New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south and it has a coast line with the Tasman Sea on its east side. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state, New South Wales state capital is Sydney, which is Australias most populous city. In March 2014, the population of New South Wales was 7.5 million. Just under two-thirds of the population,4.67 million. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen, the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It originally comprised a more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825, in addition, the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemens Land, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the area was detached to form separate British colonies that eventually became New Zealand. However, the Swan River Colony has never administered as part of New South Wales.
Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal Territory, as have the now known as the Australian Capital Territory. The prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago, before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region. The Wodi Wodi people are the custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. The Bundjalung people are the custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland. In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land New Wales, however, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he revised the wording to New South Wales. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, macquaries legacy is still evident today.
During the 19th century, large areas were separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855, following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840
Port Stephens Council
Port Stephens Council is a local government area in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia. The area is just north of Newcastle and is adjacent to the Pacific Highway which runs through Raymond Terrace, the area is named after Port Stephens, which is the major geographical feature of the area. It extends generally from the Hunter River in the south, to near Clarence Town in the north, the Mayor of the Port Stephens Council is Bruce MacKenzie. In the southern part of the area are the communities of Bobs Farm, Fern Bay, Fullerton Cove, Salt Ash, Tomago. Tomago supports both rural and industrial communities while Williamtown is the location for a Royal Australian Air Force base that shares its airfield with Newcastle Airport, at the northern end of the area are Karuah and Twelve Mile Creek. Located adjacent to Port Stephens and straddling the Karuah River, Karuah is predominantly residential and it is the location of the largest Aboriginal community in the area. Twelve Mile Creek is almost exclusively rural, centrally located in the area, between Raymond Terrace and Port Stephens are Campvale and Medowie.
Ferodale is dominated by Grahamstown Dam, a dam with a capacity of 131,800 megalitres that is a major source of fresh water in the region. The remainder of area is a mix of rural, semi-rural and residential developments. A map of the towns and localities within the Port Stephens Council area is available from the Port Stephens Council website. At the 2011 census, there were 64,807 people in the Port Stephens local government area and Torres Strait Islander people made up 3.6 per cent of the population, which was higher than the national and state averages of 2.5 per cent. The median age of people in the Port Stephens Council area was 42 years, children aged 0 –14 years made up 19.5 per cent of the population and people aged 65 years and over made up 19.3 per cent of the population. Of people in the area aged 15 years and over,52.0 per cent were married and 13.5 per cent were either divorced or separated, the median weekly income for residents within the Port Stephens Council area was significantly lower than the national average.
At the 2011 census, the proportion of residents in the Port Stephens local government area who stated their ancestry as Australian or Anglo-Saxon exceeded 81 per cent of all residents. Port Stephens Council is composed of ten Councillors, including the Mayor, for a fixed term of office. The Mayor is directly elected while the nine other Councillors are elected proportionally as three separate wards, each electing three Councillors, in the initial proposal, Port Stephens Council was not included in any amalgamation proposals. The proposed merger has been met with significant opposition, thousands of residents have attended rallies and signed petitions opposed to the proposal, while 470 have attended public inquiry meetings. The state member for Port Stephens, Kate Washington, former state member Craig Baumann, federal Liberal member for Paterson, Bob Baldwin, spoke in parliament, urging the Liberal Baird government to reconsider the proposal, claiming this proposal seems to defy logic
Government of New South Wales
The Government of New South Wales, referred to as the New South Wales Government or NSW Government, is the Australian state democratic administrative authority of New South Wales, in Australia. The Government of New South Wales, a constitutional monarchy, was formed in 1856 as prescribed in its Constitution. Since the Federation of Australia in 1901, New South Wales has been a state of the Commonwealth of Australia, under the Australian Constitution, New South Wales ceded legislative and judicial supremacy to the Commonwealth, but retained powers in all matters not in conflict with the Commonwealth. Section 109 of the Australian Constitution provides that, where a State law is inconsistent with a federal law, initially the Australian states retained significant independence. Over time, that independence has been eroded by both the proliferation of Commonwealth Law, and the increasing financial domination of the Commonwealth. New South Wales is governed according to the principles of the Westminster system, Executive power rests formally with the Executive Council, which consists of the Governor and senior ministers.
