Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris Colloquial Latin, or Common Romance, was a range of non-standard sociolects of Latin spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire. Compared to Classical Latin, written documentation of Vulgar Latin appears less standardized; the Romance languages, such as French, Portuguese and Spanish all evolved from Vulgar Latin and not from Classical Latin. Works written in Latin during classical times and the earlier Middle Ages used prescribed Classical Latin rather than Vulgar Latin, with few exceptions, thus Vulgar Latin had no official orthography of its own. In Renaissance Latin, Vulgar Latin was called vulgare Latinum vulgare. By its nature, Vulgar Latin varied by region and by time period, though several major divisions can be seen. Vulgar Latin dialects began to diverge from Classical Latin by the third century during the classical period of the Roman Empire. Throughout the sixth century, the most spoken dialects were still similar to and mutually intelligible with Classical Latin.
The verb system seems to have remained intact throughout the fifth century the transformation of the language, from structures we call Latin into structures we call Romance, lasted from the third or fourth century until the eighth, "So its history came to an end – or to put it another way, the language becomes a'dead' language – when it stops functioning in this way and is no longer anybody's natural mother tongue," In Gaul from the mid-eighth century many people were not able to understand the most straightforward religious texts read to them in Latin. In Italy the first signs that people were aware of the difference between the everyday language they spoke and the written form is in the mid-tenth century; the period of most rapid change occurred from the second half of the seventh century. Until the spoken and written form were regarded as one language; the Latin of classical antiquity changed from being a "living natural mother tongue" to being a language foreign to all, which could not be used or understood by Romance-speakers except as a result of deliberate and systematic study.
If a date is wanted "we could say Latin'died' in the first part of the eighth century", after a long period 650–800 A. D. of accelerating changes. After the end of Classical Latin, people had no other names for the languages they spoke than Latin, lingua romana, or lingua romana rustica for 200–300 years. Modern people call these languages proto-Romance; the flaw in the death metaphor for Latin is summarized in the first line of Wright's essay, "Did Latin die?": "Latin isn't dead, you know." Wright explains that the hundreds of millions of people whose first language is one of Spanish, French, Romanian, etc. speak evolved Latin as as English speakers use the evolved continuation of Old English. While traditional Classical Latin was reduced in use as a written code and abandoned as a useful secondary "roof language" spoken Latin changed as all languages do. In terms of regional differences for the whole Latin period, "we can only glimpse a tiny amount of divergence with the actual written data.
In texts of all kinds, literary and all others, the written Latin of the first five or six centuries A. D. looks as if it were territorially homogeneous in its'vulgar' register. It is only in the texts, of the seventh and eighth centuries, that we are able to see in the texts geographical differences that seem to be the precursors of similar differences in the subsequent Romance languages."In the Eastern Roman Empire, Latin faded as the court language over the course of the 6th century. The Vulgar Latin spoken in the Balkans north of Greece became influenced by Greek and Slavic and became radically different from Classical Latin and from the proto-Romance of Western Europe; the term "common speech", which became "Vulgar Latin", was used by inhabitants of the Roman Empire. Subsequently, it became a technical term from Latin and Romance-language philology referring to the unwritten varieties of a Latinised language spoken by Italo-Celtic populations governed by the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
Traces of their language appear in some inscriptions, such as advertisements. The educated population responsible for Classical Latin may have spoken Vulgar Latin in certain contexts depending on their socioeconomic background; the term was first used improperly in that sense by the pioneers of Romance-language philology: François Juste Marie Raynouard and Friedrich Christian Diez. In the course of his studies on the lyrics of songs written by the troubadours of Provence, studied by Dante Alighieri and published in De vulgari eloquentia, Raynouard noticed that the Romance languages derived in part from lexical and syntactic features that were Latin, but were not preferred in Classical Latin, he hypothesized an intermediate phase and identified it with the Romana lingua, a term that in countries speaking Romance languages meant "n
Georgios Babiniotis is a Greek linguist and philologist and former Minister of Education and Religious Affairs of Greece. He served as rector of Athens University; as a linguist, he is best known as the author of a Dictionary of Modern Greek, published in 1998. He was born in Athens, in 1939, he graduated from the 9th Boys' Gymnasium of Athens and he studied philology at the Philological School of Athens. In 1962 he earned his degree, he took more studies in Greece and Germany. Before his 35th birthday, he became a full professor of linguistics at the Philology School of Athens University. In 1991 he was elected president of the Philology Section of the Philosophy School and in 2000 he was elected rector of Athens University, a position he held until 2006, he is president of the Arsakeio-Tositsas Schools Educationalist Society, president of the management council of the Greek Civilization Foundation and president of the Athens Linguistics Society. In 2009 he was assigned manager of the Council of Primary and Secondary Education and he works on the changes of the examinations system in Greek secondary schools that allow students to undertake tertiary education.
