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Pashtunistan

Pashtūnistān is the geographic historical region inhabited by the indigenous Pashtun people of modern-day Afghanistan and Pakistan, wherein Pashtun culture and national identity have been based. Alternative names used for the region include "Pashtūnkhwā" and "Afghānistān", since at least the 3rd century CE onward. Pashtunistan borders Iran to the west and Turkic-speaking areas to the north, Kashmir to the northeast, Punjab to the east, Balochistan to the south. For administrative division in 1893, Mortimer Durand drew the Durand Line through Pashtunistan, fixing the limits of the spheres of influence between Afghanistan and British India and leaving about half of the Pashtun territory under British rule; this Durand Line now forms the internationally recognized border between Pakistan. The Pashtun homeland stretches from areas south of the Amu River in Afghanistan to west of the Indus River in Pakistan consisting of southwestern and some northern and western districts of Afghanistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and northern Balochistan in Pakistan.

The 16th-century revolutionary leader Bayazid Pir Roshan of Waziristan and the 17th-century "warrior-poet" Khushal Khan Khattak assembled Pashtun armies to fight against the Mughal Empire in the region. In those times, the eastern parts of Pashtunistan were ruled by the Mughals while the western parts were ruled by the Persian Safavids; the Pashtun region first gained an autonomous status in 1709 when Mirwais Hotak revolted against the Safavids in Loy Kandahar. The Pashtuns again achieved unity under the leadership of Ahmad Shah Durrani, founder of the Durrani dynasty, when he established the Afghan Empire in 1747. In the 19th century, the Afghan Empire lost large parts of its eastern territory to the Sikh and British Empires. Famous Pashtun independence activists against the rule of the British Raj include Abdul Ghaffar Khan, Abdul Samad Khan Achakzai, Mirzali Khan. Bacha Khan's Khudai Khidmatgar movement was opposed to the partition of India; when the Indian National Congress declared its acceptance of the partition plan without consulting the Khudai Khidmatgar leaders, Bacha Khan felt betrayed and hurt by this.

Despite the Bannu Resolution in which Bacha Khan's Khudai Khidmatgar movement demanded that the Pashtun-majority North-West Frontier Province should become an independent state of Pashtunistan, the NWFP joined the Dominion of Pakistan as a result of the 1947 NWFP referendum, boycotted by the Khudai Khidmatgar movement. Bacha Khan and his brother, then-chief minister Khan Abdul Jabbar Khan, rejected the referendum citing that it did not have the options of the NWFP becoming independent or joining Afghanistan. On Bacha Khan, during his stay in Afghanistan, said that "Pashtunistan was never a reality"; the idea of independent Pashtunistan never helped. He further stated that the "successive government of Afghanistan only exploited the idea for their own political goals". On the other hand, Mirzali Khan and his followers refused to recognize Pakistan and continued their war from their base at Gurwek, Waziristan against the Pakistani government. Growing participation of Pashtuns in the Pakistani government, resulted in the erosion of the support for the secessionist Pashtunistan movement by the end of the 1960s.

In 1969, the autonomous princely states of Swat, Dir and Amb were merged into Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. In 2018, the Pashtun-majority Federally Administered Tribal Areas a buffer zone with Afghanistan, were merged into the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, connecting the regions to Pakistan proper; the name used for the region during the middle ages and up until the 20th century was Afghanistan. Afghanistan is a reference to this land by its ethnicity, which were the Afghans, while Pashtunistan is a reference to this land by its language. Mention of this land by the name of Afghanistan predates mention by the name of Pashtunistan, mentioned by Ahmad Shah Durrani in his famous couplet, by 6th-century Indian astronomer Varahamihira, 7th-century Chinese pilgrim Hiven Tsiang, 14th-century Moroccan scholar Ibn Battuta, Mughal Emperor Babur, 16th-century historian Firishta and many others; the men of Kábul and Khilj went home. Thus it is clear that for this reason the people of the country call their home in their own language Afghánistán, themselves Afgháns.

