Gabriel Slaughter was the seventh Governor of Kentucky and was the first person to ascend to that office upon the death of the sitting governor. His family moved to Kentucky from Virginia when he was very young and he became a member of the Kentucky militia, serving throughout his political career. He received a citation from the legislature in recognition of his service at the Battle of New Orleans. After spending a decade in the legislature, Slaughter was elected the fourth Lieutenant Governor. With the War of 1812 looming at the end of his tenure, Slaughter ran for governor against Isaac Shelby, the states first governor, four years later, Slaughter was again elected as lieutenant governor, serving under George Madison. Madison died a short time into his term, whereupon Slaughter became acting governor and he sought to be sworn in as governor, but public sentiment turned against him when he replaced Shelbys son-in-law with John Pope as Secretary of State. Pope was a figure in Kentucky and, after his appointment.
The measure did not pass, but Slaughter was never able to shed the title of acting governor, following his term as governor, Slaughter became a Baptist lay minister and served on the first board of trustees of Georgetown College. He died September 19,1830 and was buried in his familys cemetery, Gabriel Slaughter was born in Culpeper County in the Colony of Virginia on December 12,1767, the son of Robert and Susannah Slaughter. He was educated in the public schools and worked as a farmer. In 1786, Slaughter married a cousin, Sarah Slaughter, Slaughters father visited Kentucky as early as 1776, and moved to Mercer County permanently in 1789. In September 1791, Gabriel Slaughter sold his land in Virginia and he became known for his generosity, and his large mansion on the turnpike to Lexington was nicknamed Wayfarers Rest because of the vast number of travelers that he allowed to stay there. Among his guests was future lieutenant governor Robert B, soon after his arrival in Kentucky, his wife Sarah died, leaving Slaughter to care for his two daughters alone.
In 1795, Slaughter was appointed justice of the peace in Mercer County by Governor Isaac Shelby, the same year, he was named a tax commissioner for a district of Mercer County. On a return trip to Virginia in 1797, Slaughter married his second wife, the couple returned to Slaughters home in Mercer County, where they had three children, John Hord Slaughter, Frances Ann Hord Slaughter, and Felix Grundy Slaughter. Slaughters political career began in earnest with his 1797 election to the Kentucky House of Representatives representing Mercer County and he was named to the Committee on Enrollments, and probably served as chair, since he delivered the committees reports to the Assembly. It is unclear whether he did not seek re-election in 1798, whatever the case, he filled the space of his legislative hiatus by serving as trustee of the newly incorporated Harrodsburg Academy. He was re-elected to the state House in 1799, records show that he served as chairman when the House sat as a committee of the whole on November 25,1799
Tecumseh /tᵻˈkʌmsə, tᵻˈkʌmsi/tə-KUM-sə, tə-KUM-see was a leader of the Shawnee Native Americans. He led a large tribal confederacy against the United States during Tecumsehs War, Tecumseh grew up in the Ohio Country during the American Revolutionary War and the Northwest Indian War, where he was constantly exposed to warfare. With Americans continuing to move west after the British ceded the Ohio Valley to the new United States in 1783, in 1808, they settled Prophetstown in present-day Indiana. During the War of 1812, Tecumsehs confederacy allied with the British, prior to the raid, Chief Tecumseh delivered a powerful speech upon a rock that is preserved to this day at Fort Malden. After the U. S. Navy took control of Lake Erie in 1813, American forces caught them at the Battle of the Thames, and killed Tecumseh in October 1813. With his death, his confederation disintegrated, and the Native Americans had to move west again, yet Tecumseh became a folk hero in American, Aboriginal. Tecumsehs father was named Puckshinwa, a minor Shawnee war chief of the Kispoko band, according to some sources, Puckshinwas father was Muscogee and his mother was Shawnee.
