% were of German, 9.5% English, 9.2% United States or American and 6.8% Irish ancestry. There were 15,027 households out of which 33.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.40% were married couples living together, 11.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.60% were non-families. 24.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.04. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.70% under the age of 18, 7.30% from 18 to 24, 25.50% from 25 to 44, 25.50% from 45 to 64, 14.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 99.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,726, the median income for a family was $35,012. Males had a median income of $29,495 versus $22,005 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,900. About 16.00% of families and 21.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.20% of those under age 18 and 10.40% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 41,120 people, 16,519 households, 10,914 families residing in the county; the population density was 7.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 22,245 housing units at an average density of 4.2 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 73.9% white, 11.4% American Indian, 0.6% Asian, 0.4% black or African American, 0.1% Pacific islander, 10.1% from other races, 3.5% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 17.6% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 21.4% were German, 12.4% were Irish, 12.2% were English, 3.6% were American. Of the 16,519 households, 29.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.7% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.9% were non-families, 28.0% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.96. The median age was 42.9 years. The median income for a household in the county was $38,551 and the median income for a family was $48,418. Males had a median income of $37,960 versus $29,032 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,093. About 14.7% of families and 19.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.3% of those under age 18 and 9.2% of those age 65 or over.
Brewster Okanogan Omak Oroville Pateros Tonasket Conconully Coulee Dam Elmer City Nespelem Riverside Twisp Winthrop Disautel Loomis Malott Methow Nespelem Community North Omak Bodie Bolster Chesaw Molson
Pacific Crest Trail
The Pacific Crest Trail designated as the Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail is a long-distance hiking and equestrian trail aligned with the highest portion of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade mountain ranges, which lie 100 to 150 miles east of the U. S. Pacific coast; the trail's southern terminus is on the U. S. border with Mexico, just south of Campo and its northern terminus on the Canada–US border on the edge of Manning Park in British Columbia. S. is in the states of California and Washington. The Pacific Crest Trail is 2,653 mi long and ranges in elevation from just above sea level at the Oregon–Washington border to 13,153 feet at Forester Pass in the Sierra Nevada; the route passes through 7 national parks. Its midpoint is near Chester, where the Sierra and Cascade mountain ranges meet, it was designated a National Scenic Trail in 1968, although it was not completed until 1993. The PCT was conceived by Clinton Churchill Clarke in 1932, it received official status under the National Trails System Act of 1968.
It is the westernmost and second longest component of the Triple Crown of Hiking and is part of the 6,875-mile Great Western Loop. The route is through National Forest and protected wilderness; the trail covers scenic and pristine mountainous terrain with few roads. It passes through the Laguna, Santa Rosa, San Jacinto, San Bernardino, San Gabriel, Tehachapi, Sierra Nevada, Klamath ranges in California, the Cascade Range in California and Washington. A parallel route for bicycles, the Pacific Crest Bicycle Trail is a 2,500-mile route designed parallel to the PCT on roads; the PCT and PCBT cross in about 27 places along their routes. The Pacific Crest Trail was first proposed by Clinton C. Clarke, as a trail running from Mexico to Canada along the crest of the mountains in California and Washington; the original proposal was to link the John Muir Trail, the Tahoe-Yosemite Trail, the Skyline Trail and the Cascade Crest Trail. The Pacific Crest Trail System Conference was formed by Clarke to both plan the trail and to lobby the federal government to protect the trail.
The conference was founded by Clarke, the Boy Scouts, the YMCA, Ansel Adams. From 1935 through 1938, YMCA groups explored the 2,000 miles of potential trail and planned a route, followed by the modern PCT route. In 1968, President Lyndon B. Johnson defined the PCT and the Appalachian Trail with the National Trails System Act; the PCT was constructed through cooperation between the federal government and volunteers organized by the Pacific Crest Trail Association. In 1993, the PCT was declared finished; the Trust for Public Land has purchased and conserved more than 3,000 acres along the Pacific Crest Trail in Washington. Consolidation of this land has allowed for better recreational access as well as greater ease to manage conservation lands. Thru hiking is a term used in referring to hikers who complete long-distance trails from end to end in a single trip; the Pacific Crest Trail, Appalachian Trail, Continental Divide Trail were the first three long-distance trails in the U. S.. Thru-hiking all of these three trails is known as the Triple Crown of Hiking.
Thru-hiking is a long commitment taking between four and six months, that requires thorough preparation and dedication. The Pacific Crest Trail Association estimates that it takes most hikers between six and eight months to plan their trip. While most hikers travel from the Southern Terminus at the Mexico–US border northward to Manning Park, British Columbia, some hikers prefer a southbound route. In a normal weather year, northbound hikes are most practical due to snow and temperature considerations. Additionally, some hiker services may be better timed for northbound hikers. If snowpack in the Sierra Nevada is high in early June and low in the Northern Cascades, some hikers may choose to'flip-flop.' Flip-flopping can take many forms but describes a process whereby a hiker begins at one end of the trail and at some point, like reaching the Sierra,'flips' to the end of the trail at the Canada–US border and hikes southbound to complete the trail. However, it is not possible to enter the United States from Canada by using the Pacific Crest Trail.
