Passaic is a city in Passaic County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city had a total population of 69,781, maintaining its status as the 15th largest municipality in New Jersey with an increase of 1,920 residents from the 2000 Census population of 67,861, which had in turn increased by 9,820 from the 58,041 counted in the 1990 Census. Passaic is the tenth most densely populated municipality in the entire United States with 22,000+ people per square mile. Located north of Newark on the Passaic River, it was first settled in 1678 by Dutch traders, as Acquackanonk Township; the city and river draw their name from the Lenape word "pahsayèk", variously attributed to mean "valley" or "place where the land splits." The city originated from a Dutch settlement on the Passaic River established in 1679, called Acquackanonk. Industrial growth began in the 19th century, as Passaic became metalworking center. A commercial center formed around a wharf at the foot of present-day Main Avenue.
This came to be known as Acquackanonk Landing, the settlement that grew around it became known as the Village of Acquackanonk Landing or Acquackanonk Landing Settlement. In 1854 Alfred Speer and Judge Henry Simmons were principals in a political battle over the naming of village. Simmons wished to keep the old name. Speer was losing the battle, but convinced the U. S. Postmaster General to adopt the name, hung a Passaic sign at the local railroad depot; the de facto name change was effective. Passaic was formed as an unincorporated village within Acquackanonk Township on March 10, 1869, it was incorporated as an independent village on March 21, 1871. Passaic was chartered as a city on April 2, 1873; the Okonite company owned an industrial site here from 1878 to 1993. It was the company's headquarters and primary manufacturing plant for most of the company's history. Early uses of the company's insulated wires include some of the earliest telegraph cables, the wiring for Thomas Edison's first generating plant, Pearl Street Station in Lower Manhattan.
The property was turned into a furniture factory, whose owners redeveloped into an upscale mall, Contempo Plaza, in 2015. The 1926 Passaic Textile Strike led by union organizer Albert Weisbord saw 36,000 mill workers leave their jobs to oppose wage cuts demanded by the textile industry; the workers fought to keep their wages unchanged but did not receive recognition of their union by the mill owners. Passaic has been called "The Birthplace of Television". In 1931, experimental television station W2XCD began transmitting from DeForest Radio Corporation in Passaic, it has been called the first television station to transmit to the home, was the first such station to broadcast a feature film. Allen B. DuMont DeForest's chief engineer, opened pioneering TV manufacturer DuMont Laboratories in Passaic in 1937, started the DuMont Television Network, the world's first commercial television network, in 1946. In 1992, the voters of Passaic Township in Morris County voted to change the name of their municipality to Long Hill Township, to avoid confusion between the City of Passaic and the rural community 22 miles away, as well as association with the more urban city.
Passaic is served by two regional newspapers, The Record and Herald News, both owned by Gannett company and predecessor North Jersey media Group. The city had many of its own newspaper companies, among them Speer's The Passaic Item, the Passaic City Herald, the Passaic Daily Times, the Passaic City Record, the Passaic Daily News, the Passaic Daily Herald, the Passaic Herald News; the Passaic Herald News went through several mergers with other Passaic County newspapers to become the current Herald News. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 3.244 square miles, including 3.146 square miles of land and 0.098 square miles of water. Passaic's only land border is with neighboring Clifton, which borders Passaic to the north and west; the Passaic River forms the eastern border of Passaic. Four additional neighboring municipalities in Bergen County across the river from Passaic are East Rutherford, Garfield and Wallington. Passaic and Wallington are connected via the Gregory Avenue, Market Street, Eighth Street bridges.