But it occurs to me, that when, under the rule of Muhammadan sovereigns, Musulmáns first came to the city of Patná, dwelt there, the people of India called them Patáns—but God knows! The Pashto name Pakhtunistan or Pashtunistan evolved from the Indian word "Pathanistan"; the concept of Pashtunistan was inspired by the term "Pakhtunkhwa". British Indian leaders, including the Khudai Khidmatgar, started using the word "Pathanistan" to refer to the region, the word "Pashtunistan" became more popular; the native or indigenous people of Pashtunistan are an Iranic ethnic group. They are the second largest in Pakistan; the P

WVNO-FM

WVNO is a radio station broadcasting an adult contemporary format. Licensed to Mansfield, United States, the station serves the Mid-Ohio area; the station is owned by Johnny Appleseed Broadcasting Company and features programming from ABC Radio, Premiere Radio Networks and Westwood One. On August 20, 2018, WVNO launched a country music format on its HD2 subchannel, branded as "97.3 The Spur". WVNO Facebook Query the FCC's FM station database for WVNO Radio-Locator information on WVNO Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for WVNOQuery the FCC's FM station database for W247BL Radio-Locator information on W247BL Query the FCC's FM station database for W257CV Radio-Locator information on W257CV

Junoon for Peace

Junoon for Peace is the first live album and the eleventh overall album by the Pakistani band, Junoon. The album was recorded live on October 27, 2001; the concert was a tribute to the victims of the World Trade Center attack and a call for an end to the subsequent discrimination faced by Arabs and South Asians in United States. It was a call for peace on all fronts. Following the 9/11 attacks, Junoon helped to organise a concert at the General Assembly on UN Day with Junoon and an Indian group performing at the Assembly Hall, a first of its kind, they released their what they called their first English-language single, "No More", an anti-violence song which deals directly with the events of that day. Three days Junoon performed live and sang songs from their previous albums and those were included in this live album; the band released this album to pay tribute to the victims of the 9/11 attacks and a call for an end to the discrimination of the Arabs and South Asians by the Americans. All music written & composed by Salman Ahmad, Ali Azmat and Sabir Zafar, those which are not are mentioned below.

All information is taken from the CD. JunoonSalman Ahmad - vocals, lead guitar Ali Azmat - vocals, backing vocals Brian O'Connell - bass guitar, backing vocalsProductionProduced by Salman Ahmad Recorded and Mixed at Allience Francaise in New York City, New York, United States Junoon's Official Website

Josiah Forshall

Josiah Forshall was an English librarian. Forshall was Oxfordshire on 29 March 1795, the eldest son of Samuel Forshall, he received education at the grammar schools of Exeter and Chester, in 1814 entered Exeter College, Oxford. He graduated B. A. in 1818, taking a first class in a second in literae humaniores. He became M. A. in 1821, was elected fellow and tutor of his college. Forshall was appointed an assistant librarian in the manuscript department of the British Museum in 1824, became keeper of that department in 1827. In 1828 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. In 1828 Forshall was appointed secretary to the Museum, in 1837 resigned his keepership in order to devote himself to his secretarial duties, he was examined before the select committee appointed to inquire into the Museum in 1835–6, made revelations on the subject of patronage. As secretary he had much influence with the trustees, he was opposed to any attempts to make the Museum more accessible. About 1850 Forshall retired from the museum on account of ill-health.

After his resignation he lived in retirement, spending much of his time, till his death, at the Foundling Hospital, of which he had been appointed chaplain in 1829. He died at his house in Woburn Place, London, on 18 December 1863, after undergoing a surgical operation. Forshall edited the catalogue of the manuscripts in the British Museum: pt. i. the Arundel MSS.. He edited the Description of the Greek Papyri in the Brit. Mus. pt. i. 1839, 8vo. In 1850 he published a pamphlet entitled Misrepresentations of H. M. Commissioners exposed, he published with Frederic Madden The Holy Bible … in the earliest English Versions made by John Wycliffe and his followers, 1850, 4 vols. A work of two decades, he published editions of the Gospels of St. Mark, St. Luke, St. John, arranged in parts and sections, some sermons, his works The Lord's Prayer with various readings and critical notes, The First Twelve Chapters of … St. Matthew in the received Greek text, with readings and notes, 1864, were published posthumously.

