History of the San Diego Chargers
The professional American football team now known as the Los Angeles Chargers played in San Diego, California as the San Diego Chargers from 1961 to 2017 before relocating back to Los Angeles where the team played their inaugural 1960. The Chargers franchise relocated from Los Angeles to San Diego in 1961; the Chargers' first home game in San Diego was at Balboa Stadium against the Oakland Raiders on September 17, 1961. Their last game as a San Diego-based club was played at Qualcomm Stadium in San Diego on January 1, 2017 against the Kansas City Chiefs, who defeated the host Chargers, 30–13; the Chargers played in four of the first five AFL national championship games -- winning once. In the early years, the wide receiver, Lance Alworth made 543 receptions for 10,266 yards in his career of eleven AFL and NFL seasons, he made a record at ninety-six consecutive games with a reception. With players such as Alworth, Paul Lowe, Keith Lincoln and John Hadl, the Chargers reached the AFL championship game four times and won it once.
In 1959, the team began as the "Los Angeles Chargers" when they entered the American Football League, joining seven other teams: the Denver Broncos, Dallas Texans, Oakland Raiders, New York Titans, Houston Oilers, Buffalo Bills, Boston Patriots. The Chargers' first owner was Barron Hilton, the son of Conrad Hilton, founder of the Hilton Hotels corporation. Lamar Hunt, instrumental in organizing the AFL, said that he had asked Gene Mako for a suggestion for somebody to start a team in Los Angeles and he recommended Hilton. Hunt said that he visited Hilton for less than an hour and Hilton agreed to start a team. Barron Hilton held a contest to find a name for his team; the prize was a trip to Mexico. A man from Hollywood named Gerald Courtney won. Conrad Hilton said, "I liked because they were yelling "charge" and sounding the bugle at Dodger Stadium and at USC games". Hunt said he thought Hilton picked the team name from the first batch of letters as publicity for his new charge account business Carte Blanche.
The team's first general manager was a former University of Notre Dame football coach. The team's first head coach was Sid Gillman from the Los Angeles Rams, his strength lay in offense innovation and he was honoured in the Hall of Fame. Gillman signed a contract with the team for three years; when Frank Leahy resigned due to poor health, Gillman became the general manager in addition to his coaching role. The Chargers planned to play at the Rose Bowl, but instead signed a lease to play at the Los Angeles Coliseum; the Chargers were to host the first AFL national championship game at the Los Angeles Coliseum in 1961. However, as its attendance for home games was falling below 10,000 league and ABC television officials fearing that showing empty seats in the 100,000+ seat Coliseum might jeopardize the entire league persuaded the Chargers to give up the advantage and move the game to Houston. In December 1960, reports surfaced that Chargers were considering relocation offers from San Diego and Seattle.
Greg Gregston of the San Diego Union reported that the Chargers "have learned in one season that Los Angeles has been saturated beyond sensible proportions with sports." In January 1961, the team announced the move to Balboa Stadium in San Diego. Hilton was reported to have lost $900,000 in the first season. San Diego would spend $250,000 to increase stadium seating from 22,000 to 30,000; the Junior Chamber Commerce reported. Seating was increased more in May 1961 with upper deck bring the total capacity to 34,000. By Detroit native George Pernicano had become a minor shareholder in the team. In the 1961 season, their first in San Diego, the team's defense made forty-nine pass interceptions; the term, "Fearsome Foursome" described the 1961 Chargers' defensive players' lineup. The anchoring players were Ernie Ladd; the "Fearsome Foursome" phrase was used by other NFL teams. In 1961, the Chargers lost the championship to Houston by ten points to three with 29,556 patrons attending the game at Balboa Stadium.
In 1962, the team won four games and lost ten, including eight of the final nine games of the season. This was due to injuries. In the 1963 season, eight Charger players scored in the final week. Paul Lowe rushed over 183 yards, scoring 2 touchdowns on 17 carries. In the championship game, the Chargers beat Denver 58 points to 20 and became the AFL West champions; the season ended a week late due to a postponement of games after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963; the Chargers won the 1963 AFL title when they defeated the Boston Patriots 51 points to 10. Spectators numbering 30,127 attended the game at Balboa Stadium. Keith Lincoln's effort made up 349 yards of the total offense. In 1964, the Chargers played the New York Jets resulting in 17 points each. 50,222 spectators attended the game at New York. The game earned $46,828 in entrance fees. On Thanksgiving Day, Buffalo defeated the Chargers 27-24 at Balboa Stadium; the attendance was 34,865 spectators. The Chargers won their fourth AFL West title by defeating the Jets 38-3 before 25,753 spectators at Balboa Stadium.
