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Patent medicine

A patent medicine known as a nostrum, is a commercial product advertised as a purported over-the-counter medicine, without regard to its effectiveness. Patent medicines were one of the first major product categories that the advertising industry promoted. Patent medicine advertising marketed products as being medical panaceas and emphasized exotic ingredients and endorsements from purported experts or celebrities, which may or may not have been true. Patent medicines were constricted in the United States in the early 20th century as the Food and Drug Administration and Federal Trade Commission added ever-increasing regulations to prevent fraud, unintentional poisoning and deceptive advertising. Sellers of liniments, claimed to contain snake oil and falsely promoted as a cure-all, made the snake oil salesman a lasting symbol for a charlatan; the phrase "patent medicine" comes from the late 17th century marketing of medical elixirs, when those who found favour with royalty were issued letters patent authorising the use of the royal endorsement in advertising.

Few if any of the nostrums were patented. Furthermore, patenting one of these remedies would have meant publicly disclosing its ingredients, which most promoters sought to avoid. Advertisement kept these patent medications in the public eye and gave the belief that no disease was beyond the cure of patent medication. “The medicine man’s key task became not production but sales, the job of persuading ailing citizens to buy his particular brand from among the hundreds offered. Whether unscrupulous or self-deluded, nostrum makers set about this task with cleverness and zeal.”Instead, the compounders of such nostrums used a primitive version of branding to distinguish their products from the crowd of their competitors. Many extant brands from the era live on today in brands such as Luden's cough drops, Lydia E. Pinkham's vegetable compound for women, Fletcher's Castoria and Angostura bitters, once marketed as a stomachic. Though sold at high prices, many of these products were made from cheap ingredients.

Their composition was well known within the pharmacy trade, druggists manufactured and sold medicines of identical composition. To protect profits, the branded medicine advertisements emphasized brand names, urged the public to "accept no substitutes". With the rising popularity of patent medicine in advertising, The Kellogg Company of Canada adopted similar tactics, publishing a book named A New Way of Living that would show readers "how to achieve a new way of living, it touted the All-Bran cereal as the secret to leading "normal" lives free of constipation. At least in the earliest days, the history of patent medicines is coextensive with scientific medicine. Empirical medicine, the beginning of the application of the scientific method to medicine, began to yield a few orthodoxly acceptable herbal and mineral drugs for the physician's arsenal; these few remedies, on the other hand, were inadequate to cover the bewildering variety of diseases and symptoms. Beyond these patches of evidence-based application, people used other methods, such as occultism.

This led medical men to hope, at least, say, walnut shells might be good for skull fractures. Homeopathy, the notion that illness is binary and can be treated by ingredients that cause the same symptoms in healthy people, was another outgrowth of this early era of medicine. Given the state of the pharmacopoeia, patients' demands for something to take, physicians began making "blunderbuss" concoctions of various drugs and unproven; these concoctions were the ancestors of the several nostrums. Touting these nostrums was one of the first major projects of the advertising industry; the marketing of nostrums under implausible claims has a long history. In Henry Fielding's Tom Jones, allusion is made to the sale of medical compounds claimed to be universal panaceas: As to Squire Western, he was out of the sick-room, unless when he was engaged either in the field or over his bottle. Nay, he would sometimes retire hither to take his beer, it was not without difficulty that he was prevented from forcing Jones to take his beer too: for no quack held his nostrum to be a more general panacea than he did this.

Within the English-speaking world, patent medicines are as old as journalism. "Anderson's Pills" were first made in England in the 1630s. Daffy's Elixir was invented about 1647 and remained popular in Britain and the USA until the late 19th century; the use of "letters patent" to obtain exclusive marketing rights to certain labelled formulas and their marketing fueled the circulation of early newspapers. The use of invented names began early. In 1726 a patent was granted to the makers of Dr Bateman's Pectoral Drops; this was the enterprise of a Benjamin Okell and a group of promoters who owned a warehouse and a print shop to promote t

