A coronation is the act of placement or bestowal of a crown upon a monarch's head. The term also refers not only to the physical crowning but to the whole ceremony wherein the act of crowning occurs, along with the presentation of other items of regalia, marking the formal investiture of a monarch with regal power. Aside from the crowning, a coronation ceremony may comprise many other rituals such as the taking of special vows by the monarch, the investing and presentation of regalia to the monarch, acts of homage by the new ruler's subjects and the performance of other ritual deeds of special significance to the particular nation. Western-style coronations have included anointing the monarch with holy oil, or chrism as it is called; the monarch's consort may be crowned, either with the monarch or as a separate event. Once a vital ritual among the world's monarchies, coronations have changed over time for a variety of socio-political and religious factors. In the past, concepts of royalty and deity were inexorably linked.
In some ancient cultures, rulers were considered to be divine or divine: the Egyptian pharaoh was believed to be the son of Ra, the sun god, while in Japan, the emperor was believed to be a descendant of Amaterasu, the sun goddess. Rome promulgated the practice of emperor worship. Coronations were once a direct visual expression of these alleged connections, but recent centuries have seen the lessening of such beliefs. Coronations are still observed in the United Kingdom and several Asian and African countries. In Europe, most monarchs are required to take a simple oath in the presence of the country's legislature. Besides a coronation, a monarch's accession may be marked in many ways: some nations may retain a religious dimension to their accession rituals while others have adopted simpler inauguration ceremonies, or no ceremony at all; some cultures use bathing or cleansing rites, the drinking of a sacred beverage, or other religious practices to achieve a comparable effect. Such acts symbolise the granting of divine favour to the monarch within the relevant spiritual-religious paradigm of the country.
Coronation in common parlance today may in a broader sense, refer to any formal ceremony in relation to the accession of a monarch, whether or not an actual crown is bestowed, such ceremonies may otherwise be referred to as investitures, inaugurations, or enthronements. The date of the act of ascension, however precedes the date of the ceremony of coronation. For example, the Coronation of Elizabeth II took place on 2 June 1953 sixteen months after her accession to the throne on 6 February 1952 on the death of her father George VI; the coronation ceremonies in medieval Christendom, both Western and Eastern, are influenced by the practice of the Roman Emperors as it developed during Late Antiquity, indirectly influenced by Biblical accounts of kings being crowned and anointed. The European coronation ceremonies best known in the form they have taken in Great Britain, descend from rites created in Byzantium, Visigothic Spain, Carolingian France and the Holy Roman Empire and brought to their apogee during the Medieval era.
In non-Christian states, coronation rites evolved from a variety of sources related to the religious beliefs of that particular nation. Buddhism, for instance, influenced the coronation rituals of Thailand and Bhutan, while Hindu elements played a significant role in Nepalese rites; the ceremonies used in modern Egypt, Malaysia and Iran were shaped by Islam, while Tonga's ritual combines ancient Polynesian influences with more modern Anglican ones. Coronations, in one form or another, have existed since ancient times. Egyptian records show coronation scenes, such as that of Seti I in 1290 BC. Judeo-Christian scriptures testify to particular rites associated with the conferring of kingship, the most detailed accounts of which are found in II Kings 11:12 and II Chronicles 23:11; the corona radiata, the "radiant crown" known best on the Statue of Liberty, worn by the Helios, the Colossus of Rhodes, was worn by Roman emperors as part of the cult of Sol Invictus, part of the imperial cult as it developed during the 3rd century.
The origin of the crown is thus religious, comparable to the significance of a halo, marking the sacral nature of kingship, expressing that either the king is himself divine, or ruling by divine right. The precursor to the crown was the browband called the diadem, worn by the Achaemenid rulers, was adopted by Constantine I, was worn by all subsequent rulers of the Roman Empire. Following the assumption of the diadem by Constantine and Byzantine emperors continued to wear it as the supreme symbol of their authority. Although no specific coronation ceremony was observed at first, one evolved over the following century; the emperor Julian was hoisted upon a shield and crowned with a gold necklace provided by one of his standard-bearers. Emperors were crowned and acclaimed in a similar manner, until the momentous decision was taken to permit the Patriarch of Constantinople to physically place the crown on the emperor's head. Historians debate when this first took place, but the precedent was established by the reign of Leo II, crowned by the Patriarch Acacius in 473.