The Governor, as representative of the Crown, is the repository of power, which is exercised by him or her on the advice of the Premier of New South Wales. The Premier and Ministers are appointed by the Governor, and hold office by virtue of their ability to command the support of a majority of members of the Legislative Assembly. In 2006, the Sesquicentenary of Responsible Government in New South Wales, the Act was assented to by the Queen on 3 April 2006. The following individuals serve as government ministers, at the pleasure of the Queen, the government ministers are listed in order of seniority, while their opposition counterparts are listed to correspond with the government ministers. All Opposition counterparts are members of the Parliament of New South Wales
Careys Peak is a peak in the Williams Range, part of the Mount Royal Range, located in the Upper Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia. At 1,544 metres above sea level, it is one of the points in Barrington Tops National Park. The peak is at the edge of the Barrington Tops plateau, wilderness streams, such as the Allyn River and Williams River rise nearby. On a clear day, the peaks of the Blue Mountains may be seen. And looking south east, the sands of Stockton Beach on the coast may be viewed, the scenic appeal of the area is well regarded. Particularly the large stands of rainforest and snow gum wilderness. Snow has been recorded here as early as Easter, Careys Peak is a popular camping and bushwalking destination. Many years ago, a slope was cleared behind Careys Peak. It has since disappeared in natural bush re-growth, the historic hut was built around the year 1934. It was crushed by a tree in the 1970s. Rebuilt in 1973 and repaired again in 2007, closing the four wheel drive tracks to vehicular traffic is said to slow the spread of invasive weeds, such as Scotch broom, mist flower and crofton weed.
The geology of the area includes Alkali Gabbro, a type of igneous rock, Careys Peak was a vent of the Barrington Volcano. During the Eocene Period, a basalt flow covered most of the nearby plateau. Below are older Permian Granodiorites and Devonian-Carboniferous sedimentary rocks, such as mudstones, the surrounding area is heavily forested. Sub alpine woodland grows on the plateau, on the escarpment, Cool temperate rainforest is dominated by the Antarctic beech. Other interesting plants include the snow gum, southern sassafras. A two pronged landslip occurred in the rainforest at Careys Peak in 1978 and this area is now slowly being naturally re-vegetated, initially by non rainforest species. It is expected to return to the original Antarctic beech rainforest, animals in the area include wombats, eastern quoll, eastern grey kangaroos and swamp wallabies
Local government in Australia
Local government in Australia is the third tier of government in Australia administered by the states and territories, which in turn are beneath the federal tier. Local government is not mentioned in the Constitution of Australia and two referenda in the 1970s and 1980s to alter the Constitution relating to local government were unsuccessful, every state government recognises local government in their respective constitutions. Unlike Canada, or the United States there is one level of local government in each state. In August 2016 there were 547 local councils in Australia, despite the single level of local government in Australia, there are a number of extensive areas with relatively low populations which are not a part of any local government area. Despite this, they occupy a role in each state. State-based departments oversee local councils and may intervene in their affairs, the first official local government in Australia was the Perth Town Trust, established in 1838, only three years after British settlement.
The Adelaide Corporation followed, created by the province of South Australia in October 1840, the City of Melbourne and the Sydney Corporation followed, both in 1842. Council representatives attended conventions before Federation, however local government was regarded as outside the Constitutional realm. In the 1970s, the Whitlam Government expanded the level of funding to local governments in Australia beyond grants for road construction, general purpose grants become available for the first time. Significant reforms took place in the 1980s and 1990s in which state governments used metrics, each state conducted an inquiry into the benefits of council amalgamations during the 1990s. In the early 1990s, Victoria saw the number of local councils reduced from 210 to 78, South Australia and Queensland saw some reductions in the number of local governments while Western Australia and New South Wales rejected compulsory mergers. New South Wales eventually forced the merging of some councils, the main purpose of amalgamating councils was for greater efficiency and to improve operations, but forced amalgamation of councils is sometimes seen as a dilution of representative democracy.
An increase in the range of services offered by councils, the council mergers have resulted in widespread job losses and lingering resentment from some whose roles have experienced a larger workload. The growth of the Regional Organisations of Councils has been a factor in local government reform in Australia, in 1995, there were 50 such agreements across the country. A2002 study identified 55 ROCs with the largest involving 18 councils, Local governments are subdivisions of the states and the Northern Territory. Although they are all identical in function, Australian local governments have a variety of names. The term local government area is used to refer collectively to all local governments regardless of status, whilst the local governing body itself is generally known as a council. Today, the borough, district, region, town, community government, Aboriginal shire
Philip Gidley King
Captain Philip Gidley King RN was the third Governor of New South Wales, and did much to civilise the young colony in the face of great obstacles. When the First Fleet arrived in January 1788, King was detailed to colonise Norfolk Island for defence, as Governor of New South Wales, he helped develop livestock farming and mining, built many schools and launched the colonys first newspaper. But conflicts with the military wore down his spirit, and they were able to force his resignation, Philip Gidley King was born at Launceston England on 23 April 1758, the son of draper Philip King, and grandson of Exeter attorney-at-law John Gidley. He joined the Royal Navy at the age of 12 as captains servant, King served under Arthur Phillip who chose him as second lieutenant on HMS Sirius for the expedition to establish a convict settlement in New South Wales. On arrival, in January 1788, King was selected to lead a party of convicts and guards to set up a settlement at Norfolk Island. More convicts were sent, and these proved occasionally troublesome, early in 1789 he prevented a mutiny when some of the convicts planned to take him and other officers prisoner, and escape on the next boat to arrive.