He writes articles for the daily newspaper To Vima and was scientific advisor for the Greek public television stations. He manages the Lexicology Centre which in 1998 published the Dictionary of Modern Greek, which has come to be known as the "Babiniotis dictionary". On 7 March 2012, he was appointed Minister of National Education and Religious Affairs in the coalition cabinet of Prime Minister Lucas Papademos, a post which he held until 17 May 2012. Babiniotis dictionary court case Personal website Biography in Greek from the National Book Centre. Lexicology Centre
Anari is a fresh mild whey cheese produced in Cyprus. Although much less known than other Cypriot cheeses, it gained popularity following publicity. One of the main industrial producers on the island won a silver medal award for anari in the 2005 World Cheese Awards in the UK, it has since become available in UK national supermarkets. The whey used is a by-product in the production process of other harder cheeses that of halloumi or kefalotyri cheese; the whey is heated to 65 °C in a large cooking bowl. A small amount of goat or sheep milk can be added at this temperature to improve the end product quality; the temperature is increased to boiling point, whilst mixing. At 80–85 °C small crumbly curds of anari start forming and are skimmed off the surface using a slotted spoon or a colander, they are placed in a container that allows further drainage and cut into cubes of 10 cm sides. Excluding the drainage, the above process takes 1 hour. In its simple form, anari has a chalk-white appearance with a soft consistency, similar in many ways to the likes of mizithra cheese, cottage cheese and ricotta.
Salt is added and the product dried through gentle heating and further maturation to create an hard variant. If not intended for hardening, anari must be consumed soon after its production as it is perishable. Most locals will consume it for breakfast mixed with syrups or honey. Bourekia is a traditional Cypriot dish of pastries packed with various anari-based fillings. Cheesecakes are similar with a filo pastry cover instead. Dry anari is too hard to cut and is hence invariably grated and used to garnish pasta dishes or thicken sauces, it is used to make Flaounes, a traditional pastry with dry anari prepared in Orthodox Easter. 100 g of commercially produced fresh anari has a typical composition of: Anari is known in Cyprus as analati anari meaning Anari without salt, since the regular anari is salted. Anari has a prominent place in Cypriot culture as it is mentioned in the traditional fairy tale Spanos and the forty dragons. Cheese
The tomato is the edible red, berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum known as a tomato plant. The species originated in western South America; the Nahuatl word tomatl gave rise to the Spanish word tomate, from which the English word tomato derived. Its use as a cultivated food may have originated with the indigenous peoples of Mexico; the Spanish encountered the tomato from their contact with the Aztec during the Spanish colonization of the Americas and brought it to Europe. From there, the tomato was introduced to other parts of the European-colonized world during the 16th century; the tomato is consumed in diverse ways, raw or cooked, in many dishes, sauces and drinks. While tomatoes are fruits — botanically classified as berries — they are used as a vegetable ingredient or side dish. Numerous varieties of the tomato plant are grown in temperate climates across the world, with greenhouses allowing for the production of tomatoes throughout all seasons of the year. Tomato plants grow to 1–3 meters in height.
They are vines that have a weak stem that sprawls and needs support. Indeterminate tomato plants are cultivated as annuals. Determinate, or bush, plants are annuals that stop growing at a certain height and produce a crop all at once; the size of the tomato varies according to the cultivar, with a range of 0.5–4 inches in width. The word "tomato" comes from the Spanish tomate, which in turn comes from the Nahuatl word tomatl, meaning "the swelling fruit"; the native Mexican tomatillo is tomate. When Aztecs started to cultivate the Andean fruit to be larger and red, they called the new species xitomatl; the scientific species epithet lycopersicum is interpreted from Latin in the 1753 book, Species Plantarum, as "wolfpeach", where wolf is from lyco and peach is from persicum. The usual pronunciations of "tomato" are and; the word's dual pronunciations were immortalized in Ira and George Gershwin's 1937 song "Let's Call the Whole Thing Off" and have become a symbol for nitpicking pronunciation disputes.