This ritual in
The Powhatan people are an Indigenous group traditionally from Virginia. In some instances, The Powhatan may refer to one of the leaders of the people; this is most the case in historical writings by the English. The Powhatans have been known as Virginia Algonquians, as the Powhatan language is an eastern-Algonquian language known as Virginia Algonquian, it is estimated that there were about 14,000–21,000 Powhatan people in eastern Virginia, when the English colonized Jamestown in 1607. In the late 16th and early 17th centuries, a mamanatowick named Wahunsenacawh created a powerful organization by affiliating 30 tributary peoples, whose territory was much of eastern Virginia, they called this area Tsenacommacah. Wahunsenacawh came to be known by the English as "The Powhatan"; each of the tribes within this organization had its own weroance, but all paid tribute to The Powhatan. After Wahunsenacawh's death in 1618, hostilities with colonists escalated under the chiefdom of his brother, who sought in vain to drive off the encroaching English.
His large-scale attacks in 1622 and 1644 met strong reprisals by the English, resulting in the near elimination of the tribe. By 1646, what is called the Powhatan Paramount Chiefdom by modern historians had been decimated. More important than the ongoing conflicts with the English settlements was the high rate of deaths the Powhatan suffered due to new infectious diseases carried to North America by Europeans, such as measles and smallpox; the Native Americans did not have any immunity to these, endemic in Europe and Asia for centuries. The wholesale deaths weakened and hollowed out the Native American societies. By the mid-17th century, the leaders of the colony were desperate for labor to develop the land. Half of the English and European immigrants arrived as indentured servants; as settlement continued, the colonists imported growing numbers of enslaved Africans for labor. By 1700, the colonies had one-twelfth of the population, it was common for black slaves to join the surrounding Powhatan.
Africans and whites lived together. After Bacon's Rebellion in 1676, the colony enslaved Indians for control. In 1691, the House of Burgesses abolished Indian slavery. In the 21st century, eight Indian tribes are recognized by Virginia, as having ancestral ties to the Powhatan confederation; the Pamunkey and Mattaponi are the only two peoples who have retained reservation lands from the 17th century. The competing cultures of the Powhatan and English settlers were united through unions and marriages of members, the most well known of, Pocahontas and John Rolfe, their son Thomas Rolfe was the ancestor of many Virginians. Some survivors of the Powhatan confederacy have relocated elsewhere. Beginning in the late 19th century, individual people identifying collectively as the Powhatan Renape Nation settled a tiny subdivision known as Morrisville and Delair, in Pennsauken Township, New Jersey, their ancestry is from the Rappahannock tribe of Virginia and the related Nanticoke tribe of Delaware. They have been recognized as a tribe by the state of New Jersey.
The name "Powhatan" is the name of the native town of Wahunsenacawh. The title "Chief" or "King" Powhatan, used by the English is believed to have been derived from the name of this site. Although the specific site of his home village is unknown, in modern times the Powhatan Hill neighborhood in the East End portion of the modern-day city of Richmond, Virginia is thought by many to be in the general vicinity of the original village. Tree Hill Farm, situated in nearby Henrico County a short distance to the east, is considered as the possible site. "Powhatan" was the name used by the natives to refer to the river where the town sat at the head of navigation. The English colonists chose to name it for their own leader, King James I; the English colonists named many features in the early years of the Virginia Colony in honor of the king, as well as for his three children, Elizabeth and Charles. Although portions of Virginia's longest river upstream from Columbia were much named for Queen Anne of Great Britain, in modern times, it is called the James River.