Either because his father died when he was young, or because among the Creeks a husband lives with his wifes family, Tecumsehs mother was Methotaske, Puckshinwas second wife. She is believed to have been Shawnee through her father and her mother, possibly of the Pekowi band, Tecumsehs great-great grandfather on his mothers side, Straight Tail Meaurroway Opessa, was a prominent Chief of the Pekowi and the Turtle Clan. Shawnee lineage was recorded paternally, which made Tecumseh a member of the Kispoko, at the time Tecumsehs parents married, their tribe was living somewhere near modern Tuscaloosa, Alabama. The tribe had lived in that region alongside the Creek tribe since being driven from their homes in the Ohio River Valley by the Iroquois during the 17th-century Beaver Wars, about 1759, the Pekowi band decided to move west into the Ohio Country. Not wanting to force his wife to choose him and her family, Puckshinwa decided to travel north with her. The Pekowi founded the settlement of Chillicothe where Tecumseh was likely born, during the 1760s, Puckshinwa took part in the French and Indian War.
Tecumseh was born about March 1768, Popular tradition locates his birthplace in Old Chillicothe. During Tecumsehs boyhood, white frontiersmen slew his father Pucksinwah at the Battle of Point Pleasant during Lord Dunmore’s War in 1774, the frontiersmen had crossed onto Indian land in violation of a recent treaty. Tecumseh did not witness battle of any sort, until about 1780 during the battle of Piqua, while he did not engage in combat, the sacking of his village was essential in his drive towards becoming a warrior. Tecumseh resolved to become a warrior like his father and to be a fire spreading over the hill and valley, in time, Tecumseh came to lead his own band of warriors. For a while, these Indian raids became so effective that river traffic virtually ceased, the Shawnee were military allies with the British during the American Revolutionary War and repeatedly battled the Americans
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Mammoth Cave National Park
Mammoth Cave National Park is a U. S. national park in central Kentucky, encompassing portions of Mammoth Cave, the longest cave system known in the world. Since the 1972 unification of Mammoth Cave with the system under Flint Ridge to the north. The park was established as a park on July 1,1941. It became a World Heritage Site on October 27,1981, the parks 52,830 acres are located primarily in Edmonson County, with small areas extending eastward into Hart County and Barren County. It is centered on the Green River, with a tributary, with 405 miles of surveyed passageways Mammoth Cave is by far the worlds longest known cave system, being over twice as long as the second-longest cave system, Mexicos Sac Actun underwater cave. Mammoth Cave developed in thick Mississippian-aged limestone strata capped by a layer of sandstone and it is known to include more than 390 miles of passageway, new discoveries and connections add several miles to this figure each year. Mammoth Cave National Park was established to preserve the cave system, the epikarstic zone concentrates local flows of runoff into high-elevation springs which emerge at the edges of ridges.
It is in underlying massive limestone layers that the human-explorable caves of the region have naturally developed. The limestone layers of the column beneath the Big Clifty, in increasing order of depth below the ridgetops, are the Girkin Formation. Genevieve Limestone, and the St. Louis Limestone, for example, the large Main Cave passage seen on the Historic Tour is located at the bottom of the Girkin and the top of the Ste. Each of the layers of limestone is divided further into named geological units and subunits. One area of research involves correlating the stratigraphy with the cave survey produced by explorers. This makes it possible to produce approximate three-dimensional maps of the contours of the layer boundaries without the necessity for test wells. The upper sandstone caprock is relatively hard for water to penetrate, the sandstone caprock layer has been dissolved and eroded at many locations within the park, such as the Frozen Niagara room. At one valley bottom in the region of the park.