In this capacity, it has become an American and British slang term: saying "" when presented with two choices can mean "What's the difference?" or "It's all the same to me". Botanically, a tomato is a fruit—a berry, consisting of the ovary, together with its seeds, of a flowering plant. However, the tomato is considered a "culinary vegetable" because it has a much lower sugar content than culinary fruits. Tomatoes are not the only food source with this ambiguity; this has led to legal dispute in the United States. In 1887, U. S. tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables, but not on fruit, caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance. The U. S. Supreme Court settled this controversy on May 10, 1893, by declaring that the tomato is a vegetable, based on the popular definition that classifies vegetables by use—they are served with dinner and not dessert; the holding of this case applies only to the interpretation of the Tariff of 1883, the court did not purport to reclassify the tomato for botanical or other purposes.
Tomato plants are vines decumbent growing 180 cm or more above the ground if supported, although erect bush varieties have been bred 100 cm tall or shorter. Indeterminate types are "tender" perennials, dying annually in temperate climates, although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in some cases. Determinate types are annual in all climates. Tomato plants are dicots, grow as a series of branching stems, with a terminal bud at the tip that does the actual growing; when that tip stops growing, whether because of pruning or flowering, lateral buds take over and grow into other functional, vines. Tomato vines are pubescent, meaning covered with fine short hairs; these hairs facilitate the vining process, turning into roots wherever the plant is in contact with the ground and moisture if the vine's connection to its original root has been damaged or severed. Most tomato plants have compound leaves, are called regular leaf plants, but some cultivars have simple leaves known as potato leaf style because of their resemblance to that particular relative.
Of RL plants, there are variations, such as rugose leaves, which are grooved, variegated, angora leaves, which have additional colors where a genetic mutation causes chlorophyll to be excluded from some portions of the leaves. The leaves are 10–25 cm long, odd pinnate, with five to 9 leaflets on petioles, each leaflet up to 8 cm long, with a serrated margin, their flowers, appearing on the apical meristem, have the anthers fused along the edges, forming a column surrounding the pistil's style. Flowers in domestic cultivars can be self-fertilizing; the flowers are 1–2 cm across, with five pointed lobes on the corolla. Tomato fruit is classified as a berry; as a true fruit, it develops from the ovary of the plant after fertilization, its flesh comprising
Nutmeg is the seed or ground spice of several species of the genus Myristica. Myristica fragrans is a dark-leaved evergreen tree cultivated for two spices derived from its fruit: nutmeg, from its seed, mace, from the seed covering, it is a commercial source of an essential oil and nutmeg butter. The California nutmeg, Torreya californica, has a seed of similar appearance, but is not related to Myristica fragans, is not used as a spice. If consumed in amounts exceeding its typical use as a spice, nutmeg powder may produce allergic reactions, cause contact dermatitis, or have psychoactive effects. Although used in traditional medicine for treating various disorders, nutmeg has no known medicinal value. Nutmeg is the spice made by grinding the seed of the fragrant nutmeg tree into powder; the spice has a distinctive pungent fragrance and a warm sweet taste. The seeds are dried in the sun over a period of six to eight weeks. During this time the nutmeg shrinks away from its hard seed coat until the kernels rattle in their shells when shaken.
The shell is broken with a wooden club and the nutmegs are picked out. Dried nutmegs are grayish brown ovals with furrowed surfaces; the nutmegs are egg-shaped, about 20.5–30 mm long and 15–18 mm wide, weighing 5–10 g dried. Two other species of genus Myristica with different flavors, M. malabarica and M. argentea, are sometimes used to adulterate nutmeg as a spice. Mace is the spice made from the reddish seed covering of the nutmeg seed, its flavour is more delicate. In the processing of mace, the crimson-colored aril is removed from the nutmeg seed that it envelops and is flattened out and dried for 10 to 14 days, its color changes to pale orange, or tan. Whole dry mace consists of flat pieces—smooth and brittle—about 40 mm long; the most important commercial species is the common, true or fragrant nutmeg, Myristica fragrans, native to the Banda Islands in the Moluccas of Indonesia. It is cultivated on Penang Island in Malaysia, in the Caribbean in Grenada, in Kerala, a state known as Malabar in ancient writings as the hub of spice trading, in southern India.