It forms at the confluence of the Jackson and Cowpasture rivers near the present-day town of Clifton Forge, flowing east to Hampton Roads.. The only water body in Virginia to retain a name related to the Powhatan peoples is Powhatan Creek, located in James City County near Williamsburg. Powhatan County and its county seat at Powhatan, Virginia were honorific names established years in locations west of the area populated by the Powhatan peoples; the county was formed in March 1777. Various tribes each held some individual powers locally, each had a chief known as a weroance or, more a weroansqua, meaning "commander"; as early as the era of John Smith, the individual tribes of this grouping were recognized by the English as falling under the greater authority of the centralized power led by the chiefdom of Powhatan, whose proper name was Wahunsenacawh or Wahunsunacock. At the time of the 1607 English Settlement at Jamestown, he ruled pr
An archaeological site is a place in which evidence of past activity is preserved, which has been, or may be, investigated using the discipline of archaeology and represents a part of the archaeological record. Sites may range from those with few or no remains visible above ground, to buildings and other structures still in use. Beyond this, the definition and geographical extent of a "site" can vary depending on the period studied and the theoretical approach of the archaeologist, it is invariably difficult to delimit a site. It is sometimes taken to indicate a settlement of some sort although the archaeologist must define the limits of human activity around the settlement. Any episode of deposition such as a hoard or burial can form a site as well. Development-led archaeology undertaken as cultural resources management has the disadvantage of having its sites defined by the limits of the intended development. In this case however, in describing and interpreting the site, the archaeologist will have to look outside the boundaries of the building site.
According to Jess Beck in "How Do Archaeologists find sites?" the areas with a large number of artifacts are good targets for future excavation, while areas with small number of artifacts are thought to reflect a lack of past human activity.” Many areas have been discovered by accident. The most common person to have found artifacts are farmers who are plowing their fields or just cleaning them up find archaeological artifacts. Many people who are out hiking and pilots find artifacts they end up reporting them to archaeologist to do further investigation; when they find sites, they have to first record the area and if they have the money and time for the site they can start digging. There are many ways to find sites, one example can be through surveys. Surveys involve walking around analyzing the land looking for artifacts, it can involve digging, according to the Archaeological Institute of America, “archaeologists search areas that were to support human populations, or in places where old documents and records indicate people once lived.”
This helps archaeologists in the future. In case there was no time, or money during the finding of the site, archaeologists can come back and visit the site for further digging to find out the extent of the site. Archaeologist can sample randomly within a given area of land as another form of conducting surveys. Surveys are useful, according to Jess Beck, “it can tell you where people were living at different points in the past.” Geophysics is a branch of survey becoming more and more popular in archaeology, because it uses different types of instruments to investigate features below the ground surface. It is not as reliable, because although they can see what is under the surface of the ground it does not produce the best picture. Archaeologists have to still dig up the area in order to uncover the truth. There are two most common types of geophysical survey, which is, magnetometer and ground penetrating radar. Magnetometry is the technique of mapping patterns of magnetism in the soil, it uses an instrument called a magnetometer, required to measure and map traces of soil magnetism.
The ground penetrating radar is a method. It uses electro magnetic radiation in the microwave band of the radio spectrum, detects the reflected signals from subsurface structures. There are many other tools that can be used to find artifacts, but along with finding artifacts, archaeologist have to make maps, they do so by taking data from surveys, or archival research and plugging it into a Geographical Information Systems and that will contain both locational information and a combination of various information. This tool is helpful to archaeologists who want to explore in a different area and want to see if anyone else has done research, they can use this tool to see what has been discovered. With this information available, archaeologists can expand their research and add more to what has been found. Traditionally, sites are distinguished by the presence of both features. Common features include the remains of houses. Ecofacts, biological materials that are the result of human activity but are not deliberately modified, are common at many archaeological sites.
In the cases of the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic eras, a mere scatter of flint flakes will constitute a site worthy of study. Different archaeologists may see an ancient town, its nearby cemetery as being two different sites, or as being part of the same wider site; the precepts of landscape archaeology attempt to see each discrete unit of human activity in the context of the wider environment, further distorting the concept of the site as a demarcated area. Furthermore, geoarchaeologists or environmental archaeologists would consider a sequence of natural geological or organic deposition, in the absence of human activity, to constitute a site worthy of study. Archaeological sites form through human-related processes but can be subject to natural, post-depositional factors. Cultural remnants which have been buried by sediments are in many environments more to be preserved than exposed cultural remnants. Natural actions resulting in sediment being deposited include aeolian natural processes. In jungles and other areas of lush plant growth, decomposed vegetative sediment can result in layers of soil deposited over remains.
