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Pastiche

A pastiche is a work of visual art, theatre, or music that imitates the style or character of the work of one or more other artists. Unlike parody, pastiche celebrates, rather than mocks, the work; the word pastiche is a French cognate of the Italian noun pasticcio, a pâté or pie-filling mixed from diverse ingredients. Metaphorically and pasticcio describe works that are either composed by several authors, or that incorporate stylistic elements of other artists' work. Pastiche is an example of eclecticism in art. Allusion is not pastiche. A literary allusion may refer to another work. Moreover, allusion requires the audience to share in the author's cultural knowledge. Both allusion and pastiche are mechanisms of intertextuality. In literature usage, the term denotes a literary technique employing a light-hearted tongue-in-cheek imitation of another's style; the word implies a lack of originality or coherence, an imitative jumble, but with the advent of postmodernism pastiche has become positively constructed as deliberate, witty homage or playful imitation.

For example, many stories featuring Sherlock Holmes penned by Arthur Conan Doyle, have been written as pastiches since the author's time. Ellery Queen and Nero Wolfe are other popular subjects of mystery pastiches. A similar example of pastiche is the posthumous continuations of the Robert E. Howard stories, written by other writers without Howard's authorization; this includes the Conan the Barbarian stories of Lin Carter. David Lodge's novel The British Museum Is Falling Down is a pastiche of works by Joyce and Virginia Woolf. In 1991 Alexandra Ripley wrote the novel Scarlett, a pastiche of Gone with the Wind, in an unsuccessful attempt to have it recognized as a canonical sequel. In 2017, John Banville published Mrs. Osmond, a sequel to Henry James's The Portrait of a Lady, written in a style similar to that of James. In 2018, Ben Schott published Jeeves and the King of Clubs, an homage to P. G. Wodehouse's character Jeeves, with the blessing of the Wodehouse estate. Charles Rosen has characterized Mozart's various works in imitation of Baroque style as pastiche, Edvard Grieg's Holberg Suite was written as a conscious homage to the music of an earlier age.

Some of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky's works, such as his Variations on a Rococo Theme and Serenade for Strings, employ a poised "classical" form reminiscent of 18th-century composers such as Mozart. One of the best examples of pastiche in modern music is that of George Rochberg, who used the technique in his String Quartet No. 3 of 1972 and Music for the Magic Theater. Rochberg turned to pastiche from serialism after the death of his son in 1963. "Bohemian Rhapsody" by Queen is unusual as it is a pastiche in both senses of the word, as there are many distinct styles imitated in the song, all "hodge-podged" together to create one piece of music. A similar earlier example is. One can find musical "pastiches" throughout the work of the American composer Frank Zappa. A pastiche Mass is a musical Mass. Most this convention has been chosen for concert performances by early-music ensembles. Masses are composed of movements: Kyrie, Credo, Agnus Dei. In a pastiche Mass, the performers may choose a Kyrie from one composer, a Gloria from another.

In musical theatre pastiche is an indispensable tool for evoking the sounds of a particular era for which a show is set. For the 1971 musical Follies, a show about a reunion of performers from a musical revue set between the World Wars, Stephen Sondheim wrote over a dozen songs in the style of Broadway songwriters of the 1920s and 1930s. Sondheim imitates not only the music of composers such as Cole Porter, Irving Berlin, Jerome Kern, George Gershwin but the lyrics of writers such as Ira Gershwin, Dorothy Fields, Otto Harbach, Oscar Hammerstein II. For example, Sondheim notes that the torch song "Losing My Mind" sung in the show contains "near-stenciled rhythms and harmonies" from the Gershwins' "The Man I Love" and lyrics written in the style of Dorothy Fields. Examples of musical pastiche appear in other Sondheim shows including Gypsy, Saturday Night and Anyone Can Whistle. Pastiche can be a cinematic device whereby filmmakers pay homage to another filmmaker's style and use of cinematography, including camera angles and mise en scène.

A film's writer may offer a pastiche based on the works of other writers. Italian director Sergio Leone`s Once Upon a Time in the West is a pastiche of earlier American Westerns. Another major filmmaker, Quentin Tarantino uses various plots and themes from many lesser-known films to create his films, among them from the films of Sergio Leone, in effect creating a pastiche of a pastiche. Tarantino has stated that "I steal from every single movie made." Director Todd Haynes' 2002 film Far From Heaven was a conscious attempt to replicate a typical Douglas Sirk melodrama - in particular All That Heaven Allows. The film works as a reverential and unironic tribute to Sirk's filmmaking, lovingly re-creating the stylized mise-en-scene, costumes and lighting of Sirkian melodrama. In cinema, the influence

Foreign direct investment

A foreign direct investment is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country. It is thus distinguished from a foreign portfolio investment by a notion of direct control; the origin of the investment does not impact the definition, as an FDI: the investment may be made either "inorganically" by buying a company in the target country or "organically" by expanding the operations of an existing business in that country. Broadly, foreign direct investment includes "mergers and acquisitions, building new facilities, reinvesting profits earned from overseas operations, intra company loans". In a narrow sense, foreign direct investment refers just to building new facility, a lasting management interest in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. FDI is the sum of equity capital, long-term capital, short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. FDI involves participation in management, joint-venture, transfer of technology and expertise.