Whilst commandant on Norfolk Island, King formed a relationship with the female convict Ann Inett – their first son, another son was born in 1790 and named Sydney. Following the wreck of Sirius at Norfolk Island in March 1790, King left, Ann Inett was left in Sydney with the boys, she married another man in 1792, and went on to lead a comfortable and respected life in the colony. King, who had arranged the marriage, arranged for their two sons to be educated in England, where they became officers in the navy. Whilst in England King married Anna Josepha Coombe on 11 March 1791 and returned shortly after on HMS Gorgon to take up his post as Lieutenant-Governor of Norfolk Island, Kings first legitimate offspring, Phillip Parker King, was born there in December 1791, and four daughters followed. On his return to Norfolk Island, King found the population of one thousand torn apart by discontent after the strict regime of Major Robert Ross. However, he set about enthusiastically to improve conditions and he encouraged settlers, drawn from ex-convicts and ex-marines, and he listened to their views on wages and prices.
By 1794 the island was self-sufficient in grain, and surplus swine were being sent to Sydney, the number of people living off the government store was high, and few settlers wanted to leave. As their conduct became mutinous, he sent twenty of them to Sydney for trial by court-martial, there Lieutenant-Governor Francis Grose censured Kings actions and issued orders which gave the military illegal authority over the civilian population. Grose apologised, but conflict with the continued to plague King. King became Governor on 28 September 1800 and he set about changing the system of administration, and appointed Major Joseph Foveaux as Lieutenant-Governor of Norfolk Island. His first task was to attack the misconduct of officers of the New South Wales Corps in their trading in liquor. He tried to discourage the importation of liquor, and began to construct a brewery, however, he found the refusal of convicts to work in their own time for other forms of payment, and the continued illicit local distillation, increasingly difficult to control
Barrington Tops National Park
The Barrington Tops National Park is a protected national park located in the Hunter Valley, approximately 200 kilometres north of Sydney in New South Wales, Australia. Gazetted in 1969, the 76, 512-hectare park is situated between Scone, Dungog and East Gresford. The park is part of the Barrington Tops group World Heritage Site Gondwana Rainforests of Australia inscribed in 1986 and it is part of the Barrington Tops and Gloucester Tops Important Bird Area. Barrington Tops is part of the Mount Royal Range, a spur of the Great Dividing Range, erosion has weathered the granite and rounded granite boulders can be seen in some areas of the park. Estimates put the age of the rock at 300 to 400 million years, the climate varies from temperate on the lower altitudes to subalpine at highest elevations. A record low of −17 °C has been registered at 1,500 m above sea level. Rainfalls fluctuate between 750 millimetres in the northwest to more than 2,000 mm in the southeast, the ecology of the national park varies from subtropical rainforests in the gullies to subalpine and alpine regions on the mountain peaks.
Snow usually falls on the mountain every year and occasionally snows enough to close roads. Rainfall can exceed 1,500 mm per annum, a large variety of plants and animals reside in the park and the steepness of the terrain ensures that they are not disturbed by humans. The remoteness and inaccessibility of a part of the park has allowed some of the more sensitive animals to remain largely undisturbed. A large number of fauna have been catalogued in the park including some that were thought to be extinct. Some of the common animals include and sooty owls, eastern grey kangaroos, pademelons, rosellas, bats. It supports an important population of rufous scrub-birds, as well as flame robins, pale-yellow robins, paradise riflebirds, green catbirds, regent bowerbirds. Animals such as quolls, native rats and platypus are reclusive, not all of the animals in the park are desirable, introduced species such as feral horses and feral cats are being removed. The traditional owners of the area are the people of Australia, known as Australian Aborigines, and include the Gringai clan, the Wonnarua people.