Colluviation, the burial of a site by sediments moved by gravity can happen at sites on slopes. Human a
The Chickahominy are a Federally recognized tribe of Virginian Indians who live in Charles City County, located along the James River midway between Richmond and Williamsburg in the Commonwealth of Virginia. This area of the Tidewater is not far from, they were recognized by the state in 1983 and the federal government in January 2018. The Eastern Chickahominy split from the main tribe in 1983 and were recognized separately by the state, they were federally recognized in January 2018. They are based in New Kent County, about 25 miles east of Richmond. Neither tribe has an Indian reservation, having lost their land to English colonists in the 18th century, but they have purchased lands that they devote to communal purposes. Both tribes are among the 11 who have organized and been recognized by Virginia since 1983. Federal status was granted to the Chickahominy and Eastern Chickahominy tribes through passage of the Thomasina E. Jordan Indian Tribes of Virginia Federal Recognition Act of 2017 on January 30, 2018.
The Chickahominy were among numerous independent Algonquian-speaking tribes who had long occupied the Tidewater area. They were led by mungai, who were part of a council of religious leaders; the Chickahominy's original territory consisted of the land along the Chickahominy River, from the mouth of the river at its confluence with the James River, near Jamestown in present-day Charles City County, to what is now known as New Kent County, Virginia. They encountered settlers from the first permanent English settlement founded at Jamestown in 1607; the tribe helped the English survive during the first few winters by trading food for English goods, as the settlers were ill-prepared for farming and developing their frontier site. The Chickahominy taught the English how to preserve crops in local conditions. By 1614, the tribe had signed a treaty with the colonists. Over time, the English began to expand their settlements and crowded out the Chickahominy from their homeland; the peoples had earlier come into conflict over uses of land, as the Chickahominy expected to travel for hunting, the English wanted to preserve some property as private.
Following the Anglo-Powhatan Wars of 1644-46, the tribe was forced to cede most of its land to gain a peace treaty. The tribe resettled on reservation land set aside by the treaty in the Pamunkey Neck area, alongside another Virginia Algonquian tribe, the Pamunkey, between the Mattaponi and Pamunkey Rivers, they stayed there until 1661, when they moved again to the headwaters of the Mattaponi, but their reserved holdings continued to suffer encroachment by the expanding English colony. In 1677, the Chickahominy were among the tribes signing a peace treaty with the King of England; the people lost title to the last part of their reservation lands in 1718, but continued to live in the area for some time. Those who did not merge with the Pamunkey and other tribes migrated back to New Kent County and Charles City County, closer to their original homeland. In the 20th century, descendants of these people organized to form the current Eastern Chickahominy and Chickahominy tribes, respectively; the migrations happened before the end of the 18th century, few records survive in this "burnt-over district," disrupted by major wars, by which to establish their dates of migration.
While independent, the Chickahominy were at times allied in the 17th century with Chief Powhatan, his paramount chiefdom, a confederacy of 30 or so Algonquian-speaking tribes. Records found within The National Archives at Kew, West London, indicate the Chickahominy tribe may have served in a "police" role, used by Powhatan to quell rivalries and bring an end to infighting amongst other confederacy tribes. In return, they enjoyed some benefits, such as trading with the confederacy tribes; as part of the alliance between Powhatan's confederacy and the Chickahominy, it appears they were to act as a buffer "warrior force" between the confederacy tribes and other less friendly or hostile tribes in the event of an attack, thus giving Powhatan's forces time to mobilize. Some 20th-century sources say the Chickahominy joined the Powhatan Confederacy in 1616. Others contend they did not become tributaries of the paramount chiefdom until 1677, when Cockacoeske signed the Treaty of Middle Plantation; the treaty acknowledged her as leader of the Chickahominy and several other tribes.
In the early 21st century, the Chickahominy tribe consists of about 840 people who live within a five-mile radius of each other and the tribal center, in an area known as Chickahominy Ridge. Several hundred more live in other parts of the United States, including California, New York and Pennsylvania. Current tribal lands of about 110 acres are in the tribe's traditional territory, present-day Charles City County; the tribal center on the land is the location of Fall Festival. The Chickahominy are led by a tribal council of 12 men and women, including a chief and two assistant chiefs; these positions are elected by vote. The current chief is Stephen Adkins, he served as Director of Human Resources for the Commonwealth of Virginia in the administration of Governor Tim Kaine. Wayne Adkins is an assistant chief, along with Reggie Stewart. Most members of the Chickahominy Tribe are Christian; the church was built upon tribal grounds and once served as a school for the childr
Jamestown supply missions
The Jamestown supply missions were a series of fleets from 1607 to around 1611 that were dispatched from England by the London Company with the specific goal of establishing the Company's presence and specifically maintaining the English settlement of "James Fort" on present-day Jamestown Island. The supply missions resulted in the colonization of Bermuda as a supply and way-point between the colony and England; the Jamestown colonists chose the fort's location because it was favorable for defensive purposes. Although some of them did some farming, few of the original settlers were experienced farmers, as hunters they exhausted the area's supply of small game. To make matters worse, the most severe drought in 700 years occurred between 1606 and 1612; the colonists became dependent upon trade with the Native Americans and periodic supply from England for their survival. Captain Christopher Newport was tasked with the duty of leading the "first", "second", "third" re-supply missions back to Jamestown.