Known as Cedar Sink, the features a small river entering one side. Mammoth Cave is home to the endangered Kentucky cave shrimp, a sightless albino shrimp, the National Park Service offers several cave tours to visitors. Some notable features of the cave, such as Grand Avenue, Frozen Niagara, two tours, lit only by visitor-carried paraffin lamps, are popular alternatives to the electric-lit routes
King and Queen County, Virginia
King and Queen County is a county in the U. S. state of Virginia, located in that states Middle Peninsula on the eastern edge of the Richmond, VA metropolitan area. As of the 2010 census, the population was 6,945 and its county seat is King and Queen Court House. King and Queen County was established in 1691 from New Kent County, the county is named for King William III and Queen Mary II of England. King and Queen County is notable as one of the few counties in the United States to have recorded a population in the 1790 census than in the 2010 one. Shackelfords descendants continued to live in the county, and by the century had intermarried with the Taliaferro, Beverley and Sears families. In 1762 when he was 11, future president James Madison was sent to a school run by Donald Robertson at the Innes plantation in King. Robertson was a Scottish teacher who tutored numerous prominent plantation families in the South, from Robertson, Madison learned mathematics and modern and classical languages—he became especially proficient in Latin.
He attributed his instinct for learning largely to that man, at age 16, Madison returned to his fathers Montpelier estate in Orange County, Virginia. On March 2,1864, the Battle of Walkerton, an engagement of the American Civil War took place here, for many years, county publications noted that the county lacked any traffic lights. This is now no longer the case, as a light has been installed on U. S. Route 360 at St. Stephens Church. The county contains no incorporated towns and is among the more rustic of the counties of Virginia. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 326 square miles. The population density was 21 people per square mile, there were 3,010 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile. 0. 87% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,24. 60% of all households were made up of individuals and 11. 00% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the family size was 2.94. In the county, the population was out with 22. 70% under the age of 18,7. 00% from 18 to 24,26. 80% from 25 to 44,27. 00% from 45 to 64.
The median age was 41 years, for every 100 females there were 95.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.50 males, the median income for a household in the county was $35,941, and the median income for a family was $40,563
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Nathaniel G. S. Hart
Nathaniel Gray Smith Hart, often Nathaniel G. S. Hart, was a Lexington, Kentucky lawyer and businessman, who served with the states volunteer militia during the War of 1812. Hart was especially well-connected politically and socially, in addition to reading law with Henry Clay, Harts wife Anna and Clays wife Lucretia were sisters. Many other members of Harts Kentucky militia unit and its troops came from the elite of Lexington. The mens deaths in the two Battles of Frenchtown, but especially in the subsequent Massacre captured state and national attention, the phrase Remember the Raisin. became an American call to arms for the duration of the War. Nathaniel Hart was one of seven children, the son of Colonel Thomas Hart, a veteran of the Revolutionary War. Originally from North Carolina, the family had moved to Hagerstown, Maryland, in 1794 they settled in Lexington, Kentucky as part of the postwar migration west. His father was a successful businessman, achieving wealth. Hart attended Princeton College, where his classmates included William Elliott from western Ontario, elliotts father was a Loyalist who had resettled in Canada after the Revolutionary War.
The two young men were close enough that Elliot stayed with Harts parents for a time to recover from a serious illness, after Harts return to Lexington, he read law under Henry Clay, passed the bar, and set up a law practice in the city. Like his father, he became a businessman, a ropewalk in the city being among his ventures. Hemp was a commodity crop of central Kentucky, on January 7,1812, Hart duelled with Samuel E. Watson at a location on the Indiana side of the Ohio River, near where Silver Creek emptied into the river. This was the site where Henry Clay had duelled with fellow state legislator Humphrey Marshall in 1809, at the start of the War of 1812, Hart was commissioned as Captain of the Lexington Light Infantry Company a volunteer unit of the Fayette County, Kentucky militia. He served as either a Deputy Inspector or as Inspector General of William Henry Harrisons Army of the Northwest, in January 1813, a detachment was sent to the defense of Frenchtown, Michigan Territory as part of an effort to retake Detroit from the British.