The city connects with Garfield at Passaic Street Bridge. The connection with Rutherford is via the Union Avenue Bridge, located on an extension off of the northbound lanes of Route 21. One cannot cross from Passaic into East Rutherford by vehicle directly, however, as there is no bridge connecting the two municipalities. Drivers wanting to cross from Passaic to East Rutherford must use either the Gregory Avenue Bridge, located near Wallington's border with East Rutherford, or the Union Avenue Bridge, where East Rutherford can be accessed via surface streets. Passaic is located 10 miles from New York City, 12 miles from Newark Airport. Passaic has several business districts: Main Avenue begins in Passaic Park and follows the curve of the river to downtown. Broadway runs east -- west through the center of the city. Main Street has many shops and businesses reflecting the city's Latino and Eastern European populations; the city is home to several architecturally notable churches, including St. John's Lutheran Church, First Presbyterian of Passaic
Ex-Baháʼís or former Baháʼís are people who have been a member of the Baháʼí Faith at some time in their lives and left it. The following is a list of notable ex-Baháʼís, who have either converted to another religion or philosophy, or became non-religious. Baháʼís who are not in good standing, having lost their voting rights for some transgression, are not considered ex-Baháʼís. John Ford Coley – American artist and author. Abd al-Hosayn Ayati – Also known as Avarih, he spent 18 years as a Baháʼí travelling teacher and reverted to Shia Islam in 1921. None of the descendants of Baháʼu'lláh are current members of the Baháʼí Faith. During the ministries of ʻAbdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi, all of them were expelled due to their opposition to leadership or attempts at schism; the extended family were almost wholly assimilated into Muslim society in Haifa, with no common religious activities. Mírzá Muhammad ʻAlí – a son of Baháʼu'lláh. Labeled by Shoghi Effendi as the arch-breaker of the Covenant of Baháʼu'lláh.
Ḍíyáʼu'lláh – a son of Baháʼu'lláh. Shua Ullah Behai – Baháʼu'lláh's eldest grandson. Munib Shahid – ʻAbdu'l-Bahá's grandson. Denis MacEoin – British academic, Baháʼí from about 1966 to 1980, he departed after disagreements with Baháʼís due to his research. Alden Penner – Canadian musician, left in 2013 after personal differences with other Baháʼís. Juan Cole – Having converted to the Baháʼí Faith in 1972, Juan Cole resigned in 1996 and became uninterested in organized religion. Lewis Stuyvesant Chanler, his wife Julia Lynch Olin, Ahmad Sohrab – Co-founded the New History Society in New York City and were expelled after conflicts with the Local Spiritual Assembly. List of Baháʼís List of converts to the Baháʼí Faith Covenant-breaker Afshar, Iraj. "ĀYATĪ, ʿABD-AL-ḤOSAYN". Encyclopædia Iranica. Ashraf, Ahmad. "Official response of the Encyclopaedia Iranica to the Associated Press article of March 25, 2007 entitled "U. S.-funded encyclopedia revels in Iran's greatness"". Encyclopedia Iranica. Archived from the original on April 2, 2013.
Balyuzi, H. M.. ʻAbdu'l-Bahá: The Centre of the Covenant of Baháʼu'lláh. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. Pp. 308–309. ISBN 0-85398-043-8. Bruce, Billy. "Born-Again Rock Stars". Charisma Magazine. Retrieved September 16, 2016. Kissel, Chris. "Alden Penner: An Ex-Unicorn Goes It Alone". Diffuser.fm. Retrieved December 8, 2016. Momen, Moojan. "Marginality and Apostasy in the Baháʼí Community". Religion. 37: 187–2009. Doi:10.1016/j.religion.2007.06.008. Retrieved May 8, 2016. Sohrab, Mirza Ahmad. My Bahai Pilgrimage. Autobiography from Childhood to Middle Age. New York: New History Foundation
Stocker's Lake is an old flooded gravel pit of approx 90 acres at Rickmansworth, England, within the Colne Valley Regional Park, designated as a Local Nature Reserve. The lake is owned by Affinity Water and managed by the Herts and Middlesex Wildlife Trust assisted by the Friends of Stocker's Lake; the lake has a number of small islands and is surrounded by mixed woodland, alder carr and willow scrub. It is adjacent to Springwell Lake reedbeds. Situated on the north-south flyway of the Colne Valley, the reserve is attractive to birds both in spring, when many migratory passerines pass through, in winter, when the lake is full of waterfowl. Common terns nest on specially constructed rafts moored on the lake, the heronry is the largest in Hertfordshire. Over 60 species of birds are recorded to breed; the reserve is accessible at all times. Entrance to the reserve is via Rickmansworth Aquadrome. Alternative parking is possible along Springwell Lane
An alcohol enema known colloquially as butt-chugging or boofing, is the act of introducing alcohol into the rectum and colon via the anus, i.e. as an enema. This method of alcohol consumption can be dangerous and deadly because it leads to faster intoxication since the alcohol is absorbed directly into the bloodstream and bypasses the body's ability to reject the toxin by vomiting. Two reported techniques specific to alcohol enemas are by inserting into the rectum either an alcohol-soaked tampon or tubing connected to a funnel into which alcohol is poured, known as a beer bong. Enema bags of the sort used medically, e.g. to remedy constipation, are employed. An alcohol enema is a faster method of alcohol intoxication since the alcohol is absorbed directly into the bloodstream; the lower gastrointestinal tract lacks the alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme present in the stomach and liver that breaks down ethanol into acetylaldehyde, more toxic than ethanol and is responsible for most chronic effects of ethanol.