Hikers have to determine their resupply points. Resupply points are towns or post offices where hikers replenish food and other supplies such as cooking fuel. Hikers can ship packages to themselves at the U. S. Post Offices along the trail, resupply at general and grocery stores along the trail, or any combination of the two; the final major logistical step is to create an approximate schedule for completion. Thru hikers have to make sure they complete enough miles every day to reach the opposite end of the trail before weather conditions make sections impassable. For northbound thru-hikers, deep snow pack in the Sierra Nevada can prevent an early start; the timing is a balance between not getting to the Sierra too soon nor the Northern Cascades too late. Most hikers cover about 20 miles per day. In order to reduce their hiking time and thereby increase their chances of completing the trail, many hikers try to reduce their pack weight. Since the creation of the Pacific Crest Trail there has been a large movement by hikers to get away from large heavy packs with a lot of gear.
There are three general classifications for hikers: Traditional and Ultralight. Over the past few years the number of traditional hikers
The wolf known as the grey/gray wolf or timber wolf, is a canine native to the wilderness and remote areas of Eurasia and North America. It is the largest extant member of its family, with males averaging 43 -- females 36 -- 38.5 kg. It is distinguished from other Canis species by its larger size and less pointed features on the ears and muzzle, its winter fur is long and bushy and predominantly a mottled gray in color, although nearly pure white and brown to black occur. Mammal Species of the World, a standard reference work in zoology, recognises 38 subspecies of C. lupus. The gray wolf is the second most specialized member of the genus Canis, after the Ethiopian wolf, as demonstrated by its morphological adaptations to hunting large prey, its more gregarious nature, its advanced expressive behavior, it is nonetheless related enough to smaller Canis species, such as the coyote, golden jackal, to produce fertile hybrids. It is the only species of Canis to have a range encompassing both Eurasia and North America, originated in Eurasia during the Pleistocene, colonizing North America on at least three separate occasions during the Rancholabrean.
It is a social animal, travelling in nuclear families consisting of a mated pair, accompanied by the pair's adult offspring. The gray wolf is an apex predator throughout its range, with only humans and tigers posing a serious threat to it, it feeds on large ungulates, though it eats smaller animals, livestock and garbage. A seven-year-old wolf is considered to be old, the maximum lifespan is about 16 years; the global gray wolf population is estimated to be 300,000. The gray wolf is one of the world's best-known and most-researched animals, with more books written about it than any other wildlife species, it has a long history of association with humans, having been despised and hunted in most pastoral communities because of its attacks on livestock, while conversely being respected in some agrarian and hunter-gatherer societies. Although the fear of wolves is pervasive in many human societies, the majority of recorded attacks on people have been attributed to animals suffering from rabies. Non-rabid wolves have attacked and killed people children, but this is rare, as wolves are few, live away from people, have developed a fear of humans from hunters and shepherds.
The English'wolf' stems from the Old English wulf, itself thought to be derived from the Proto-Germanic *wulfaz. The Latin lupus is a Sabine loanword. Both derive from the Proto-Indo-European root * lukwos; the species Canis lupus was first recorded by Carl Linnaeus in his publication Systema Naturae in 1758, with the Latin classification translating into the English words "dog wolf". The 37 subspecies of Canis lupus are listed under the designated common name of "wolf" in Mammal Species of the World, published in 2005; the nominate subspecies is the Eurasian wolf known as the common wolf. The subspecies includes the domestic dog, eastern wolf and red wolf, but lists C. l. italicus as a synonym of C. l. lupus. However, the classification of several as either species or subspecies has been challenged; the evolution of the wolf occurred over a geologic time scale of at least 300,000 years. The gray wolf Canis lupus is a adaptable species, able to exist in a range of environments and which possesses a wide distribution across the Holarctic.
Studies of modern gray wolves have identified distinct sub-populations that live in close proximity to each other. This variation in sub-populations is linked to differences in habitat – precipitation, temperature and prey specialization – which affect cranio-dental plasticity; the archaeological and paleontological records show gray wolf continuous presence for at least the last 300,000 years. This continuous presence contrasts with genomic analyses, which suggest that all modern wolves and dogs descend from a common ancestral wolf population that existed as as 20,000 years ago; these analyses indicate a population bottleneck, followed by a rapid radiation from an ancestral population at a time during, or just after, the Last Glacial Maximum. However, the geographic origin of this radiation is not known. In 2018, whole genome sequencing was used to compare members of the genus Canis, along with the dhole and the African hunting dog. There is evidence of gene flow between African golden wolves, golden jackals, gray wolves.
