Battle of Pasir Panjang
The Battle of Pasir Panjang, which took place between 13 and 15 February 1942, was part of the final stage of the Empire of Japans invasion of Singapore during World War II. The battle was initiated upon the advancement of elite Imperial Japanese Army forces towards Pasir Panjang at Pasir Panjang Ridge on 13 February. 13,000 Japanese troops had made a landing in the northwest part of Singapore near Sarimbun. They had already captured Tengah Airfield en route, the 13,000 soldiers constituted a significant part of the total strength of 36,000 Japanese troops deployed in the invasion of Singapore. They were tasked with defending the approach to Pasir Panjang ridge, the 44th Indian Brigade were on their right flank. A Malay platoon, consisting of 42 men, commanded by 2nd Lieutenant Adnan Saidi, was holding part of the defences of Bukit Chandu and he and his men would take the brunt of the Japanese assault. The first battle between the Malay Regiment and Japanese soldiers occurred on 13 February at around 2.
00pm, the Japanese 18th Division started to attack the southwestern coast along Pasir Panjang Ridge and astride Ayer Rajah Road. The Japanese 56th Infantry Regiment under Colonel Yoshio Nasu, supported by a force of artillery. One of the defending the line was B Company of the Malay Regiment. Under heavy fire from the Japanese, who were supported by artillery and tanks, before the retreat could be completed, the Japanese succeeded in breaking through B Companys position. In the battle, the troops fought hand-to-hand combat using bayonets against the Japanese, a few from B Company managed to save themselves while others were captured as prisoners-of-war. This penetration led to the withdrawal after dark, of both the 44th Indian and 1st Malay Brigade, to the line at Mount Echo. On 14 February, Eve of Chinese New Year, the Japanese again launched an attack at 8. 30am, supported by intense mortar and artillery fire. The defenders beat off this and a number of other attacks, the fighting included bitter hand-to-hand combat, and losses from both sides were heavy.
Owing to the failure of units on both its flanks to hold their ground, the 1st Malay Brigade withdrew at 2. 30pm and it was at this point that C Company of the Malay Regiment received instructions to move to a new defence position, Bukit Chandu. Bukit Chandu was named after a factory located at the foot of the hill. This was where C Company of the Malay Regiment made their stand against the Japanese attack. Bukit Chandu was a key position for two important reasons
Land reclamation, usually known as reclamation, and known as land fill, is the process of creating new land from ocean, riverbeds, or lake beds. The land reclaimed is known as ground or land fill. In a number of jurisdictions, including parts of the United States. In Alberta, for example, reclamation is defined by the government as The process of reconverting disturbed land to its former or other productive uses. In Oceania it is referred to as land rehabilitation. Land reclamation can be achieved with a number of different methods, the most simple method involves simply filling the area with large amounts of heavy rock and/or cement, filling with clay and dirt until the desired height is reached. The process is called infilling and the used to fill the space is generically called infill. Draining of submerged wetlands is often used to land for agricultural use. Deep cement mixing is used typically in situations in which the material displaced by either dredging or draining may be contaminated, the creation of new land was for the need of human activities.
Notable examples include, Much of the coastlines of Mumbai, India and it took over 150 years to join the original seven islands of Mumbai. Much of the coastlines of Mainland China, Hong Kong, North Korea and it is estimated that nearly 65% of tidal flats around the Yellow Sea have been reclaimed. Inland lowlands in the Yangtze valley, including the areas of important cities like Shanghai, Much of the coastline of Karachi, Pakistan. A part of the Hamad International Airport in Qatar, around 36 square kilometres, the entire island of The Pearl-Qatar situated in West Bay, Qatar. The city-state of Singapore, where land is in supply, is famous for its efforts on land reclamation. The Palm Islands, The World and hotel Burj al-Arab off Dubai in the United Arab Emirates The Yas Island in Abu Dhabi and it is one of the six divisions of Malé City. The Eko Atlantic in Lagos, mexico City, the chinampas are a famous example. Parts of Panama City urban and street development are based on reclaimed land, aeroparque Jorge Newbery, in Buenos Aires, Argentina One of the earliest large scale projects was the Beemster Polder in the Netherlands, realized in 1612 adding 70 square kilometres of land.