However, it was not until a "fourth" mission under Lord Thomas West that the settlement was able to establish both defensive and food security. The London Company organized a for-profit expedition to establish a settlement in the Virginia territory in late 1606; the expedition consisted of three ships, which set sail on December 20, 1606 from Blackwall, with 105 men and boys and 39 crew-members. There were no women on the first ships; the ships in this fleet were: Discovery with Captain John Ratcliffe and 21 people Godspeed, with Captain Bartholomew Gosnold and 52 people Susan Constant - sometimes known as Sarah Constant- with Captain Christopher Newport and 71 people The fleet headed south-west towards the Azores. Early in the voyage, on February 13, 1607, near the Canary Islands, Captain John Smith was charged with mutiny, Newport had him arrested and planned to execute him upon arrival in the Caribbean. Passing Martinique on March 23, they visited Dominica, on March 28, St. Croix, where they replenished their water and food.
By April 6, 1607, the fleet arrived at the Spanish colony of Puerto Rico, where they stopped for provisions before continuing their journey. They landed on Mona and Monito Islands on April 7, left on April 9, the last stop before the new world. After an unusually long voyage of 144 days, the death of only one passenger, they made landfall on April 26, 1607 at the southern edge of the mouth of what they named the James River on the Chesapeake Bay. A party of men explored the area and had a minor conflict with some local "Indians", so the colonists moved north. On May 14, 1607, they chose Jamestown Island, further upriver and on the northern shore, for their settlement, as it was a location that could be defended from attacks by other European states, notably the Dutch Republic and Spain. However, after the long voyage, their food stores were sufficient only for each to have a cup or two of grain-meal per day. Further, the worst drought in 700 years occurred in the area between 1606 and 1612, affecting the Jamestown colonist and local Powhatan tribe’s ability to produce food and obtain a safe supply of water.
In addition to settling, the early colonists were expected to make a profit for the owners of the Company. The early settlers were excited by the apparent availability of gold, from the outset settlers attempted to produce timber for export, given the inexhaustible supply within Virginia's virgin forests. However, they could not devote much time to developing commodity products, as they were too busy trying to survive. On June 22, 1607, Newport sailed back for London with Susan Constant and Godspeed carrying a load of precious minerals, leaving behind the 104 colonists and Discovery. Using the ship left to the colony, Captain John Smith undertook three exploratory voyages of the Chesapeake Bay and along the various rivers seeking a supply of food for the colonists in June and August 1607. However, while leading one food-gathering expedition in December 1607, this time up the Chickahominy River west of Jamestown, his men were set upon by Pamunkey natives, Smith was captured. After being "saved" by Pocahontas, Smith returned alone to Jamestown just in time for the "First Supply", in January 1608.
Smith ventured into the Chesapeake Bay twice more in 1608, in the months between the first and second supply missions, charged by the Company to search for gold and a passage to the Pacific Ocean. The first trip lasted from June 2 to July 21. Searching for badly needed food, he covered an estimated 3,000 miles, producing a map, of great value to local explorers for more than a century; this time he traded for food with the Nansemonds along the Nansemond River, several other groups. He had mixed results dealing with the various other tribes, most of whom were affiliated with the Powhatan Confederacy; these explorations were commemorated in the Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail, established in 2006. Arriving back in London on August 12, 1607, Christopher Newport delivered a letter from the council alongside his cargo of "gold", he was put in charge of the urgently needed re-supply mission, containing a few provisions and more than 70 new colonists. The ships were: John and Francis with Captain Christopher Newport Phoenix with Francis Nelson The first re-supply fleet, tracing the same r
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu and atomic number 29. It is a soft and ductile metal with high thermal and electrical conductivity. A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a pinkish-orange color. Copper is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material, as a constituent of various metal alloys, such as sterling silver used in jewelry, cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins, constantan used in strain gauges and thermocouples for temperature measurement. Copper is one of the few metals; this led to early human use in several regions, from c. 8000 BC. Thousands of years it was the first metal to be smelted from sulfide ores, c. 5000 BC, the first metal to be cast into a shape in a mold, c. 4000 BC and the first metal to be purposefully alloyed with another metal, tin, to create bronze, c. 3500 BC. In the Roman era, copper was principally mined on Cyprus, the origin of the name of the metal, from aes сyprium corrupted to сuprum, from which the words derived and copper, first used around 1530.