Lance Alworth left the game with a knee injury, the fullback, Keith Lincoln was sidelined in the first quarter with a fractured rib. At the 1964 championship game in Buffalo, the Chargers were beaten 20-7; the AFL teams signed a five-year tel
A talk show or chat show is a television programming or radio programming genre in which one person discusses various topics put forth by a talk show host. Guests consist of a group of people who are learned or who have great experience in relation to whatever issue is being discussed on the show for that episode. Other times, a single guest discusses their area of expertise with a host or co-hosts. A call-in show takes live phone calls from callers listening at home, in etc.. Sometimes, guests are seated but are introduced and enter from backstage. There have been many notable talk show hosts. There are several major formats of talk shows; each subgenre predominates during a specific programming block during the broadcast day. Breakfast chat or early morning shows that alternate between news summaries, political coverage, feature stories, celebrity interviews, musical performances. Late morning chat shows that feature two or more hosts or a celebrity panel, focus on entertainment and lifestyle features.
Daytime tabloid talk shows featuring a host, a guest or a panel of guests, a live audience that interacts extensively with the host and guests. These shows may feature celebrities, political commentators, or "ordinary" people who present unusual or controversial topics. "Lifestyle" or self-help programs, which feature a host or hosts who are medical practitioners, therapists, or counselors, guests who seek intervention, describe medical or psychological problems, or offer advice. Evening panel discussion shows which focus on politics, or popular culture. Late-night talk shows that feature celebrity guests who talk about their work and personal lives as well as their latest films, TV shows, music recordings, or other projects they'd like to promote to the public; the hosts are comedians who open the shows with comedy monologues. Sunday morning talk shows are a staple of network programming in North America, focus on political news and interviews with elected political figures and candidates for office and journalists.
Aftershows which feature in-depth discussion about a program on the same network that aired just before. Spoof talk shows, such as Space Ghost Coast to Coast and Eric Nite Live, Comedy Bang! Bang!, The Eric Andre Show, where the interviews are scripted, shown in a humorous and satirical way, or the show engages in subverting the norms of the format. These formats are not absolute. Syndicated "daytime" shows may appear overnight in some markets, some afternoon programs have similar structures to late night talk shows; these formats may vary across different markets. Late night talk shows are significant in the United States. Breakfast television is a staple of British television; the daytime talk format has become popular in Latin America as well as the United States. Talk-radio host Howard Stern hosted a talk show, syndicated nationally in the USA moved to satellite radio's Sirius; the tabloid talk show genre, pioneered by Phil Donahue but popularized by Oprah Winfrey was popular during the last two decades of the 20th century.
Politics are hardly the only subject of American talk shows, however. Other radio talk show subjects include Car Talk hosted by NPR and Coast to Coast AM hosted by Art Bell and George Noory which discusses topics of the paranormal, conspiracy theories, fringe science, the just plain weird. Sports talk shows are very popular ranging from high-budget shows like The Best Damn Sports Show Period to Max Kellerman's original public-access television cable TV show Max on Boxing. Talk shows have been broadcast on television since the earliest days of the medium. Joe Franklin, an American radio and television personality, hosted; the show began in 1951 on WJZ-TV and moved to WOR-TV from 1962 to 1993. NBC's The Tonight Show is the world's longest-running talk show; the show underwent some minor title changes until settling on its current title in 1962, despite a brief foray into a more news-style program in 1957 and reverting that same year, it has remained a talk show. Ireland's The Late Late Show is the second-longest running talk show in television history, the longest running talk show in Europe, having debuted in 1962.