When rectally absorbed, ethanol will still arrive at the liver, but the high alcohol content could overwhelm the organ. Additionally, consuming the alcohol rectally neutralizes the body's ability to reject the toxin by vomiting; the Maya ritually administered enemas of alcohol as an entheogen, sometimes adding other psychoactive substances, seeking to reach a state of ecstasy. Syringes of gourd and clay were used to inject the fluid. In May 2004, a 58-year-old man of Lake Jackson, died after his wife administered an alcohol enema of sherry. In total, the man consumed two large bottles of sherry, containing about three liters of the alcohol, he suffered from alcoholism and had difficulty ingesting alcohol orally because of a painful throat ailment. His wife was indicted on a charge of negligent homicide. In August 2007, prosecutors dropped the charges due to insufficient evidence. An enema bag filled with white wine and taken as a self-administered enema killed a 52-year-old man, he was found dead with the nozzle still inserted in his anus and connected to an enema bag that hung from a coat rack next to his bed
Purbasthali II is a community development block that forms an administrative division in Kalna subdivision of Purba Bardhaman district in the Indian state of West Bengal. Patuli, a constituent gram panchayat of Purbasthali II CD Block, is located at 23°33′N 88°15′E. Purbasthali II CD Block is part of the Bhagirathi basin; the Bhagirathi forms the eastern boundary of the CD Block. The region has water-logged areas; the soil is fertile, as it consists of silt deposits. Purbasthali II CD Block is bounded by Nakashipara CD Block, in Nadia district across the Bhagirathi, on the north, Krishnanagar II and Nabadwip CD Blocks, in Nadia district across the Bhagirathi, on the east, Purbasthali I CD Block on the south and Katwa II and Manteswar CD Blocks on the west. Purbasthali II CD Block has an area of 192.47 km2. It has 1 panchayat samity, 10 gram panchayats, 156 gram sansads, 89 mouzas and 88 inhabited villages. Nadanghat and Purbasthali police stations serve this block. Headquarters of this CD Block is at Patuli.
Gram panchayats of Purbasthali II block/panchayat samiti are: Jhawdanga, Kalekhantola I, Kalekhantola II, Mertala, Nimdaha, Patuli and Purbasthali. As per the 2011 Census of India Purbasthali II CD Block had a total population of 212,355, all of which were rural. There were 102,913 females. Population below 6 years was 23,091. Scheduled Castes numbered 55,456 and Scheduled Tribes numbered 7,920; as per 2001 census, Purbasthali II block had a total population of 188,149, out of which 97,024 were males and 91,125 were females. Purbasthali II block registered a population growth of 18.89 per cent during the 1991-2001 decade. Decadal growth for Bardhaman district was 14.36 per cent. Decadal growth in West Bengal was 17.84 per cent. Scheduled castes at 55,528 formed around one-fourth the population. Scheduled tribes numbered 6,459. Large villages in Purbasthali II CD Block are: Purbasthali, Chhatni, Uttar Shrirampur, Majida, Uttar Lakshmipur, Ukhra, Biswarambha, Falea, Chupi and Parulia. Other villages in Purbasthali II CD Block include: Muksimpara and Jhauadanga.