In Hong Kong the Praya Reclamation Scheme added 20 to 24 hectares of land in 1890 during the phase of construction
A plantation is an area of land or water where one crop is specifically planted for widespread commercial sale. The crops grown include cotton, tea, sugar cane, oil seeds, oil palms, rubber trees, protectionist policies and natural comparative advantage have sometimes contributed to determining where plantations were located. Among the earliest examples of plantations were the latifundia of the Roman Empire, Plantation agriculture grew rapidly with the increase in international trade and the development of a worldwide economy that followed the expansion of European colonial empires. Like every economic activity, it has changed over time, Industrial plantations are established to produce a high volume of wood in a short period of time. Plantations are grown by state forestry authorities and/or the paper and wood industries, christmas trees are often grown on plantations as well. In southern and southeastern Asia, teak plantations have replaced the natural forest. Industrial plantations are managed for the commercial production of forest products.
Individual blocks are usually even-aged and often consist of just one or two species and these species can be exotic or indigenous. Forest genetic resources are the basis for genetic alteration, selected individuals grown in seed orchards are a good source for seeds to develop adequate planting material. Wood production on a plantation is generally higher than that of natural forests. In 2000, while plantations accounted for 5% of global forest, in the first year, the ground is prepared usually by the combination of burning, herbicide spraying, and/or cultivation and saplings are planted by human crew or by machine. The saplings are usually obtained in bulk from industrial nurseries, which may specialize in breeding in order to produce fast growing disease-. In the first few years until the canopy closes, the saplings are looked after, after the canopy closes, with the tree crowns touching each other, the plantation is becoming dense and crowded, and tree growth is slowing due to competition.
This stage is termed pole stage, when competition becomes too intense, it is time to thin out the section. There are several methods for thinning, but where topography permits, the most popular is row-thinning, many trees are removed, leaving regular clear lanes through the section so that the remaining trees have room to expand again. The removed trees are delimbed, forwarded to the forest road, loaded onto trucks, a typical pole stage plantation tree is 7–30 cm in diameter at breast height. Such trees are not suitable for timber, but are used as pulp for paper and particleboard. As the trees grow and become dense and crowded again, the process is repeated
Queenstown is a planning area and satellite residential town situated on the south-westernmost fringe of the Central Region of Singapore. It borders Bukit Timah to the north, Tanglin to the northeast, Bukit Merah to the east and southeast and its southern and southwesternmost limits are bounded by Selat Pandan. Developed by the Singapore Improvement Trust in the 1950s and subsequently by the Housing and Development Board in the 1960s, most apartments within the township consists of simple one, two, or three-room flats, typically in low-rise, walk-up blocks. Major development work was carried out during the first Five-Year Building Programme between 1960 and 1965, a total of 19,372 dwelling units were constructed between 1952 and 1968. Queenstown was named after Queen Elizabeth II to mark her coronation in 1952, the area was previously known by the Mandarin Chinese name Wu-wei-gang, or in Hokkien as Boh Beh Kang. The arterial road Queensway was officially named in 1954, Queenstown was a large swampy valley with a channel running through in a southeastern direction.
On either side of this area were hills - feng xing and feng ling. The former was a plantation and the latter, a cemetery known as boh beh kang. The village in the area, with mainly Hokkien and Teochew-speaking dwellers was known by this name, pre-1942, the area was inhabited by hundreds of people in attap-roofed huts, cultivating vegetables, growing fruits and rearing pigs and chickens. Buller Camp, a British military camp, was set up there until 1953 when it was cleared for the new housing estate. In 1947, the Housing Committee of Singapore highlighted the problem of housing in Singapore. The report proposed the decentralisation of the population away from the city with the building of self-contained residential areas in the suburbs and this proposal was believed to be an influence of the New Town movements in post-war Britain. Queenstown was subsequently chosen by Singapore Improvement Trust as a site for housing development due to its proximity to the successful first public housing scheme in Tiong Bahru, construction of Queenstowns first estate, Princess Margaret Estate, began in July 1952.