In 1969 the area between Mount Barrington, Mount Royal and the Gloucester Tops was declared the Barrington Tops National Park, in 1982 it was listed as a World Heritage Area and subsequently a Wilderness Area. Some of the rivers flowing through the Barrington range have been classed as wild rivers meaning they are exceptionally pure, the highest peak is Brumlow Top which rises to a height of 1,586 metres. A number of aircraft have crashed in and around the Barrington Tops, the altitude, frequent fog & cloud and cold weather make this area potentially hazardous to aircraft
William Paterson (explorer)
Colonel William Paterson, FRS was a Scottish soldier, Lieutenant governor and botanist best known for leading early settlement in Tasmania. A native of Montrose, Paterson was interested in botany as a boy, Paterson was sent to the Cape Colony by the wealthy and eccentric Countess of Strathmore to collect plants, he arrived in Table Bay on board the Houghton in May 1777. He made four trips into the interior between May 1777 and March 1780, when he departed, in 1789 Paterson published Narrative of Four Journeys into the Country of the Hottentots and Caffraria, which he dedicated to Sir Joseph Banks. Paterson was originally commissioned as an ensign in the 98th Regiment of Foot and he transferred to the 73rd Regiment of Foot after the 98ths disbandment in 1787. In 1789, he was promoted to captain in the New South Wales Corps, after some time spent recruiting, he arrived in Sydney in October 1791. From November 1791 until March 1793 he served in command on Norfolk Island, whilst there he collected botanical and insect specimens and sent them to Banks.
He provided seed to the Lee and Kennedy and Colvill nurseries and he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in May 1798. In 1794 he served for a year as Lieutenant Governor of New South Wales, in 1800 he was re-appointed to the post and served a second term until 1808. Between 1804 and 1808 Paterson was appointed Commandant at Port Dalrymple, in 1806, Patersons duties as commander of the New South Wales Corps required him to return to Sydney, but he went back to Van Diemens Land in 1807, and stayed until December 1808. During this time he corresponded regularly with the eminent naturalist Sir Joseph Banks, the New South Wales Corps selected Paterson as acting Governor of New South Wales on 1 January 1809 after the deposition of Governor Captain William Bligh in the so-called Rum Rebellion. He was replaced by the newly arrived Lachlan Macquarie by the end of the year and he left Sydney for England on 12 May 1810, but died on board HMS Dromedary while off Cape Horn just a few weeks later.
His widow Elizabeth married Francis Grose in April 1814, but he died a month later, Elizabeth died in Liverpool, England in 1839. Historical records of New South Wales, Alison, The Companion to Tasmanian History, Centre for Tasmanian Historical Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart. William A Narrative of four Journeys into the Country of the Hottentotts, in the Years One Thousand Seven Hundred and Seventy-Seven and Nine. Vernon S. Forbes and John Rourke, Patersons Cape Travels,1777 to 1779, Johannesburg, ISBN 0-909079-12-9 Leonard Guelke and Jeanne K. Guelke, Imperial eyes on South Africa, reassessing travel narratives, Journal of Historical Geography. Van Diemens Land from the earliest times to 1855, Melbourne, ISBN 0-19-554364-5 Anne-Maree Whitaker, Mrs Patersons keepsakes, the provenance of some significant colonial documents and paintings, Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society. Brendan Whiting, Victims of Tyranny, The Story of the Fitzgerald Convict Brothers, ISBN 0-646-43345-8 David S.
Macmillan, William, Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 2, MUP,1967, pp 317–319 Short biography from the Australian National Botanic Gardens
A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns, although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, there is a common idea, the conservation of wild nature for posterity and as a symbol of national pride. An international organization, the International Union for Conservation of Nature, although Yellowstone was not officially termed a national park in its establishing law, it was always termed such in practice and is widely held to be the first and oldest national park in the world. The first area to use national park in its legislation was the USs Mackinac Island. Australias Royal National Park, established in 1879, was the third official national park. In 1895 ownership of Mackinac Island was transferred to the State of Michigan as a state park, as a result, Australias Royal National Park is by some considerations the second oldest national park now in existence.