Steve Allen was the first host of The Tonight Show, which began as a local New York show, being picked up by the NBC network in 1954. It in turn had evolved from his late-night radio talk show in Los Angeles. Allen pioneered the format of late night network TV talk shows, originating such talk show staples as an opening monologue, celebrity interviews, audience participation, comedy bits in which cameras were taken outside the studio, as well as music, although the series' popularity was cemented by second host Jack Paar, who took over after Allen had left and the show had ceased to exist. TV news pioneer Edward R. Murrow hosted a talk show entitled Small World in the late 1950s and since political TV talk shows have predominantly aired on Sunday mornings. Syndicated daily talk shows began to gain more popularity during the mid-1970s and reached their height of popularity with the rise of the tabloid talk show. Morning talk shows replaced earlier forms of programming — there were a plethora of morning game shows during the 1960s and early to mid-1970s, some stations showed a morning movie in the time slot that many talk shows now occupy.
Current late night talk shows such as The Tonight Sh
Polish Americans are Americans who have total or partial Polish ancestry. There are an estimated 9.5 million self-identified Polish Americans, representing about 3% of the U. S. population. Polish Americans are the largest Slavic ethnic group in the United States, second largest Central European group and the eighth largest immigrant group overall; the first Polish settlers arrived at Walter Raleigh's failed Roanoke Colony in 1585. In 1608 Polish settlers came to the Virginia Colony as skilled craftsmen. Two early immigrants, Casimir Pulaski and Tadeusz Kościuszko, led armies in the Revolutionary War and are remembered as national heroes. Overall, more than one million Poles and Polish subjects have immigrated to the United States during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Exact immigration numbers are unknown. Many immigrants were classified as "Russian", "German" and "Austrian" by the U. S. Immigration and Naturalization Service as the Polish state did not exist from 1795 to 1918 and thus the former territories of Poland at this time were under Prussian, Austrian-Hungarian and Russian control.
Complicating the U. S. Census figures further are the high proportion of Polish Americans who marry outside their ethnicity; the Polish American Cultural Center places a figure of Americans who have some Polish ancestry at 19-20 million. In 2000, 667,414 Americans over 5 years old reported Polish as the language spoken at home, about 1.4% of the census groups who speak a language other than English or 0.25% of the U. S. population. Their history is divided into three stages: From the colonial era down to 1870, small numbers of Poles and Polish subjects came to America as individuals or in small family groups, they assimilated and did not form separate communities; some Jews from Poland assimilated into cities which were Polish bastions in order to conceal their Jewish identities. From 1870 to 1914, Poles and Polish subjects formed a significant part of the wave of immigration from Germany, Imperial Russia, Austria Hungary; the Ethnic Poles and Jews in particular came in family groups, settled in and/or blended into Polish neighborhoods and other Slavic bastions, aspired to earn high wages compared to what they could earn back in Europe.
The main Ethnically-Polish-American organizations were founded because of high Polish interest in the Catholic church, parochial schools, local community affairs. Few were politically active. Since 1914, the United States has seen mass emigration from Poland, the coming of age of several generations of assimilated Polish Americans. Immigration from Poland has continued into the early 2000s, began to decline after Poland joined the European Union in 2004; the income levels have gone up from well to above average. Poles became active members of the liberal New Deal Coalition from the 1930s to the 1960s, but since many have moved to the suburbs, have become more conservative and vote less Democratic. Outside of Republican and Democratic politics, politics such as those of Agudath Israel of America have involved Polish-Jewish Americans. Lopata argues that Poles differed from most other ethnic groups in several ways, they did not plan to remain permanently and become "Americanized". Instead, they came temporarily, to earn money and wait for the right opportunity to return.
Their intention was to ensure for themselves a desirable social status in the old world. However, many of the temporary migrants had decided to become permanent Americans. Many found manual labor jobs in the coal mines of Pennsylvania and the heavy industries, of the Great Lakes cities of Chicago, Detroit, Milwaukee and Toledo; the U. S. Census asked Polish immigrants to specify Polish as their native language beginning in Chicago in 1900, allowing the government to enumerate them as an individual nationality when there was no Polish nation-state. No distinction is made in the American census between ethnically Polish Americans and descendants of non-ethnic Poles, such as Jews or Ukrainians, who were born in the territory of Poland and considered themselves Polish nationals. Therefore, some say, of the 10 million Polish Americans, only a certain portion are of Polish ethnic descent. On the other hand, many ethnic Poles when entering the US from 1795 to 1917, when Poland did not exist, did not identify themselves as ethnic Poles and instead identified themselves as either German, Austrian or Russian.