By late 1953, a batch of 3-room flats was ready for occupation. By 1956, work on the Princess Margaret Estate had more than 1,000 flats comprising one and three-room units and 68 terrace houses. A ceremony was held in October that year for Forfar House, the area continued to develop as a self-contained community. Some of the facilities and amenities developed included the Town Centre, the swimming complex was completed in August 1970. In the 1970s, the success of the new led to the development of Buona Vista and Holland Village
Jurong /dʒuːrɒŋ/ is a geographical region located at the south-westernmost point of the West Region of Singapore. Should it be described at its greatest historical extent, the region can include present-day Bukit Batok and Tuas as well. The coastline of the region on mainland Singapore, faces the strait of Selat Jurong, while the southernmost island of the region, Jurong Island, Jurong was largely industrialized in the early 1960s in a response to the general economic situation of post-war Singapore. The heavy redevelopment of the region paved the way for the opening of an industrial sector in the country. Jurong, much like Queenstown and Toa Payoh, was one of the earliest prototypes of a self-contained satellite town in Singapore. Today, the growth and much development of Jurong has led it to become one of the most densely-populated industrial areas in the city-state. Jurong took its name from Sungei Jurong, a river that still channels into Jurong Lake, although its origins are disputed, the core definition of Jurong, is probably derived from several meanings in Malay.
The term could refer to the word for shark, Jerung. It can be derived from the word Jurang or a gorge, Jurong could take its name from the word, which roughly translates to, corner. Penjuru may most likely refer to the peninsula that sits between Sungei Jurong and Sungei Pandan, the native Malays named this peninsula, Tanjong Penjuru, which can be translated as Cape Corner in English. The present-day site of Tanjong Penjuru is now the subzone of Penjuru Crescent, in a map that was drawn after the survey, the lieutenant clearly describes most of Jurongs natural geography with the two rivers of Jurong, Sungei Jurong and Sungei Pandan, marked on the map. He noted down several islands which have ceased to exist. Such islands include, Pulau Ayer Chawan, Pulau Butun, Pulau Pese, Pulau Sakra and Pulau Saraya, current geographical landmarks such as Pulau Damar Laut and the strait of Selat Sembilan have been included on the map. The two rivers of Jurong were mentioned again in 1848, when a survey conducted by John Turnbull Thomson, described the original shape and settlements of Sungei Jurong.
Turnbull describes both rivers as, large creeks with settlements around the both and these two streams have since ceased to exist. Before its development in the 1960s, Jurong was left close to its state after Singapores founding in 1819. Although there were a few settlements around Jurong, most of the land was mainly uncharted territory, swamps dominated the coastline of Jurong, yielding large amounts of wildlife such as mudskippers and horseshoe crabs. A forest reserve of dipterocarp trees would have once stood inland behind the grove of trees along the coast
A ridge or mountain ridge is a geological feature consisting of a chain of mountains or hills that form a continuous elevated crest for some distance. Ridges are usually termed hills or mountains as well, depending on size, there are several main types of ridges, Dendritic ridge, In typical dissected plateau terrain, the stream drainage valleys will leave intervening ridges. These are by far the most common ridges and these ridges usually represent slightly more erosion resistant rock, but not always – they often remain because there were more joints where the valleys formed, or other chance occurrences. This type of ridge is somewhat random in orientation, often changing direction frequently. Similar ridges have formed in such as the Black Hills. Sometimes these ridges are called hogback ridges, oceanic spreading ridge, In tectonic spreading zones around the world, such as at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the volcanic activity forming new plate boundary forms volcanic ridges at the spreading zone.