The encountered compounds are copper salts, which impart blue or green colors to such minerals as azurite and turquoise, have been used and as pigments. Copper used in buildings for roofing, oxidizes to form a green verdigris. Copper is sometimes used in decorative art, both in its elemental metal form and in compounds as pigments. Copper compounds are used as bacteriostatic agents and wood preservatives. Copper is essential to all living organisms as a trace dietary mineral because it is a key constituent of the respiratory enzyme complex cytochrome c oxidase. In molluscs and crustaceans, copper is a constituent of the blood pigment hemocyanin, replaced by the iron-complexed hemoglobin in fish and other vertebrates. In humans, copper is found in the liver and bone; the adult body contains between 2.1 mg of copper per kilogram of body weight. Copper and gold are in group 11 of the periodic table; the filled d-shells in these elements contribute little to interatomic interactions, which are dominated by the s-electrons through metallic bonds.
Unlike metals with incomplete d-shells, metallic bonds in copper are lacking a covalent character and are weak. This observation explains the low high ductility of single crystals of copper. At the macroscopic scale, introduction of extended defects to the crystal lattice, such as grain boundaries, hinders flow of the material under applied stress, thereby increasing its hardness. For this reason, copper is supplied in a fine-grained polycrystalline form, which has greater strength than monocrystalline forms; the softness of copper explains its high electrical conductivity and high thermal conductivity, second highest among pure metals at room temperature. This is because the resistivity to electron transport in metals at room temperature originates from scattering of electrons on thermal vibrations of the lattice, which are weak in a soft metal; the maximum permissible current density of copper in open air is 3.1×106 A/m2 of cross-sectional area, above which it begins to heat excessively. Copper is one of a few metallic elements with a natural color other than silver.
Pure copper acquires a reddish tarnish when exposed to air. The characteristic color of copper results from the electronic transitions between the filled 3d and half-empty 4s atomic shells – the energy difference between these shells corresponds to orange light; as with other metals, if copper is put in contact with another metal, galvanic corrosion will occur. Copper does not react with water, but it does react with atmospheric oxygen to form a layer of brown-black copper oxide which, unlike the rust that forms on iron in moist air, protects the underlying metal from further corrosion. A green layer of verdigris can be seen on old copper structures, such as the roofing of many older buildings and the Statue of Liberty. Copper tarnishes when exposed to some sulfur compounds, with which it reacts to form various copper sulfides. There are 29 isotopes of copper. 63Cu and 65Cu are stable, with 63Cu comprising 69% of occurring copper. The other isotopes are radioactive, with the most stable being 67Cu with a half-life of 61.83 hours.
Seven metastable isotopes have been characterized. Isotopes with a mass number above 64 decay by β−, whereas those with a mass number below 64 decay by β+. 64Cu, which has a half-life of 12.7 hours, decays both ways.62Cu and 64Cu have significant applications. 62Cu is used in 62Cu-PTSM as a radioactive tracer for positron emission tomography. Copper is produced in massive stars and is present in the Earth's crust in a proportion of about 50 parts per million. In nature, copper occurs in a variety of minerals, including native copper, copper sulfides such as chalcopyrite, digenite and chalcocite, copper sulfosalts such as tetrahedite-tennantite, enargite, copper carbonates such as azurite and malachite, as copper or copper oxides such as cuprite and tenorite, respectively; the largest mass of elemental copper discovered weighed 420 tonnes and was found in 1857 on the Keweenaw Peninsula in Michigan, US. Native copper is a polycrystal