Therefore, the actual number of Americans of at least partial Polish ancestry, could be well over 10 million. In the 2011 United States Census Bureau's Population Estimates, there are between 9,365,239 and 9,530,571 Americans of Polish descent, with over 500,000 being foreign-born. Polish-Americans have assimilated quickly to American society. Between 1940 and 1960, only 20 percent of the children of Polish-American ethnic leaders spoke Polish compared to 50 percent for Ukrainians. In the early 1960s, 3,000 of Detroit's 300,000 Polish-Americans changed their names each year. Language proficiency in Polish is rare in Polish-Americans, as 91.3% speak "English only". In 1979, the 8 million respondents of Polish ancestry reported that only 41.5 percent had single ancestry, whereas 57.3% of Greeks, 52% of Italians and Sicilian
Columbia College Chicago
Columbia College Chicago is an independent, non-profit liberal arts college specializing in arts and media disciplines, with 7,000 students pursuing degrees in more than 60 undergraduate and graduate degree programs. Founded in 1890, the school is located in the South Loop district of Illinois, it is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission. Columbia College Chicago is the host institution of several affiliated educational and research organizations, including the Center for Black Music Research, the Center for Book and Paper Arts, the Center for Community Arts Partnerships, the Dance Center of Columbia College Chicago, the Museum of Contemporary Photography. Columbia College Chicago is not affiliated with Columbia University, Columbia College Hollywood, or any other Columbia College in the United States; the School of Fine and Performing Arts is composed of nine departments: Design. The School of Liberal Arts and Sciences is composed of six departments: ASL-English Interpretation, it is home to the First-Year Seminar, the LAS Core Curriculum, the college's Honors Program, the Center for Community Arts Partnerships, the Ellen Stone Belic Institute for the Study of Women and Gender in the Arts and Media.
The School of Media Arts is composed of eight departments: Audio Acoustics. Columbia College Chicago was founded in 1890 as the Columbia School of Oratory by Mary A. Blood and Ida Morey Riley, both graduates of the Monroe Conservatory of Oratory, in Boston, Massachusetts. Anticipating a strong need for public speaking at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition, which celebrated the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the Americas and Riley were inspired to open their school in the exposition city and adopt the exposition's name. Blood and Riley became the College's first co-presidents, until Riley died in 1901; the women established a co-educational school that "should stand for high ideals, for the teaching of expression by methods educational, for the gospel of good cheer, for the building of sterling good character" in the Stevens' Art Gallery Building, 24 East Adams Street. The school ran as a sole proprietary business from 1890 to 1904 when the school became incorporated by the state of Illinois.
On May 5, 1904, the school incorporated itself again in order to change its name to the Columbia College of Expression, adding coursework in teaching to the curriculum. When Blood died in 1927, George L. Scherger assumed the office of presidency after serving as a former member on the Board of Directors. Under his leadership, Scherger signed the paperwork at the Board's annual meeting on April 14, 1928, to change the School's name to the Mary A. Blood School of Speech Arts. However, by April 30, 1928, the school reverted its name to the Columbia College of Expression by the Board of Directors, George L. Scherger, Herman H. Hegner, Erme Rowe Hegner. During Scherger's presidency, the College became an official sister institution with the Pestalozzi-Froebel Teachers College, a family-run school centered on training its students for teaching kindergarten; as the president of the Pestalozzi-Froebel Teachers College, Bertha Hofer Hegner assumed the role as the fourth president of Columbia College of Expression in 1929 when Scherger resigned to become an assistant pastor of St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church.
Hegner served as the institutions' head, although due to illness, her son, Herman Hofer Hegner served as acting president of the institutions from 1930 until 1936. By 1934, College curriculum focused on the growing field of radio broadcasting. Herman Hofer Hegner hired Norman Alexandroff, a radio programmer, in 1934 to develop a radio curriculum for the Colleges as both institutions were suffering financially; when Bertha Hofer Hegner retired in 1936 due to health reasons, she was made president emeritus of the institutions and Herman Hofer Hegner became the institutions' official president. During Herman Hofner Hegner's presidency, the Columbia College of Expression was advertised under different names including, Columbia College of Speech and Drama, the Radio Institute of Columbia School of Speech and Drama, Columbia College of Speech and Radio. However, the College was never incorporated under any of these names by the state of Illinois; as the radio program gained prominence, Alexandroff was named as the Vice President of the Columbia College of Expression and became a member on the Board of Directors at both institutions by 1937.