Isostatic settling and erosion gradually reduce the moving away from the zone. Crater ridges, Large meteorite strikes typically form large impact craters bordered by circular ridges, volcanic crater/caldera ridges, Large volcanoes often leave behind a central crater/caldera bordered by circular ridges. Fault ridges, Faults often form escarpments, sometimes the tops of the escarpments form not plateaus, but slope back so that the edges of the escarpments form ridges. Dune ridges, In areas of large-scale dune activity, certain types of dunes result in sand ridges and eskers, Glacial activity may leave ridges in the form of moraines and eskers. An arête is a ridge of rock that is formed by glacial erosion. Volcanic subglacial ridges, Many subglacial volcanoes create ridge-like formations when lava erupts through a glacier or ice sheet. Shutter ridges, A shutter ridge is a ridge which has moved along a fault line, typically, a shutter ridge creates a valley corresponding to the alignment of the fault that produces it
Battle of Singapore
Singapore was the major British military base in South-East Asia and was the keystone of British imperial interwar defence planning for South-East Asia as well as the South-West Pacific. The fighting in Singapore lasted from 8 to 15 February 1942 although this was preceded by two months of British resistance as Japanese forces advanced down the Malaya peninsula and it resulted in the Japanese capture of Singapore and the largest surrender of British-led military personnel in history. About 80,000 British and Australian troops became prisoners of war, the British prime minister, Winston Churchill, called it the worst disaster in British military history. During 1940 and 1941, the Allies had imposed an embargo on Japan in response to its continued campaigns in China. The Japanese were encouraged to choose war by their intelligence, in December 1940, the Germans handed over copies of the papers to the Japanese. As a part of process, the Japanese planners determined a broad scheme of manoeuvre that incorporated simultaneous attacks on the British.
In addition, strikes would be made against the United States naval fleet at Pearl Harbor, as well as landings in the Philippines, and attacks on Guam, Wake Island and the Gilbert Islands. With this perimeter, it was intended to block Allied attempts to regain the lost territory, the Japanese 25th Army invaded from Indochina, moving into northern Malaya and Thailand by amphibious assault on 8 December 1941. This was virtually simultaneous with the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor which precipitated the United States entry in to the war, Thailand initially resisted, but soon had to yield. The Japanese proceeded overland across the Thai–Malayan border to attack Malaya, at this time, the Japanese began bombing strategic sites in Singapore. The Japanese 25th Army was resisted in northern Malaya by III Corps of the British Indian Army, although the 25th Army was outnumbered by Allied forces in Malaya and Singapore, Japanese commanders concentrated their forces. The Japanese were superior in close air support, armour, co-ordination, prior to the Battle of Singapore the most resistance was met at the Battle of Muar, which involved the Australian 8th Division and the Indian 45th Brigade.
At the start of the campaign, the Allied forces had only 164 first-line aircraft on hand in Malaya and Singapore, and these aircraft were operated by two Royal Australian Air Force, two Royal Air Force, and one Royal New Zealand Air Force squadron. Major shortcomings included a slow rate of climb and the fuel system which required the pilot to hand pump fuel if flying above 6,000 feet. Their fighter aircraft were superior to the Allied fighters, which helped the Japanese to gain air supremacy, Japanese forces quickly isolated and forced the surrender of Indian units defending the coast. They advanced down the Malayan peninsula overwhelming the defences, despite their numerical inferiority, the Japanese forces used bicycle infantry and light tanks, allowing swift movement through the jungle. The Allies, having thought the terrain made them impractical, had no tanks, and only a few armoured vehicles, although more Allied units—including some from the Australian 8th Division—joined the campaign, the Japanese prevented the Allied forces from regrouping.
They overran cities and advanced toward Singapore, the city was an anchor for the operations of the American-British-Dutch-Australian Command, the first Allied joint command of the Second World War
A wharf, staith or staithe is a structure on the shore of a harbor or on the bank of a river or canal where ships may dock to load and unload cargo or passengers. Such a structure includes one or more berths, and may include piers, warehouses, a wharf commonly comprises a fixed platform, often on pilings. Commercial ports may have warehouses that serve as storage areas. A pier, raised over the rather than within it, is commonly used for cases where the weight or volume of cargos will be low. Smaller and more modern wharves are sometimes built on devices to keep them at the same level as the ship. In some contexts wharf and quay may be used to mean pier, berth, in old ports such as London many old wharves have been converted to residential or office use. Certain early railways in England referred to goods loading points as wharves, the term was carried over from marine usage. The person who was resident in charge of the wharf was referred to as a wharfinger. The word wharf comes from the Old English hwearf, meaning bank or shore, wharfage refers to a fee charged by ports for the cargo handled there.