The largest national park in the meeting the IUCN definition is the Northeast Greenland National Park. According to the IUCN,6,555 national parks worldwide met its criteria in 2006, IUCN is still discussing the parameters of defining a national park. National parks are almost always open to visitors, in 1971, these criteria were further expanded upon leading to more clear and defined benchmarks to evaluate a national park. In 1810, the English poet William Wordsworth described the Lake District as a sort of property, in which every man has a right and interest who has an eye to perceive. It was known as Hot Springs Reservation, but no authority was established. Federal control of the area was not clearly established until 1877, John Muir is today referred to as the Father of the National Parks due to his work in Yosemite. He published two articles in The Century Magazine, which formed the base for the subsequent legislation. President Abraham Lincoln signed an Act of Congress on July 1,1864, ceding the Yosemite Valley, according to this bill, private ownership of the land in this area was no longer possible.
The state of California was designated to manage the park for use, resort. Leases were permitted for up to ten years and the proceeds were to be used for conservation, a public discussion followed this first legislation of its kind and there was a heated debate over whether the government had the right to create parks. The perceived mismanagement of Yosemite by the Californian state was the reason why Yellowstone at its establishment six years was put under national control, in 1872, Yellowstone National Park was established as the United States first national park, being the worlds first national park. In some European countries, national protection and nature reserves already existed, such as Drachenfels, Yellowstone was part of a federally governed territory
City of Maitland
The City of Maitland is a local government area in the lower Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia. The area is situated adjacent to the New England Highway and the Hunter railway line, the Mayor of the City of Maitland Council is Cr. A2015 review of local government boundaries by the NSW Government Independent Pricing, in the initial proposal, the City of Maitland was not included in any amalgamation proposals. The outcome of an independent review is expected to be completed by mid–2016, at the 2011 census, there were 67,478 people in the City of Maitland local government area, of these 48.9 per cent were male and 51.1 per cent were female. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 3.5 per cent of the population, the median age of people in the City of Maitland was 36 years, which was marginally lower than the national median of 37 years. Children aged 0 –14 years made up 22.0 per cent of the population and people aged 65 years, of people in the area aged 15 years and over,50.9 per cent were married and 11.8 per cent were either divorced or separated.
Population growth in the City of Maitland between the 2001 census and the 2006 census was 15.19 per cent, and in the subsequent five years to the 2011 census, the median weekly income for residents within the City of Maitland was approximately equal to the national average. At the 2011 census, the proportion of residents in the City of Maitland local government area who stated their ancestry as Australian or Anglo-Saxon exceeded 82 per cent of all residents. Maitland City Council is composed of thirteen Councillors, including the Mayor, for a fixed term of office. The Mayor is directly elected while the twelve other Councillors are elected proportionally as four separate wards, each electing three Councillors. The most recent election was held on 8 September 2012, and the makeup of the Council, including the Mayor, is as follows, The current Council, elected in 2012, in order of election by ward, is
Irrigation is the method in which a controlled amount of water is supplied to plants at regular intervals for agriculture. It is used to assist in the growing of crops, maintenance of landscapes. Additionally, irrigation has a few uses in crop production. In contrast, agriculture that only on direct rainfall is referred to as rain-fed or dry land farming. Irrigation systems are used for dust suppression, disposal of sewage. Irrigation is often studied together with drainage, which is the natural or artificial removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area, Irrigation has been a central feature of agriculture for over 5,000 years and is the product of many cultures. Historically, it was the basis for economies and societies across the globe, archaeological investigation has found evidence of irrigation where the natural rainfall was insufficient to support crops for rainfed agriculture. Ancient Egyptians practiced Basin irrigation using the flooding of the Nile to inundate land plots which had surrounded by dykes.
The flood water was held until the sediment had settled before the surplus was returned to the watercourse. The Ancient Nubians developed a form of irrigation by using a device called a sakia. Irrigation began in Nubia some time between the third and second millennium BCE and it largely depended upon the flood waters that would flow through the Nile River and other rivers in what is now the Sudan. In sub-Saharan Africa irrigation reached the Niger River region cultures and civilizations by the first or second millennium BCE and was based on wet season flooding, terrace irrigation is evidenced in pre-Columbian America, early Syria and China. These canals are the earliest record of irrigation in the New World, traces of a canal possibly dating from the 5th millennium BCE were found under the 4th millennium canal. Large scale agriculture was practiced and a network of canals was used for the purpose of irrigation. Ancient Persia as far back as the 6th millennium BCE, where barley was grown in areas where the rainfall was insufficient to support such a crop.
The Qanats, developed in ancient Persia in about 800 BCE, are among the oldest known irrigation methods still in use today and they are now found in Asia, the Middle East and North Africa. The system comprises a network of wells and gently sloping tunnels driven into the sides of cliffs. The noria, a wheel with clay pots around the rim powered by the flow of the stream, was first brought into use at about this time