In the 17th-century work Hortus Botanicus Malabaricus, Hendrik van Rheede records that Indians learned the usage of nutmeg from the Indonesians through ancient trade routes. Nutmeg trees are dioecious plants and asexually. Sexual propagation yields 50 % male seedlings; as there is no reliable method of determining plant sex before flowering in the sixth to eighth year, sexual reproduction bears inconsistent yields, grafting is the preferred method of propagation. Epicotyl grafting, approach grafting, patch budding have proved successful, with epicotyl grafting being the most adopted standard. Air layering is an alternative though not preferred method because of its low success rate; the first harvest of nutmeg trees takes place seven to nine years after planting, the trees reach full production after twenty years. Nutmeg and mace have similar sensory qualities, with nutmeg having a sweeter and mace a more delicate flavour. Mace is preferred in light dishes for the bright orange, saffron-like hue it imparts.
Nutmeg is used for flavouring many dishes, nowadays is found in Western supermarkets in ground or grated form. Whole nutmeg can be ground at home using a grater designed for nutmeg. In Indonesian cuisine, nutmeg is used in various dishes in many spicy soups, such as some variant of soto, oxtail soup, sup iga and sup kambing, it is used in gravy for meat dishes, such as semur beef stew, ribs with tomato, European derived dishes such as bistik and bistik lidah. In Indian cuisine, nutmeg is used in many sweet, as well as savoury, dishes. In Kerala Malabar region, grated nutmeg is used in meat preparations and sparingly added to desserts for the flavour, it may be used in small quantities in garam masala. Ground nutmeg is smoked in India. In traditional European cuisine and mace are used in potato dishes and in processed meat products, it is commonly used in rice pudding. In Dutch cuisine, nutmeg is added to vegetables such as Brussels sprouts and string beans. Nutmeg is a traditional ingredient in mulled cider, mulled wine, eggnog.
In Scotland and nutmeg are both ingredients in haggis. In Italian cuisine, nutmeg is used as part of the stuffing for many regional meat-filled dumplings like tortellini, as well as for the traditional meatloaf. Nutmeg is a common spice for pumpkin pie and in recipes for other winter squashes, such as baked acorn squash. In the Caribbean, nutmeg is used in drinks, such as the Bushwacker and Barbados rum punch, it is a sprinkle on top of the drink. The pericarp is used to make jam, or is finely sliced, cooked with sugar, crystallised to make a fragrant candy. Sliced nutmeg fruit flesh is made as manisan, either wet, seasoned in sugary syrup liquid, or dry coated with sugar, a dessert called manisan pala in Indonesia. In Penang cuisine, dried, sh
Timballo is an Italian baked dish consisting of pasta, rice, or potatoes, with one or more other ingredients included. Variations include the timballo Alberoni, combining macaroni, shrimp sauce, mushrooms and cheese, named for Giulio Alberoni, the Timballo Pattadese; the name comes from the French word for kettledrum. Varieties of Timballo differ from region to region, it is sometimes known as a bomba, sartu or pasticcio, it is known as timpano and Timbale. It is sometimes referred to in English as a pie or savory cake; the dish is prepared in a dome or springform pan and eggs or cheese are used as a binder. Rice is used as an ingredient in Emilia-Romagna, where the dish is referred to as a bomba and baked with a filling of pigeon or other game bird, local cheese and a base of dried pasta. Crêpes are used as a base in Abruzzo, other regions use ravioli or gnocchi. In Sicily, it's made with pasta and eggplant. Mushroom sauce or fonduta, a rich Piedmontese cheese soup and sauce, are sometimes used, Anna Del Conte wrote that Béchamel is the most used ingredient in timballos.
Timballo featured prominently in the 1996 film Big Night, although the dish there is referred to as timpano. The movie seems to have increased the popularity of the dish. Baked ziti Lasagna List of casserole dishes List of pasta dishes Quiche Pastitsio Timballo Siciliano recipe