As per the 2011 census the total number of literates in Purbasthali II CD Block was 133,138 out of which males numbered 73,913 and females numbered 59,225. The gender disparity was 10.94%. As per 2001 census, Purbasthali II block had a total literacy of 64.50 per cent for the 6+ age group. While male literacy was 72.38 per cent female literacy was 56.07 per cent. Bardhaman district had a total literacy of 70.18 per cent, male literacy being 78.63 per cent and female literacy being 60.95 per cent. See – List of West Bengal districts ranked by literacy rate As per census definition, mother-tongue is the language spoken in childhood by the person's mother to the person; as a mother-tongue, Bengali has decreased its share from 82.3% of the population of Bardhaman district in 1961 to 79.9% in 2001, Hindi has increased its share from 8.5% in 1961 to 10.9% in 2001 Santali has remained steady at around 4.9% during the period, Urdu has increased its share from 2.4% in 1961 to 2.6% in 2001. Other mother-tongues spoken in 2001 were: Odiya, Koda/Kora, Bhojpuri and Kurukh/ Oraon.
In the 2011 census Hindus numbered 145,531 and formed 68.06% of the population in Purbasthali II CD Block. Muslims formed 31.60 % of the population. Christians formed 0.13 % of the population. Others formed 0.21 % of the population. In Bardhaman district the percentage of Hindu population has been declining from 84.3% in 1961 to 77.9% in 2011 and the percentage of Muslim population has increased from 15.2% in 1961 to 20.7% in 2011. As per poverty estimates obtained from household survey for families living below poverty line in 2005, rural poverty in Purbasthali II CD Block was 42.76%. In Purbasthali II CD Block in 2011, amongst the class of total workers, cultivators formed 17.35%, agricultural labourers 44.48%, household industry workers 11.73% and other workers 26.44%. Purbasthali II CD Block is part of the area where agriculture dominates the scenario but the secondary and tertiary sectors have shown an increasing trend. There are 88 inhabited villages in Purbasthali II CD block. All 88 villages have power supply.
87 villages have drinking water supply. 22 villages have post offices. 84 villages have telephones. 43 villages have a pucca approach road and 27 villages have transport communication. 21 villages have agricultural credit societies. 14 villages have banks. In 2013-14, there were 23 seed store and 51 fair price shops in the CD Block. Although the Bargadari Act of 1950 recognised the rights of bargadars to a higher share of crops from the land that they tilled, it was not implemented fully. Large tracts, beyond the prescribed limit of land ceiling, remained with the rich landlords. From 1977 onwards major land reforms took place in West Bengal. Land in excess of land ceiling was distributed amongst the peasants. Following land reforms land ownership pattern has undergone tran
Merit Club is a private country club in Libertyville, Illinois, a suburb north-northwest of Chicago. The course was founded in 1992 by Bert Getz Sr. and his family and was collaboratively designed by Getz, Oscar Miles, Bob Lohmann and Ed Oldfield. The course architect was Bob Lohmann, it features a 6,960-yard 18-hole course. The Merit Club has three practice holes: par 4, par 3, par 4. Merit Club hosted the U. S. Women's Open in 2000, won by Karrie Webb, it was ranked in the top 100 golf courses in the United States by both Golf Golf Magazine. The Merit Club hosted the second edition of the LPGA UL International Crown on July 21 through July 24, 2016, won by the United States; the Merit Club has had a caddie program since its opening. The Current Caddie Master is Rafael Rivera; some notable caddies include: Ben Winkler, Nick Valencia, Jonathan Palmieri, Dillon Leeper, Ethan Porembski, Oscar Vasquez, Griffin Sahr, Blake Leeper. Official website Golfcourse.com review Chicago Tribune articles