The college left its partnership with the Pestalozzi-Froebel Teachers College, named Norman Alexandroff as its president, filed the Columbia College of Expression as a not for profit corporation on December 3, 1943. On February 5, 1944, the College re-filed as a not for profit corporation and changed its name to Columbia College. During the late 1940s and early 1950s, the college broadened its educational base to include television, journalism and other mass-communication areas. Alexandroff oversaw the development of the extension campuses of the School, Columbia College Pan-Americano in Mexico City and Columbia Los Angeles in Los Angeles, California. Both of these campuses became independent of its parent in the late 1950s. Prosperity was short lived, by 1961, the college had fewer than 200 students and a part-time faculty of 25. Norman Ale
The Vietnam War known as the Second Indochina War, in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America or the American War, was an undeclared war in Vietnam and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union and other communist allies; the war is considered a Cold War-era proxy war from some US perspectives. It lasted some 19 years with direct U. S. involvement ending in 1973 following the Paris Peace Accords, included the Laotian Civil War and the Cambodian Civil War, resulting in all three countries becoming communist states in 1975. American military advisors began arriving in what was French Indochina in 1950 to support the French in the First Indochina War against the communist-led Viet Minh. Most of the funding for the French war effort was provided by the U. S. After the French quit Indochina in 1954, the US assumed financial and military responsibility for the South Vietnamese state.
The Việt Cộng known as Front national de libération du Sud-Viêt Nam or NLF, a South Vietnamese communist common front aided by the North, initiated a guerrilla war against the South Vietnamese government in 1959. U. S. involvement escalated in 1960, continued in 1961 under President John F. Kennedy, with troop levels surging under the MAAG program from just under a thousand in 1959 to 16,000 in 1963. By 1964, there were 23,000 U. S. troops in Vietnam, but this escalated further following the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident, in which a U. S. destroyer was alleged to have clashed with North Vietnamese fast attack craft. In response, the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave President Lyndon B. Johnson broad authorization to increase U. S. military presence, deploying ground combat units for the first time and increasing troop levels to 184,000. Past this point, the People's Army of Vietnam known as the North Vietnamese Army engaged in more conventional warfare with US and South Vietnamese forces; every year onward there was significant build-up of US forces despite little progress, with Robert McNamara, one of the principal architects of the war, beginning to express doubts of victory by the end of 1966.
U. S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces and airstrikes. The U. S. conducted a large-scale strategic bombing campaign against North Vietnam. The Tet Offensive of 1968, proved to be the turning point of the war; the Tet Offensive showed that the end of US involvement was not in sight, increasing domestic skepticism of the war. The unconventional and conventional capabilities of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam increased following a period of neglect and became modeled on heavy firepower-focused doctrines like US forces. Operations crossed international borders. S. forces. Gradual withdrawal of U. S. ground forces began as part of "Vietnamization", which aimed to end American involvement in the war while transferring the task of fighting the communists to the South Vietnamese themselves and began the task of modernizing their armed forces. Direct U. S. military involvement ended on 15 August 1973 as a result of the Case–Church Amendment passed by the U.
S. Congress; the capture of Saigon by the NVA in April 1975 marked the end of the war, North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year. The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities. Estimates of the number of Vietnamese soldiers and civilians killed vary from 966,000 to 3.8 million. Some 275,000–310,000 Cambodians, 20,000–62,000 Laotians, 58,220 U. S. service members died in the conflict, a further 1,626 remain missing in action. The Sino-Soviet split re-emerged following the lull during the Vietnam War and confllict between North Vietnam and its Cambodian allies in the Royal Government of the National Union of Kampuchea, the newly-formed Democratic Kampuchea begun immediately in a series of border raids by the Khmer Rouge and erupted into the Cambodian–Vietnamese War, with Chinese forces directly intervening in the Sino-Vietnamese War; the end of the war and resumption of the Third Indochina War would precipitate the Vietnamese boat people and the bigger Indochina refugee crisis, which saw an estimated 250,000 people perish at sea.