Stock of FDI is the net cumulative FDI for any given period. Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares. FDI, a subset of international factor movements, is characterized by controlling ownership of a business enterprise in one country by an entity based in another country. Foreign direct investment is distinguished from foreign portfolio investment, a passive investment in the securities of another country such as public stocks and bonds, by the element of "control". According to the Financial Times, "Standard definitions of control use the internationally agreed 10 percent threshold of voting shares, but this is a grey area as a smaller block of shares will give control in held companies. Moreover, control of technology, management crucial inputs can confer de facto control." According to Grazia Ietto-Gillies, prior to Stephen Hymer’s theory regarding direct investment in the 1960s, the reasons behind foreign direct investment and multinational corporations were explained by neoclassical economics based on macro economic principles.

These theories were based on the classical theory of trade in which the motive behind trade was a result of the difference in the costs of production of goods between two countries, focusing on the low cost of production as a motive for a firm's foreign activity. For example, Joe S. Bain only explained the internationalization challenge through three main principles: absolute cost advantages, product differentiation advantages and economies of scale. Furthermore, the neoclassical theories were created under the assumption of the existence of perfect competition. Intrigued by the motivations behind large foreign investments made by corporations from the United States of America, Hymer developed a framework that went beyond the existing theories, explaining why this phenomenon occurred, since he considered that the mentioned theories could not explain foreign investment and its motivations. Facing the challenges of his predecessors, Hymer focused his theory on filling the gaps regarding international investment.

The theory proposed by the author approaches international investment from a different and more firm-specific point of view. As opposed to traditional macroeconomics-based theories of investment, Hymer states that there is a difference between mere capital investment, otherwise known as portfolio investment, direct investment; the difference between the two, which will become the cornerstone of his whole theoretical framework, is the issue of control, meaning that with direct investment firms are able to obtain a greater level of control than with portfolio investment. Furthermore, Hymer proceeds to criticize the neoclassical theories, stating that the theory of capital movements cannot explain international production. Moreover, he clarifies that FDI is not a movement of funds from a home country to a host country, that it is concentrated on particular industries within many countries. In contrast, if interest rates were the main motive for international investment, FDI would include many industries within fewer countries.

Another observation made by Hymer went against what was maintained by the neoclassical theories: foreign direct investment is not limited to investment of excess profits abroad. In fact, foreign direct investment can be financed through loans obtained in the host country, payments in exchange for equity, other methods; the main determinants of FDI is side as well as growth prospectus of the economy of the country when FDI is made. Hymer proposed some more determinants of FDI due to criticisms, along with assuming market and imperfections; these are as follows: Firm-specific advantages: Once domestic investment was exhausted, a firm could exploit its advantages linked to market imperfections, which could provide the firm with market power and competitive advantage. Further studies attempted to explain how firms could monetize these advantages in the form of licenses. Removal of conflicts: conflict arises if a firm is operating in foreign market or looking to expand its operations within the same market.

He proposes that the solution for this hurdle arose in the form of collusion, sharing the market with rivals or attempting to acquire a direct control of production. However, it must be taken into account that a reduction in conflict through acquisition of control of operations will increase the market imperfections. Propensity to formulate an internationalization strategy to mitigate risk: According to his position, firms are characterized with 3 levels of decision making: the

Auvillar

Auvillar is a commune in the department of Tarn-et-Garonne and the Occitanie region, situated at the edge of the Lomagne region on the banks of the Garonne river. Since 1994, Auvillar has been voted one of the "most beautiful villages in France" with its harbor area and outstanding monuments like the circular hall, the clock tower and the Church of St. Peter. Auvillar is a stop for pilgrims on the Santiago de Compostela pilgrimage route, its inhabitants are called Auvillaraises. The village is located between the cities of Agen and Montauban, it is situated on a rocky outcrop overlooking the river. The view stretches from the gates of the Aquitaine to the coast of Quercy. After the long plain, a suspension bridge crosses the Garonne between Auvillar port. First known as a city Gallo-Romane Auvillar was an oppidum set on a rocky outcrop, it suffered many invasions of Normans until the eleventh century. In the twelfth century, the city became the property of the Count of Armagnac. Becoming in the sixteenth century part of the kings of Navarre.