Frenchtown residents had sent word to the Americans asking for relief from a force of the British. During the First Battle of Frenchtown on January 18,1813, the British commander of the Fort Malden garrison in Amherstburg, Colonel Henry Procter, made plans to take back Frenchtown and he ordered troops to the area. The Kentucky militia under the command of Major George Madison on the left flank fought on, during this second Battle of Frenchtown,397 Americans were killed. Hart was wounded and was among the 547 survivors who surrendered to Procter upon orders of Winchester, not many more than 30 Kentucky troops escaped death or capture. William Elliott, Harts former Princeton classmate who had become a Captain in the British Army, promised the wounded man safe passage to Fort Malden, but did not carry out his pledge
Tecumsehs War or Tecumsehs Rebellion was a conflict between the United States Army and an American Indian confederacy led by the Shawnee leader Tecumseh in the Indiana Territory. The two principal adversaries in the conflict and William Henry Harrison, had both been junior participants in the Battle of Fallen Timbers at the close of the Northwest Indian War in 1794. However, many Indian leaders in the region accepted the Greenville terms, Little Turtle, a war chief of the Miamis, who had participated in the earlier war and signed the Greenville Treaty, lived in his village on the Eel River. Both Black Hoof and Little Turtle urged cultural adaptation and accommodation with the United States, the tribes of the region participated in several treaties, including the Treaty of Grouseland and the Treaty of Vincennes that gave and recognized American possession of most of southern Indiana. The treaties resulted in an easing of tensions by allowing settlers into Indiana, in May 1805, Lenape Chief Buckongahelas, one of the most important native leaders in the region, died of either smallpox or influenza.
The surrounding tribes believed his death was caused by a form of witchcraft, the witch-hunts inspired a nativist religious revival led by Tecumsehs brother Tenskwatawa, who emerged in 1805 as a leader among the witch hunters. He quickly posed a threat to the influence of the accommodationist chiefs, as part of his religious teachings, Tenskwatawa urged Indians to reject European American ways, such as drinking liquor, European-style clothing, and firearms. He called for the tribes to refrain from ceding any more lands to the United States, numerous Indians, who were inclined to cooperate with the United States, were accused of witchcraft, and some were executed by followers of Tenskwatawa. Black Hoof was accused in the witch-hunt, but was not harmed, from his village at Greenville, Tenskwatawa compromised Black Hoofs friendly relationship with the United States, leading to rising tensions with settlers in the region. Black Hoof and other leaders began to put pressure on Tenskwatawa. Little Turtle told the Shawnee that they were there.
In 1808, Tecumseh began to be seen as a leader by his community, in 1808, the British in Canada approached him to form an alliance, but he refused. The Americans first took notice of him in 1810, Tecumseh eventually emerged as the leader of the confederation, but it was built upon a foundation established by the religious appeal of his younger brother. Tippecanoe was the largest Native American community in the Great Lakes region and served as important cultural and it was an intertribal, religious stronghold along the Wabash River in Indiana for 3000 Native Americans, it was known as Prophetstown to whites. Led by Tenskwatawa initially, and jointly with Tecumseh, thousands of Algonquin-speaking Indians gathered at Tippecanoe to gain spiritual strength, meanwhile, in 1800, William Henry Harrison had become the governor of the newly formed Indiana Territory, with the capital at Vincennes. Harrison sought to secure title to Indian lands to allow for American expansion, in particular, Harrison negotiated numerous land cession treaties with American Indians.
In 1809, Harrison began to push for the need of another treaty to open land for settlement. The Miami and Kickapoo were vehemently opposed to selling any more land around the Wabash River, in September 1809, he invited the Potawatomi, Eel Rivers, and the Miami to a meeting in Fort Wayne
War of 1812
Historians in the United States and Canada see it as a war in its own right, but the British often see it as a minor theatre of the Napoleonic Wars. By the wars end in early 1815, the key issues had been resolved, the view was shared in much of New England and for that reason the war was widely referred to there as Mr. Madison’s War. As a result, the primary British war goal was to defend their North American colonies, the war was fought in three theatres. Second and naval battles were fought on the U. S. –Canadian frontier, large-scale battles were fought in the Southern United States and Gulf Coast. With the majority of its land and naval forces tied down in Europe fighting the Napoleonic Wars, early victories over poorly-led U. S. armies demonstrated that the conquest of the Canadas would prove more difficult than anticipated. Despite this, the U. S. was able to inflict serious defeats on Britains Native American allies, both governments were eager for a return to normality and peace negotiations began in Ghent in August 1814.