William Timmons

William Richardson Timmons IV is an American attorney and politician from South Carolina. He is the United States representative for South Carolina's 4th congressional district; the district is located in the heart of the Upstate and includes Greenville and most of those cities' suburbs. He served as a state senator in the South Carolina Senate from the 6th district from 2016 to 2018, he is a member of the Republican Party. A native of Greenville, South Carolina, Timmons attended George Washington University's Elliott School of International Affairs, where he earned a degree in international affairs and political science, he earned a Juris Doctor and a master's degree in international studies from the University of South Carolina. He is a lifelong member of Christ Church in Greenville, serves as a first lieutenant in the South Carolina Air National Guard. Timmons spent four years working for the 13th Circuit solicitor's office, he owns Swamp Rabbit CrossFit and Soul Yoga, he operates the law firm Timmons & Company, LLC.

In 2016, Timmons challenged longtime state senator Mike Fair in the Republican primary for a Greenville-area district. He finished first in the primary with 49.5 percent of the vote, fewer than 100 votes shy of winning the nomination outright. He defeated Fair in the runoff with 65 percent of the vote, faced no major-party opposition in the November general election. Timmons was elected in the 2018 mid-term election to replace retiring Republican incumbent Trey Gowdy in South Carolina's 4th congressional district, his campaign slogan was "Washington is broken". On June 10, 2018, Timmons placed second in a 13-candidate primary–the real contest in this Republican district–receiving 19.2% of the vote. On June 28, 2018, Timmons defeated former state senator Lee Bright in the runoff, receiving 54.2% of the vote to become the Republican nominee. He did not have to give up his state senate seat to run for Congress. Timmons went on to face Brandon Brown in the November general election. Timmons defeated Brown.

Timmons became one of the youngest U. S. representatives from South Carolina since 1972. Timmons has shown support for President Donald Trump during the Democratic controlled house impeachment process, quoted as saying about the whole process, " It is very broken", he followed that by saying he thinks the process will be fair in the Senate and casts the opposition to impeachment as "bipartisan". United States House Committee on Financial Services Select Committee on the Modernization of Congress House Republican Steering Committee Congressman William Timmons official U. S. House website William Timmons for Congress William Timmons at Ballotpedia Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress Profile at Vote Smart Financial information at the Federal Election Commission Legislation sponsored at the Library of Congress

Prévost (electoral district)

Prévost is a provincial electoral district in the Laurentides region of Quebec, Canada that elected members to the National Assembly of Quebec. It was created for the 1973 election from parts of Terrebonne districts, its final election was in 2008. It disappeared in the 2012 election and the successor electoral district was Saint-Jérôme; as of its final election, it consisted of the municipalities of Saint-Jérôme. In the change from the 2001 to the 2011 electoral map, the eponymous municipality of Prévost moved from the defunct Prévost electoral district to the Bertrand electoral district; the district was reconstituted for the 2018 election, with its territory consisting of the municipalities of Prévost, Sainte-Anne-des-Lacs, Sainte-Sophie, Saint-Hippolyte, Saint-Sauveur and Piedmont. The riding was named after the Prévost family, a regional family in which several members were elected to the National Assembly. Bernard Parent, Liberal Jean-Guy Cardinal, Parti Québécois Solange Chaput-Rolland, Liberal Robert Dean, Parti Québécois Paul-André Forget, Liberal Daniel Paillé, Parti Québécois Lucie Papineau, Parti Québécois Martin Camirand, Action démocratique Gilles Robert, Parti Québécois Marguerite Blais, Coalition Avenir Québec Information Elections QuebecElection results Election results Election results Maps2001 map 2001–2011 changes 1992–2001 changes Electoral map of Laurentides region Quebec electoral map, 2001

New Mexico State Road 75

New Mexico State Road 75 is a 20.6 mi long state highway in Northern New Mexico, located in the Southwestern United States. NM 75 is located on the western slope of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains starting near the Rio Grande, passes through Pircuris Pueblo, ends as a segment of the High Road to Taos near Peñasco. NM 75 begins west near Dixon at its intersection with NM 68; the road runs east through the mountain villages of Rio Lucio, Peñasco, Vadito, before reaching its eastern terminus at intersection of NM 518 4.8 miles west of Sipapu Ski Area. Starting at the intersection of NM 76, NM 75 is a segment of the High Road to Taos for 7 miles until the intersection with NM 518. NM 7 is a mountainous two-lane undivided highway with few passing lanes, it is straight with few switchbacks. The road begins at 5,900-foot elevation and climbs to 7,500-foot; the speed limit is maximum 55-mile-per-hour, stretches of 50-mile-per-hour, as low as 25-mile-per-hour in the villages. NM 7 can be treacherous during winter conditions.