Within the US the war gave rise to what was referred to as Vietnam Syndrome, a public aversion to American overseas military involvements, which together with Watergate contributed to the crisis of confidence that affected America throughout the 1970s. Various names have been applied to the conflict. Vietnam War is the most used name in English, it has been called the Second Indochina War and the Vietnam Conflict. As there have been several conflicts in Indochina, this particular conflict is known by the names of its primary protagonists to distinguish it from others. In Vietnamese, the war is known as Kháng chiến chống Mỹ, but less formally as'Cuộc chiến tranh Mỹ', it is called Chiến tranh Việt Nam. The primary military organizations involved in the war were as follows: One side consisted of th
Guinness World Records
Guinness World Records, known from its inception from 1955 until 2000 as The Guinness Book of Records and in previous United States editions as The Guinness Book of World Records, is a reference book published annually, listing world records both of human achievements and the extremes of the natural world. The brainchild of Sir Hugh Beaver, the book was co-founded by brothers Norris and Ross McWhirter in Fleet Street, London in August 1954; the book itself holds a world record, as the best-selling copyrighted book of all time. As of the 2019 edition, it is now in its 64th year of publication, published in 100 countries and 23 languages; the international franchise has extended beyond print to include museums. The popularity of the franchise has resulted in Guinness World Records becoming the primary international authority on the cataloguing and verification of a huge number of world records. On 10 November 1951, Sir Hugh Beaver the managing director of the Guinness Breweries, went on a shooting party in the North Slob, by the River Slaney in County Wexford, Ireland.
After missing a shot at a golden plover, he became involved in an argument over, the fastest game bird in Europe, the golden plover or the red grouse. That evening at Castlebridge House, he realized that it was impossible to confirm in reference books whether or not the golden plover was Europe's fastest game bird. Beaver knew that there must be numerous other questions debated nightly in pubs throughout Ireland and abroad, but there was no book in the world with which to settle arguments about records, he realised that a book supplying the answers to this sort of question might prove successful. Beaver's idea became reality when Guinness employee Christopher Chataway recommended University friends Norris and Ross McWhirter, running a fact-finding agency in London; the twin brothers were commissioned to compile what became The Guinness Book of Records in August 1954. A thousand copies were given away. After the founding of The Guinness Book of Records at 107 Fleet Street, the first 198-page edition was bound on 27 August 1955 and went to the top of the British best seller lists by Christmas.
The following year, it launched in the US, sold 70,000 copies. Since Guinness World Records has gone on to become a record breaker in its own right; because the book became a surprise hit, many further editions were printed settling into a pattern of one revision a year, published in September/October, in time for Christmas. The McWhirters continued to compile it for many years. Both brothers had an encyclopedic memory. Ross McWhirter was assassinated by the Provisional Irish Republican Army in 1975. Following Ross' assassination, the feature in the show where questions about records posed by children were answered was called Norris on the Spot. Guinness Superlatives Limited was formed in 1954 to publish the first book. Sterling Publishing owned the rights to the Guinness book in the US for decades; the group was owned by Guinness PLC and subsequently Diageo until 2001, when it was purchased by Gullane Entertainment. Gullane was itself purchased by HIT Entertainment in 2002. In 2006, Apax Partners purchased HiT and subsequently sold Guinness World Records in early 2008 to the Jim Pattison Group, the parent company of Ripley Entertainment, licensed to operate Guinness World Records' Attractions.
With offices in New York City and Tokyo, Guinness World Records' global headquarters remain in London, while its museum attractions are based at Ripley headquarters in Orlando, Florida, US. Recent editions have focused on record feats by person competitors. Competitions range from obvious ones such as Olympic weightlifting to the longest egg tossing distances, or for longest time spent playing Grand Theft Auto IV or the number of hot dogs that can be consumed in three minutes. Besides records about competitions, it contains such facts such as the heaviest tumour, the most poisonous fungus, the longest-running soap opera and the most valuable life-insurance policy, among others. Many records relate to the youngest people to have achieved something, such as the youngest person to visit all nations of the world; each edition contains a selection of the records from the Guinness World Records database, as well as select new records, with the criteria for inclusion changing from year to year. The retirement of Norris McWhirter from his consulting role in 1995 and the subsequent decision by Diageo Plc to sell The Guinness Book of Records brand have shifted the focus of the books from text-oriented to illustrated reference.