This brought an Era of Good Feelings in which partisan animosity nearly vanished in the face of strengthened American nationalism, the war was a major turning point in the development of the U. S. military, with militia being increasingly replaced by a more professional force. The U. S. acquired permanent ownership of Spains Mobile District, the government of Canada declared a three-year commemoration of the War of 1812 in 2012, intended to offer historical lessons and celebrate 200 years of peace across the border. At the conclusion of the commemorations in 2014, a new national War of 1812 Monument was unveiled in Ottawa. The war is remembered in Britain primarily as a footnote in the much larger Napoleonic Wars occurring in Europe, historians have long debated the relative weight of the multiple reasons underlying the origins of the War of 1812. This section summarizes several contributing factors which resulted in the declaration of war by the United States, as Risjord notes, a powerful motivation for the Americans was the desire to uphold national honour in the face of what they considered to be British insults such as the Chesapeake–Leopard Affair.
The approaching conflict was about violations of American rights, but it was vindication of American identity. Americans at the time and historians since often called it the United States Second War of Independence, in 1807, Britain introduced a series of trade restrictions via a series of Orders in Council to impede neutral trade with France, with which Britain was at war. The United States contested these restrictions as illegal under international law, the American merchant marine had come close to doubling between 1802 and 1810, making it by far the largest neutral fleet. Britain was the largest trading partner, receiving 80% of U. S. cotton, the British public and press were resentful of the growing mercantile and commercial competition. The United States view was that Britains restrictions violated its right to trade with others, during the Napoleonic Wars, the Royal Navy expanded to 176 ships of the line and 600 ships overall, requiring 140,000 sailors to man. The United States believed that British deserters had a right to become U. S.
citizens and this meant that in addition to recovering naval deserters, it considered any United States citizens who were born British liable for impressment. Aggravating the situation was the reluctance of the United States to issue formal naturalization papers and it was estimated by the Admiralty that there were 11,000 naturalized sailors on United States ships in 1805
Zachary Taylor was the 12th President of the United States, serving from March 1849 until his death in July 1850. Before his presidency, Taylor was an officer in the United States Army. Taylors status as a hero as a result of his victories in the Mexican-American War won him election to the White House despite his vague political beliefs. His top priority as president was preserving the Union, but he died 16 months into his term, before making any progress on the status of slavery and he remains the only President to come from Louisiana. Taylor was born into a prominent family of planters who migrated westward from Virginia to Kentucky in his youth and he was commissioned as an officer in the U. S. Army in 1808 and made a name for himself as a captain in the War of 1812. He climbed the ranks establishing military forts along the Mississippi River and his success in the Second Seminole War attracted national attention and earned him the nickname Old Rough and Ready. The Mexican–American War broke out in April 1846, in May, Taylor defeated Mexican troops commanded by General Mariano Arista at the Battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, and managed to drive his troops out of Texas.
Taylor subsequently led his troops into Mexico, where once again defeated Mexican troops commanded by Pedro de Ampudia at the Battle of Monterrey in September. Defying orders, Taylor moved his troops further south, despite being severely outnumbered, he dealt a crushing blow to Mexican forces under Antonio López de Santa Anna in February 1847 at the Battle of Buena Vista. After this, most of Taylors troops were transferred to the command of Major General Winfield Scott, the Whig Party convinced the reluctant Taylor to lead their ticket in the 1848 presidential election, despite his unclear political beliefs and lack of interest in politics. At the 1848 Whig National Convention, Taylor defeated Scott and former Senator Henry Clay to take the nomination, as president, Taylor kept his distance from Congress and his cabinet, even as partisan tensions threatened to divide the Union. Debate over the status of slavery in the Mexican Cession dominated the political agenda, despite being a Southerner and a slaveholder himself, Taylor did not push for the expansion of slavery, and he sought sectional harmony above all other concerns.