U. S. Roads portal Geographic data related to New Mexico State Road 75 at OpenStreetMap

2019 Thai League Cup

The 2019 Thai League Cup is the 10th season in the second era of a Thailand's knockout football competition. All games are played as a single match, it was sponsored by Toyota, known as the Toyota League Cup for sponsorship purposes. 83 clubs were accepted into the tournament, it began with the first qualification round on 23 February 2019, concluded with the final on 28 September 2019. The tournament has been readmitted back into Thai football after a 10-year absence; the prize money for this prestigious award is said to be around 5 million baht and the runners-up will be netting 1 million baht. This is the first edition of the competition and the qualifying round will be played in regions featuring clubs from the Thai League 3 and Thai League 4. PT Prachuap won 8 -- 7 on penalty shoot-out, it is the first penalty shoot-out in the final round of this tournament. This is first time champion for PT Prachuap. Note: T1: Clubs from Thai League 1. There were 19 clubs from 2019 Thai League 3 and 23 clubs from 2019 Thai League 4 have signed to first qualifying in 2019 Thai League cup.

This round had drawn on 14 February 2019. Northern region The qualifying round would be played in northern region featuring 5 clubs from the 2019 Thai League 4 Northern Region and 3 clubs from the 2019 Thai League 3 Upper Region. Northeastern region The qualifying round would be played in northeastern region featuring 4 clubs from the 2019 Thai League 4 Northeastern Region and 2 clubs from the 2019 Thai League 3 Upper Region. Eastern region The qualifying round would be played in eastern region featuring 4 clubs from the 2019 Thai League 4 Eastern Region and 2 clubs from the 2019 Thai League 3 Upper Region. Western region The qualifying round would be played in western region featuring 3 clubs from the 2019 Thai League 4 Western Region, 2 clubs from 2019 Thai League 3 Upper Region, 1 club from the 2019 Thai League 3 Lower Region. Bangkok metropolitan region The qualifying round would be played in Bangkok metropolitan region featuring 2 clubs from the 2019 Thai League 4 Bangkok Metropolitan Region, 1 club from 2019 Thai League 3 Upper Region, 3 clubs from the 2019 Thai League 3 Lower Region.

Southern region The qualifying round would be played in southern region featuring 7 clubs from the 2019 Thai League 4 Southern Region and 5 clubs from the 2019 Thai League 3 Lower Region. The second qualifying round would be featured by 21 clubs which were the winners of first qualification round and the new entries including 2 clubs from 2019 Thai League 3 and 5 clubs from 2019 Thai League 4. Northern region The second qualifying round would be played in northern region featured by 3 clubs which were the winners of first qualification round, 2 clubs from the 2019 Thai League 4 Northern Region, 1 club from the 2019 Thai League 3 Upper Region. Northeastern region The second qualifying round would be played in northeastern region featured by 3 clubs which were the winners of first qualification round and 1 club from the 2019 Thai League 4 Northeastern Region. Eastern region The second qualifying round would be played in eastern region featured by 3 clubs which were the winners of first qualification round and 1 club from the 2019 Thai League 4 Eastern Region.

Western region The second qualifying round would be played in western region featured by 3 clubs which were the winners of first qualification round and 1 club from the 2019 Thai League 3 Upper Region. Bangkok metropolitan region The second qualifying round would be played in Bangkok metropolitan region featured by 3 clubs which were the winners of first qualification round and 1 club from the 2019 Thai League 4 Bangkok Metropolitan Region. Southern region The second qualifying round would be played in southern region featured by 6 clubs which were the winners of first qualification round; the qualification play-off round would be featured by 14 clubs which were the winners of second qualification round and the new entries including 18 clubs from 2019 Thai League 2. Follow the dissolving of Simork that make a club drawing against them would advanced to next round automatically; this round had drawn on 11 April 2019. The first round would be featured by 16 clubs which were the winners of the qualification play-off round and the new entries including 16 clubs from 2019 Thai League 1.