Originally, werf or werva in Old Dutch simply referred to inhabited ground that was not yet built on and this could explain the name Ministry Wharf located at Saunderton, just outside High Wycombe, which is nowhere near any body of water. In support of this explanation is the fact that places in England with wharf in their names are in areas with a high Dutch influence. In the northeast and east of England the term staith or staithe is used, both originally referred to staithes in the sense of jetties or wharves. However, the term staith may be used to only to loading chutes or ramps used for bulk commodities like coal in loading ships. Quay, on the hand, has its origin in the Proto-Celtic language. Before it changed to its current form under influence of the modern French quai, its Middle English spelling was key and this in turn came from the Old North French cai, both roughly meaning sand bank. The Old French term came from Gaulish caium, ultimately tracing back to the Proto-Celtic *kagio- to encompass, modern cognates include Welsh cae fence and Cornish ke hedge.
Canal basin Dock Port Safeguarded wharf The dictionary definition of wharf at Wiktionary The dictionary definition of quay at Wiktionary
PSA International Pte Ltd is one of the worlds largest port operators. The Port of Singapore Authority was formed on April 1,1964 to take over the functions, assets, on August 25,1997, a parliamentary bill was passed to corporatise the Port of Singapore Authority, and PSA Corporation Ltd was corporatised on October 1,1997. The regulatory functions of the former PSA was transferred to Singapores new maritime regulator, The Maritime, PSA International kept the PSA brand in its name but it is no longer an acronym. PSA restructured in December 2003, with PSA International Pte Ltd becoming the company for the PSA Group of companies. PSA participates in projects across Asia and the Americas with flagship operations in PSA Singapore. They include pilotage and port and terminal towage, PSA Marine owns and operates a fleet of over 80 vessels in Singapore, Hong Kong, India and Oman. PSAs employees in Singapore are organised under the Singapore Port Workers Union and the Port Officers Union
Twenty-foot equivalent unit
The twenty-foot equivalent unit is an inexact unit of cargo capacity often used to describe the capacity of container ships and container terminals. Also, it is common to designate 45-foot containers as 2 TEU, the standard intermodal container is designated as twenty feet long and 8 feet wide. The twistlocks on a ship are put at a distance so that two standard twenty-foot containers have a gap of three inches which allows a single forty-foot container to be put on top, the forty-foot containers have found wider acceptance, as they can be pulled by semi-trailer truck. The length of such a combination is within the limits of national road regulations in many countries, requiring no special permission. As some road regulations allow longer trucks, there are variations of the standard forty-foot container — in Europe. Containers with a length of 48 feet or 53 feet are restricted to transport in the United States. Although longer than 40 feet, these variants are put in the class of forty-foot equivalent units.
Container ships only take 40-foot and 20-foot containers below deck, plus 45-foot containers above deck, ninety percent of the containers that container ships carry are 40-foot units. As container ships carry 90% of the freight, at least 81% of the worlds freight moves via 40-foot containers. As the TEU is a unit, it cannot be converted precisely into other units. The related unit forty-foot equivalent unit, however, is defined as two TEU, the most common dimensions for a 20-foot container are 20 feet long,8 feet wide, and 8 feet 6 inches high, for a volume of 1,360 cubic feet. However, both 9-foot-6-inch-tall High cube and 4-foot-3-inch half height containers are reckoned as 1 TEU and this gives a volume range of 680 to 1,520 cubic feet for one TEU. While the TEU is not itself a measure of mass, some conclusions can be drawn about the mass that a TEU can represent. The maximum gross mass for a 20-foot dry cargo container is 24,000 kilograms, subtracting the tare mass of the container itself, the maximum amount of cargo per TEU is reduced to approximately 21,600 kilograms.
Similarly, the gross mass for a 40-foot dry cargo container is 30,480 kilograms. After correcting for tare weight, this gives a capacity of 26,500 kilograms. Twenty-foot, heavy tested containers are available for goods such as heavy machinery. These containers allow a maximum weight of 67,200 pounds, an empty weight of 5,290 pounds, Container ship Container terminal Containerization List of unusual units of measurement Panama Canal toll system shipping ton Maersk Shipping
Surveying or land surveying is the technique and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional position of points and the distances and angles between them. A land surveying professional is called a land surveyor, Surveyors work with elements of geometry, regression analysis, engineering, programming languages and the law. Surveying has been an element in the development of the environment since the beginning of recorded history. The planning and execution of most forms of construction require it and it is used in transport, communications and the definition of legal boundaries for land ownership. It is an important tool for research in other scientific disciplines. Basic surveyance has occurred since humans built the first large structures, the prehistoric monument at Stonehenge was set out by prehistoric surveyors using peg and rope geometry. In ancient Egypt, a rope stretcher would use simple geometry to re-establish boundaries after the floods of the Nile River. The almost perfect squareness and north-south orientation of the Great Pyramid of Giza, built c.2700 BC, the Groma instrument originated in Mesopotamia.