To avoid the issue of slavery, he urged settlers in New Mexico and California to bypass the territorial stage and draft constitutions for statehood, Taylor died suddenly of a stomach-related illness in July 1850, with his administration having accomplished little aside from the ratification of the Clayton–Bulwer Treaty. Fillmore served the remainder of Taylors term, Zachary Taylor was born on November 24,1784, on a plantation in Orange County, Virginia, to a prominent family of planters of English ancestry. He is inconclusively believed to have born at the home of his maternal grandfather. He was the third of five surviving sons in his family and had three younger sisters and his mother was Sarah Dabney Taylor. His father, Richard Taylor, had served as a lieutenant colonel in the American Revolution, Taylors second cousin through that line was James Madison, the fourth president. Leaving exhausted lands, his family joined the migration out of Virginia and settled near what developed as Louisville, Kentucky
Anthony Wayne was a United States Army officer and member of the United States House of Representatives. He served as General in Chief of the Army and commanded the Legion of the United States, Wayne was one of four children born to Isaac Wayne and Elizabeth Iddings Wayne in Easttown Township, near present-day Paoli, Chester County, Pennsylvania. His father had immigrated from Ireland, and was part of a Protestant Anglo-Irish family, Wayne was born on January 1,1745, on his familys Waynesborough estate. He was educated as a surveyor at his uncles private academy in Philadelphia, as well as at the College of Philadelphia, in 1767 he returned to work in his fathers tannery, while continuing work as a surveyor. He became a prominent figure in Chester County and served in the Pennsylvania legislature from 1774–80 and he married Mary Penrose in 1766 and they had two children. Their daughter Margretta was born in 1770 and their son Isaac Wayne, representative from Pennsylvania, was born in 1772. At the onset of the war in 1775, Wayne raised a unit and, in 1776.
His service resulted in a promotion to general on February 21,1777. On September 11,1777, Wayne commanded the Pennsylvania Line at Brandywine, the two forces fought for three hours until the American line withdrew, and Wayne was ordered to retreat. Later, Wayne was ordered to harass the British rear in order to slow General Howes advance towards Pennsylvania, Waynes camp was attacked on the night of September 20–21, in the Battle of Paoli. General Charles Grey ordered his men to remove their flints and attack with bayonets in order to keep their assault secret, the attack earned General Grey the nickname No Flint, but the Americans used the tactics and casualties as propaganda regarding British brutality. General Waynes own reputation was tarnished by the American losses, only days later, on October 4,1777, Wayne again led his forces against the British in the Battle of Germantown. Waynes soldiers pushed ahead of other American units, according to his report, generals Wayne and Sullivan advanced too quickly and became entrapped when they reached two miles ahead of other American units.
As General Howe arrived and reformed the British line, American forces retreated, General Wayne was again ordered to hold off the British and cover the rear of the retreating body. After winter quarters at Valley Forge, Wayne led the American attack at the 1778 Battle of Monmouth, during this battle, Waynes forces were abandoned by General Charles Lee and pinned down by a numerically superior British force. Wayne held out until relieved by reinforcements sent by Washington, Wayne reformed his troops and continued to fight. Because the body of Lt. Colonel Henry Monckton was discovered by the 1st Pennsylvania Regiment, in July 1779 Washington named Wayne to command the Corps of Light Infantry, a temporary unit of four regiments of light infantry companies drawn from all the regiments in the Main Army. Waynes successful attack on British positions at Stony Point, New York in the Battle of Stony Point was the point of his revolutionary war service