This round had drawn on 7 May 2019. The second round would be featured by 16 clubs which were the winners of the first round including 7 clubs from T1, 5 clubs from T2, 1 club from T3, 3 clubs from T4; this round had drawn on 11 June 2019. The quarter-finals round would be featured by 8 clubs which were the winners of the second round including 4 clubs from T1, 3 clubs from T2, 1 club from T3; this round had drawn on 8 July 2019. The semi-finals round would be featured by 4 clubs which were the winners of the quarter-finals round including 3 clubs from T1 and 1 club from T2; this round had drawn on 30 July 2019. The final round would be featured by 2 clubs which were the winners of the semi-finals round, both were clubs from T1; this round was played on 28 September 2019 at SCG Stadium in Nonthaburi. Thai League official website Toyota League Cup official Facebook page

Sean Evans (interviewer)

Sean Evans is an American YouTuber and producer. He is the host of the YouTube series Hot Ones, in which he interviews celebrities while they eat progressively spicier chicken wings. Born in the Chicago suburb of Evanston, Evans found fame on the internet not only for his proficiency in celebrity interviews, but for eating spicy food like the Carolina Reaper pepper, which holds the title for hottest pepper by Guinness World Records, he cites eating spicy food as a child for building up his tolerance. Before working as an interviewer, Evans was a copywriter for the Chicago tourism board. Evans started freelancing for Complex Magazine in New Orleans, doing interviews for the publication and putting them on their YouTube channel, interviewing famous celebrities such as 2 Chainz and Steph Curry; the magazine offered him a full-time job in New York City, he quit his job and started a career at Complex. Hot Ones is produced by FirstWeFeast.com and Complex Media. Its tagline, stated by Evans at the beginning of each episode, is "The show with hot questions, hotter wings."

The show was created from a meeting between Sean Evans and FirstWeFeast.com Editor-in-Chief Christopher Schonberger. Evans has interviewed a number of celebrities, including Shaquille O'Neal, Marques Brownlee, Jeff Goldblum, Kevin Hart, Charlize Theron, Guy Fieri, Gordon Ramsay, Post Malone, "Weird Al" Yankovic, Neil deGrasse Tyson, Scarlett Johansson, Paul Rudd; the format involves Evans and his guest eating ten chicken wings, each prepared with a progressively hotter hot sauce. The current final sauce, The Last Dab XXX, has a Scoville rating of 2,000,000; every season, sauces used on camera are replaced with new ones. In season 4, "The Last Dab" is created by Hot Ones; the sauce is projected to be around 2 million Scoville units. After each wing, Evans asks his guest an interview question; as the wings get hotter, the guest begins to display the effects of eating the spicier wings and the interview becomes less about the guest and more about the struggle to finish the wings. The guests are provided glasses of water and milk to counteract the effect of the wings.

The standard show includes Evans and one guest eating ten wings each, but in some episodes where there are two guests only five wings are given to each guest. A guest who finishes all ten wings is given the opportunity to promote their upcoming projects. Evans, Sean interviews 2 Chainz. 2 Chainz Kicks Game About His New Adidas Sneaker Deal. Complex News. Evans, Sean Interviewee. "Hi! I'm Sean Evans, host of First We Feast's Hot Ones on the YouTube. Ask me anything!". Reddit IAMA. Retrieved March 4, 2017. Harris, Jenn. "This guy eats hot wings with celebrities for a living. Seriously". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 23, 2016. Irish Examiner. "Kevin Hart might have the funniest Hot Ones interview yet". Irish Examiner. Retrieved November 23, 2016. Lynch, Kevin. "Confirmed: Smokin Ed's Carolina Reaper sets new record for hottest chilli". Guinness World Records. Retrieved November 23, 2016. Nsubuga, Jimmy. "Watch these two guys eating the hottest pepper in the world – it looks like torture". Metro. Retrieved November 23, 2016