Auvillar became attached to the crown of France after the crowning of Henri IV in 1589. Its fortress subjected the city to many conflicts in the region, from the Crusade against the Albigensians, the Hundred Years' War, the wars of religion and the Catholic League. In the seventeenth to the nineteenth century Auvillar owed its prosperity to two industries and the preparation of pens of goose feathers used in calligraphy. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, boatman traffic reached 3000 boats per year. Communes of the Tarn-et-Garonne department INSEE City life Official web site schools Mon Village et Vous

The 21 Project

The 21 Project is the third major label studio album released by American country music artist Hunter Hayes, released in physical format on November 6, 2015 through Atlantic Nashville. Hayes co-produced the collection with Dann Huff; the album includes five songs from his similarly-titled EP, 21, released earlier that year, as well as two new tracks. Each song is available as a studio recording, an acoustic recording, a live performance from the Wheels Up Tour. In May 2015, Hayes released the project's lead single, "21" to streaming service Spotify in an effort to inspire country music to adapt to new, digital forms of music distribution. Over the next two months, he released a series of additional one-off singles that were incorporated into an extended play titled 21, released on Spotify on August 7, 2015. Hayes told Billboard that "this music wasn't created with an album in mind," but his management team confirmed to the magazine that a conventional physical album was expected to be released in the fall of 2015.

Warner Music announced said album, The 21 Project, in a press release dated October 12, 2015, was released on November 6, 2015. Hayes told country music blog The Boot that due to the way it developed, he's "trying not to call a record," but thinks of it more as a box set or an art project. According to him, the goal of the project was to "bring the focus back to the music," and to demonstrate how a song evolves "from its original form into something we play on stage." The songs were all rearranged for the live performances. Justin Eason - bouzouki, acoustic guitar, electric guitar, background vocals Hunter Hayes - bouzouki, drum programming, acoustic guitar, bass guitar, electric guitar, resonator guitar, mandolin, synthesizer, lead vocals, background vocals Dave Haywood - mandolin and vocals on "Where It All Begins" Charles Kelley - vocals on "Where It All Begins" Devin Malone - banjo, acoustic guitar, electric guitar, resonator guitar, slide guitar, background vocals Luke Moller - violin Hillary Scott - vocals on "Where It All Begins" Andy Sheridan - accordion, Fender Rhodes, acoustic guitar, Hammond B-3 organ, piano, background vocals, Wurlitzer Steve Sinatra - drums, background vocals Matt Utterback - bass guitar, upright bass, synthesizer bass Nir Z. - drums The album debuted at No. 16 on Top Country Albums, No. 93 on Billboard 200, selling 5,300 copies in its first week.

The album has sold 12,400 copies in the United States as of December 2015. "Where It All Begins" charted at number 45 on the Billboard Hot Country Songs chart in July 2015

1979 Qatif Uprising

The 1979 Qatif Uprising was a period of unprecedented civil unrest that occurred in Qatif and Al-Hasa, Saudi Arabia, in late November 1979. The unrest resulted in 20-24 people killed in what was described as a sectarian outburst of violence between the Shi'a minority and Sunni Majority in Saudi Arabia and the beginning of the modern phase of the Qatif conflict. Since Al-Hasa and Qatif were conquered and annexed into the Emirate of Riyadh in 1913 by Ibn Saud, Shiites in the region had experienced state oppression. Unlike most of Saudi Arabia and much of the Eastern Province has a Shiite majority, the region is being of key importance to the Saudi government due to it both possessing the bulk of Saudi oil reserves as well as the main Saudi refinery and export terminal of Ras Tanura, situated close to Qatif. Furthermore, despite possessing the bulk of the oil which funds the Saudi state, the region had traditionally been neglected by central government and left undeveloped, with developmental priority being given to Sunni majority areas, with the region lagging in respect to healthcare.

Shiite Aramco workers were paid less than Sunni workers, leading to increased anti-Western feelings. When American jets landed in Dhahran King Abdulaziz Air Base for manoeuvres, the Shiites organized the biggest demonstration ever; the demonstrators spent the evening of 11 November 1979 shouting slogans against the royal family and the Americans. With the 1979 Islamic Revolution in Iran, Shiites in the region felt encouraged to try and secure equal treatment as that given to Sunnis. Shiites in Saudi Arabia were receptive to Ruhollah Khomeini and his attacks on the Saudi royal family on the grounds that Islam and hereditary kingship are not compatible; as a result, 1979 saw a marked increase in the mobilisation of the Shiite community in Saudi Arabia, with demonstrations being centered around Shiite festivals. The celebration of these festivals, including that of the Day of Ashura, was banned. Although the Shiite minority was oppressed by the Saudi government, this traditionally was in the form of direct violence against the community.