The mathematician Liu Hui described ways of measuring distant objects in his work Haidao Suanjing or The Sea Island Mathematical Manual, the Romans recognized land surveyors as a profession. They established the basic measurements under which the Roman Empire was divided, Roman surveyors were known as Gromatici. In medieval Europe, beating the bounds maintained the boundaries of a village or parish and this was the practice of gathering a group of residents and walking around the parish or village to establish a communal memory of the boundaries. Young boys were included to ensure the memory lasted as long as possible, in England, William the Conqueror commissioned the Domesday Book in 1086. It recorded the names of all the owners, the area of land they owned, the quality of the land. It did not include maps showing exact locations, abel Foullon described a plane table in 1551, but it is thought that the instrument was in use earlier as his description is of a developed instrument. Gunters chain was introduced in 1620 by English mathematician Edmund Gunter and it enabled plots of land to be accurately surveyed and plotted for legal and commercial purposes.
Leonard Digges described a Theodolite that measured horizontal angles in his book A geometric practice named Pantometria, joshua Habermel created a theodolite with a compass and tripod in 1576. Johnathon Sission was the first to incorporate a telescope on a theodolite in 1725, in the 18th century, modern techniques and instruments for surveying began to be used. Jesse Ramsden introduced the first precision theodolite in 1787 and it was an instrument for measuring angles in the horizontal and vertical planes
Expressways of Singapore
The Expressways of Singapore are special roads that allow motorists to travel quickly from one urban area to another. All of them are dual carriageways with grade-separated access and they usually have three to four lanes in each direction, although there are two-lane carriageways at many expressway - expressway intersections and five-lane carriageways in some places. There are ten expressways, including the new Marina Coastal Expressway, studies about the feasibility of additional expressways are ongoing. Construction on the first expressway, the Pan Island Expressway, started in 1966, as of 2014, there are 163 kilometres of expressways in Singapore. The Singaporean expressway networks are connected with Malaysian expressway networks via Ayer Rajah Expressway, the latest expressway completed is the Marina Coastal Expressway which runs for 5 km,3.5 km of which are underground. Construction started in 2008 and ended in late 2013 and it was opened to the public on 29 December 2013. The Kallang–Paya Lebar Expressway was completed on 20 September 2008, on 27 July 2007, the Land Transport Authority announced that approval had been given for the construction of a new 5 km long Marina Coastal Expressway at a cost of $2.5 billion.
Construction of the 11th expressway, the North–South Expressway, was announced on 30 January 2008, the new 21-kilometre expressway will cost about $7 to $8 billion when fully completed by 2020 and will connect the East Coast Parkway with the northern parts of Singapore. There are no lights on the expressways. At an interchange with another road, an expressway is connected to it via slip roads and this allows traffic to change routes without having to stop or slow down. Due to the need to space in land-scarce Singapore, there are no cloverleaf interchanges on the entire island. Instead, traffic efficiency and land space are maximized by having traffic lights on terrestrial roads, the most common forms of highway-road or highway-highway intersections are single-point urban and trumpet interchanges. The road surface is asphalt, unlike normal roads which may have concrete surfaces, the lanes are separated with white dashed lines, while unbroken white lines are used to mark the edges of the median and shoulder.
The shoulder is reserved for stops due to breakdowns and emergencies, lanes are numbered from right to left, with lane 1 being the closest to the median. Crash barriers, cats eyes and rumble strips are used to ensure road safety. There are signs marking the start and end of an expressway at its entry, the longest expressway, the Pan Island Expressway, is only 41 km long and therefore has no rest areas. Speed traps are deployed by the Singapore police at many places along the expressways and are deployed from 7am to 12am, certain types of transport, such as pedestrians and learner drivers, are not allowed. In Singapore, there are five semi-expressways, Bukit Timah Road, Jurong Island Highway, Nicoll Highway and these semi-expressways are scaled down versions of expressways