A selection of records are curated for the book from the full archive but all existing Guinness World Records titles can be accessed by creating a login on the company's website. Applications made by individuals for existing record categories are free of charge. There is an administration fee of $5 to propose a new record title. A number of spin-off books and television series have been produced. Guinness World Records bestowed the record of "Person with the most records" on Ashrita Furman of Queens, NY in April 2009. At that time, he held 100 records. In 2005, Guinness designated 9 November as International Guinness World Records Day to encourage breaking of world records. In 2006, an esti
A disc jockey abbreviated as DJ, is a person who plays existing recorded music for a live audience. Most common types of DJs include radio DJ, club DJ who performs at a nightclub or music festival and turntablist who uses record players turntables, to manipulate sounds on phonograph records; the disc in disc jockey referred to gramophone records, but now DJ is used as an all-encompassing term to describe someone who mixes recorded music from any source, including cassettes, CDs or digital audio files on a CDJ or laptop. The title DJ is used by DJs in front of their real names or adopted pseudonyms or stage names. In recent years it has become common for DJs to be featured as the credited artist on tracks they produced despite having a guest vocalist that performs the entire song: like for example Uptown Funk. DJs use audio equipment that can play at least two sources of recorded music and mix them together to create seamless transitions between recordings and develop unique mixes of songs; this involves aligning the beats of the music sources so their rhythms do not clash when played together or to enable a smooth transition from one song to another.
DJs use specialized DJ mixers, small audio mixers with crossfader and cue functions to blend or transition from one song to another. Mixers are used to pre-listen to sources of recorded music in headphones and adjust upcoming tracks to mix with playing music. DJ software can be used with a DJ controller device to mix audio files on a computer instead of a console mixer. DJs may use a microphone to speak to the audience; the "disc" in "disc jockey" referred to gramophone records, but now "DJ" is used as an all-encompassing term to describe someone who mixes recorded music from any source, including vinyl records, cassettes, CDs, or digital audio files stored on USB stick or laptop. DJs perform for a live audience in a nightclub or dance club or a TV, radio broadcast audience, or in the 2010s, an online radio audience. DJs create mixes and tracks that are recorded for sale and distribution. In hip hop music, DJs may create beats, using percussion breaks and other musical content sampled from pre-existing records.
In hip hop, rappers and MCs use. DJs use equipment that can play at least two sources of recorded music and mix them together; this allows the DJ to create seamless transitions between recordings and develop unique mixes of songs. This involves aligning the beats of the music sources so their rhythms do not clash when they are played together, either so two records can be played at the same time, or to enable the DJ to make a smooth transition from one song to another. An important tool for DJs is the specialized DJ mixer, a small audio mixer with a crossfader and cue functions; the crossfader enables the DJ to transition from one song to another. The cue knobs or switches allow the DJ to listen to a source of recorded music in headphones before playing it for the live club or broadcast audience. Previewing the music in headphones helps the DJ pick the next track they want to play, cue up the track to the desired starting location, align the two tracks' beats in traditional situations where auto sync technology is not being used.
This process ensures that the selected song will mix well with the playing music. DJs may use a microphone to speak to the audience; the title "DJ" is commonly used by DJs in front of their real names or adopted pseudonyms or stage names as a title to denote their profession. Some DJs focus on creating a good mix of songs for the club dancers or radio audience. Other DJs use turntablism techniques such as scratching, in which the DJ or turntablist manipulates the record player turntable to create new rhythms and sounds. DJs need to have a mixture of artistic and technical skills for their profession, because they have to understand both the creative aspects of making new musical beats and tracks, the technical aspects of using mixing consoles, professional audio equipment, and, in the 2010s, digital audio workstations and other computerized music gear. In many types of DJing, including club DJing and radio/TV DJing, a DJ has to have charisma and develop a good rapport with the audience. Professional DJs specialize in a specific genre of music, such as house music or hip hop music.
DJs have an extensive knowledge about the music they specialize in. Many DJs are avid music collectors of rare or obscure tracks and records. Radio DJs or radio personalities introduce and play music broadcast on AM, FM, digital or Internet radio stations. Club DJs referred as DJs in general, play music at musical events, such as parties at music venues or bars, music festivals and private events. Club DJs mix music recordings from two or more sources using different mixing techniques in order to produce non-stopping flow of music. One key technique used for seamlessly transitioning from one song to another is beatmatching. A DJ who plays and mixes one specific music genre is given the title of that genre; the quality of a DJ performance consists of two main features: technical skills, or how well can DJ operate the equipment and produce sm