In the lead up to the uprising, due in part to unease about growing discontent within the community, the Saudi security services began to engage in more direct oppression, such as through mass detentions of individuals without trial for many months, serving to increase tension between the Shiite community and the Saudi security apparatus. The OIR emerged as a force on the eve of the attempted Qatif Uprising in 1979. In the ensuing violence many OIR members and supporters were arrested; the OIR itself claimed that 60 of its members died, 800 were wounded, that 1,200 were arrested. Following the failed uprising Saffar, along with much of the leadership of the OIR, went into exile in Iran, along with Western Europe and North America. Within Iran most of the exiles tended to congregate in Tehran, where the Saudis constituted the bulk of the students at the Hawza of the Imam of the Age. In August, Shiite community leaders in Qatif announced that they would publicly celebrate the Day of Ashura festival, despite the fact that celebration of Shiite festivals was banned.

Despite government threats to disperse protests, on 25 November 4,000 Shiite in Safwa took to the streets to publicly celebrate the Day of Ashura. Encouraged by the march in Safwa, protests spread to other parts of the Qatif area, on the evening of 28 November thousands took to the streets of Saihat, close to Dammam. Protesters shouted anti-regime slogans demanding the abdication of the King, the protesters advanced on a nearby group of National guardsmen; the violent confrontation with Saudi security forces was led from the protesters end by Hussein Mansur al-Qalaf, a recent graduate from Aramco's Industrial Training Center. The Saudi National Guardsmen controlled the crowd through use of clubs and electric prods, which angered the crowd and was met by protesters throwing stones and wielding bars and wooden canes as weapons; the National Guardsmen opened fire on the crowd, amongst others, the 19-year-old Hussein Mansur al-Qalaf. Qalaf was rushed to the local Saudi Aramco Medical Services Organization by fellow protesters, but was refused treatment by the administration of the facility as they didn't have prior government permission to treat him.

He was taken to the hospital in Qatif, more than a half-hour away, but Qalaf had died by the time they reached the hospital. The body was seized by Saudi security forces, who told the family they would only release the body if the family released a statement blaming Qalaf's death on stones thrown by the protesters. After a week the body was released by the government, despite the lack of a statement from the family, on the condition that there would be no funeral procession and the body would be buried secretly; the family complied with the government conditions. Following the initial protests and clashes there were numerous other skirmishes between protesters and state security forces in the Qatif area; these further skirmishes resulted in further deaths, including ten protesters who were fired on by security forces when they attempted to cross over the bridge from Tarout Island to Qatif. There were reports of random killings resulting from government helicopters firing on protesters and the surrounding neighborhoods.

The protests dissipated after 3 December, when large Shia marches were held in Damman and Khobar. The bloody showdown between the armed forces and the Shiites had resulted in thousands of arrests, hundreds of injuries, 24 deaths; the Saudi authorities were busy at the time dealing with the concurrent seizure of the Grand Mosque in Mecca. In response to the protest movement the Saudi government acknowledged the poor condit

Grand Prix of Montreal

The Grand Prix of Montreal was an annual auto race in Montreal, Quebec on the Champ Car World Series calendar. Known as the Molson Indy Montreal, it was first held at Sanair Super Speedway, an oval track, from 1984 through 1986; the Champ Car series revived the race in 2002, it was held in late August each year until 2006 at the Circuit Gilles Villeneuve, a permanent road course most famous as the home of the Formula One Canadian Grand Prix. In 2006, the name of the race was changed to the Grand Prix of Montreal after its sale by Molson Sports & Entertainment; this mirrored the name change of the Toronto Champ Car race from the Molson Indy Toronto to the Molson Grand Prix of Toronto after its sale by Molson. After the 2006 race, the future of the Grand Prix of Montreal became; the Circuit Gilles Villeneuve is allowed to be used for one race weekend outside of the Canadian Grand Prix, it was speculated that from 2007 onwards, Canadian Grand Prix promoter Normand Legault would replace the Grand Prix of Montreal with a NASCAR Busch Series race.

Champ Car announced in September 2006 that it would indeed not be returning to Circuit Gilles Villeneuve and would be replacing the event with one at Circuit Mont-Tremblant. Circuit Gilles-Villeneuve replaced the race with the NASCAR NAPA Auto Parts 200 race; these races were held at Circuit Gilles Villeneuve. Champ Car Stats: Sanair archive, Montreal archive Ultimate Racing History: Sanair archive, Montreal archive