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Forshall, Josiah". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900

Lisboa VR

Lisboa, until 2009 named Estremadura, is a Portuguese wine region covering the same areas as the Estremadura region, taking its name from the country's capital. The region is classified as a Vinho Regional, a designation similar to a French vin de pays region. While the Beiras and Alentejo VRs are largest geographically, the Lisboa region is Portugal's largest producer of wine by volume; the region stretches from Lisbon along the Atlantic coast to the Bairrada DOC. In early 2009, the region was renamed from Estremadura to Lisboa to avoid confusion with the Spanish wine region Extremadura and to capitalize on the internationally well-known name of the country's capital. Within the Lisboa region there are 9 subregions at the DOC level. Alenquer DOC Arruda DOC Bucelas DOC Carcavelos DOC Colares DOC Óbidos DOC Torres Vedras DOC Encostas d'Aire DOC-Overlaps into the Beiras VR Lourinhã DOC The principle grapes of the Lisboa region includes Alfrocheiro Preto, Antão Vaz, Baga, Borrado das Moscas, Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Fernão Pires, Jampal, Moreto, Rabo de Ovelha, Tamarez, Tinta Amarela, Trincadeira das Pratas, Ugni blanc and Vital.

List of Portuguese wine regions

Johannes de Peyster III

Johannes de Peyster or Johannes de Peyster III was the Mayor of Albany, New York three times between 1729 and 1742. De Peyster was born in 1694, he was the son of Johannes De Peyster Anna Bancker. His father was the 23rd Mayor of New York City, served as a Captain with the 2nd Battalion, Company of Foot, New York, his parents had several who died young. His siblings that survived to adulthood included: Elizabeth de Peyster, who married James Beekman, Cornelia de Peyster, married to Matthew Clarkson and Gilbert Tennent, Gerardus de Peyster, who married Eva van Nuys Ouke, Anna de Peyster, Maria de Peyster, who married Gerard Bancker in 1731, William de Peyster, who married Margareta Roosevelt, daughter of Johannes Roosevelt, Catharina de Peyster, who married Hendrick Rutgers, his paternal grandparents were Sr. and Cornelia Lubberts. His uncle was Abraham de Peyster, who served as mayor from 1691 to 1694, his aunt was Maria De Peyster, married to David Provost, his maternal grandparents were Gerrit Bancker, a pioneer fur trader, Elizabeth Van Epps.

His uncle was the 3rd and 12th Mayor of Albany, New York. His nephews included Gerard Bancker, New York State Treasurer from 1778 to 1798, Henry Rutgers, namesake of Rutgers College. From 1717 to the 1740s, he was Lieutenant of Foot County Troops in the militia and Captain of a Troop in 1744. In 1726, De Peyster became the Recorder of Albany. Shortly thereafter, he served as Mayor of Albany for a total of three times; the first term began in 1729 and he was in office until 1731 when he was succeeded by Johannes "Hans" Hansen, who served from 1831 to 1732. De Peyster succeeded him and was only in office that year, having been succeeded by Edward Holland who served until 1740 when Johannes Schuyler, Jr. became mayor. Schuyler, the son of Mayor Johannes Schuyler and father of Revolutionary War General Philip Schuyler, served from 1740 until 1741 when De Peyster again served, his third and final term ended in 1742. Cuyler was the son of Mayor Johannes Cuyler, grandson of Mayor Dirck Wesselse Ten Broeck, father of Mayor Abraham Cuyler.

For eleven years, he served as Commissioner of Indian Affairs for the Province of New York, appointed in 1734, 1738, 1739, 1746. He was a member of Provincial Assembly From 1756 to 1766, he was the Surrogate of Albany County, he held the position again from 1778 to 1782. In 1782, he was replaced in the role by John De Peyster Douw. During The Seven Years War, he served as Paymaster of Troops from 1755 to 1756. In 1715, De Peyster married Anna Schuyler, the only child of Albany Mayor Myndert Schuyler and Rachel Cuyler, her paternal grandparents were David Pieterse Schuyler, brother of Philip Pieterse Schuyler, Catharina Verplanck who both died during the Schenectady massacre of 1690. Together, they had eight children, but only two of the last four born after 1722 survived to adulthood: Anna de Peyster, who married Volkert Petrus Douw, a New York State Senator and Mayor of Albany from 1761 to 1770, the grandson of Hendrick van Rensselaer. Rachel de Peyster, who married Tobias Coenraedt Ten Eyck.

Myndert Schuyler de Peyster, who died young. He was the grandfather of nine children born to his daughter Anna, including John De Peyster Douw, who took part in the Clinton-Sullivan Expedition and served as Surrogate of Albany County, replacing de Peyster in 1782. Through his daughter Rachel, he was the grandfather of Johannes De Peyster Ten Eyck, Myndert Schuyler Ten Eyck, Henry Ten Eyck, Tobias Ten Eyck. Portrait of Johannes de Peyster III by Nehemiah Partridge at the New-York Historical Society