One African golden wolf from the Egyptian Sinai Peninsula showed high admixture with the Middle Eastern gray wolves and dogs, highlighting the role of the land bridge between the African and Eurasian continents in canid evolution. There was evidence of gene flow between golden jackals and Middle Eastern wolves, less so with European and Asian wolves, least with North American wolves; the study proposes that the golden jackal ancestry found in North American wolves may have occurred before the divergence of the Eurasian and North American gray wolves. The study indicates that the common ancestor of the coyote and gray wolf has genetically admixed with a ghost population of an extinct unidentified canid; the canid is genetically close to the dhole and has evolved after the divergence of the African hunting dog from the other canid species. The basal position of the coyote compared to the wolf is proposed to be due to the coyote retaining more of the mitochondrial genome of this unknown canid.
In 2013, a genetic study found that the wolf population in Europe was divided along a north-south axis and formed five major clusters. Three clusters were identified occupying southern and
Whatcom County, Washington
Whatcom County is a county located in the U. S. state of Washington. As of the 2010 census, the population was 201,140, it is bordered by Canada on the north, Okanogan County on the east, Skagit County on the south, the Strait of Georgia on the west. The county seat and largest city is Bellingham; the county was created from Island County by the Washington Territorial Legislature in March 1854. It included the territory of present-day San Juan and Skagit Counties, which were organized after additional settlement, its name derives from the Lummi word Xwotʼqom, meaning "noisy water."Whatcom County comprises the Bellingham, WA Metropolitan Statistical Area. Whatcom County's northern border is the Canada–US border with the Canadian province of British Columbia. Adjoining the county on the north are five of metropolitan Vancouver's suburbs, White Rock, Langley, and, in the central Fraser Valley, Abbotsford. Several shopping malls and other services in Bellingham and elsewhere in the county are geared to cross-border shopping and recreation.
The five crossing points are two at Blaine. The Whatcom County area has known human habitation for at least twelve millenia. At least three aboriginal tribes have been identified in the area: Lummi and Semiahmoo; this area was part of the Oregon Country at the start of the nineteenth century, inhabited both by fur prospectors from Canada, Americans seeking land for agricultural and mineral-extraction opportunities. Unable to resolve which country should control this vast area, the Treaty of 1818 provided for joint control. In 1827 the Hudson's Bay Company established Fort Langley near present Lynden. By 1843, the Provisional Government of Oregon had been established, although at first there were questions as to its authority and extent. During its existence, that provisional government formed the area north of the Columbia River first into the Washington Territory, into two vast counties: Clark and Lewis. In 1852, a portion of Lewis County was partitioned off to form Thurston County, in 1853 a portion of the new county was partitioned off to form Island County.
The Washington Territory was formed as a separate governing entity in 1853. In 1854, that legislature carved several counties out of the existing counties, including Whatcom County on March 9, 1854, with area taken from Island County; the original county boundary was reduced in 1873 by the formation of San Juan County, again in 1883 by the formation of Skagit County. A Nooksack chief is the namesake of Whatcom County, taken from the word in the Nooksack language for "noisy water."In 1855 the settlers erected a blockhouse west of Whatcom Creek, to protect against forays from the aboriginal inhabitants who were attempting to defend their homelands. That year the Treaty of Point Elliott was signed, which assigned the Lummi and Semiahmoo peoples a greatly-restricted reserved area; the short-lived Fraser Canyon Gold Rush caused a short-term increase in the county's population, which swelled to over 10,000 before the bubble burst. In 1857 the federal government began the field work necessary to establish the national border between the United States and Canada, agreed on as the forty-ninth parallel in this area, which would mark the north line of Whatcom County.
As the work moved east, several of the workers chose to remain in the area as settlers. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,503 square miles, of which 2,107 square miles is land and 397 square miles is covered by water; the county includes Lake Whatcom. Physiographically, Whatcom County is an extension of the Fraser Valley or "Lower Mainland" area of British Columbia the lowland delta plain of the Fraser River. At some periods in the past, one of the Fraser River's lower arms entered Bellingham Bay near Bellingham via what is now the mouth of the Nooksack River. A small part of the county, Point Roberts, about 5 square miles, is an extension of the Tsawwassen Peninsula, bisected by the Canada–US border along the 49th parallel; the highest point in the county is the peak of the active volcano Mount Baker at 10,778 feet above sea level. The lowest points are at sea level along the Pacific Ocean. Mount Baker National Recreation Area Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest North Cascades National Park Ross Lake National Recreation Area Pacific Northwest National Scenic Trail Birch Bay State Park Lake Terrell Wildlife Refuge Larrabee State Park Lookout Mountain Lummi Island Stewart Mountain Lake Whatcom Watershed Interstate 5 connecting with Seattle, Sacramento, Los Angeles, San Diego and points south.
SR 20 connecting US 101 and Sidney, British Columbia with Newport, Washington via the North Cascades Highway. Farthest north highway thru the Cascade Mountains in USA. Note that this highway does not connect to most of Whatcom County – Instead, a person would have to travel south to Sedro-Woolley in Skagit County to connect to Highway 20. Alaska Marine Highway connecting Alaska highways to the Interstate Highway System. Okanogan County – east Skagit County – south San Juan County – southwest Metro Vancouver – north Fraser Valley Regional District, British Columbia – north Cowichan Val